^In free variation with [ʀ] and also — in Switzerland, Bavaria, and Austria — the voiced alveolar trill[r]. Compare /ɐ/.
^/x/ is realized as a uvular fricative [χ] after [a], [aː]invalid IPA characters (][), and often [ʊ], [ɔ], and [aʊ].
^The presence or absence of [ʔ] is not phonemic. In most standard varieties of German, all initial vowels are preceded by [ʔ]. However, this does not generally hold true for Swiss Standard German and most colloquial varieties.
^[ɛː] is often replaced by [eː], chiefly in northern and eastern Germany.
^Some references transcribe this diphthong as /ɔɪ/.