ich

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See also: Ich, ICH, ích, ịch, -ich, and -ich-

English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English ich, from Old English , iċċ (I, pronoun), from Proto-Germanic *ik, *ek (I, pronoun), from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂ (I). See also ch-, I.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (personal, obsolete) I.
    • 1529, John Skelton, Elynour Rummyng:
      "Behold," she sayd, "and se How bright I am of ble! Ich am not cast away, That can my husband say, [...]"
    • 1561, John Awdelay, The fraternitye of vacabondes:
      My maysters, ich am an old man, and halfe blinde, []
    • 1568, Thomas Howell, Arbor of Amitie:
      With cap and knee, ich will serve thee, what should ich more declare.
    • 1578, George Whetstone, The right, excellent and famous Historye of Promos and Cassandra:
      Kissyng and lying ich see is all one:
      And chave no mony, chul tell true therfore.
    • 1645, Thomas Davies, The Somersetshire Man's Complaint:
      Dost thinke 'chill labor to be poore, No no, ich haue a-doe..Ich will a plundering too.
    • [1706, Edward Phillips, compiler; J[ohn] K[ersey the younger], “Ich”, in The New World of Words: Or, Universal English Dictionary. [], 6th edition, London: [] J. Phillips, []; N. Rhodes, []; and J. Taylor, [], OCLC 913406157, column 2:
      Ich, a Word us'd for I in the Weſtern Parts of England.]

Usage notes[edit]

Ich was the form of I found in the dialects of the West Country, West Midlands, and Kent. It began to disappear from written English with the onset of the Chancery Standard in the 15th century, yet continued to see limited use until the middle of the 19th century.

The Northern dialectal form, ik (which derives from the same Old English root), likewise disappeared from writing with the onset of the Chancery Standard in the 15th century.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Clipping of ichthyophthiriasis.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ich (uncountable)

  1. (ichthyology) Ichthyophthiriasis, a parasitic infection of freshwater fish caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius.
    • 1996, Edward J. Noga, Fish Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment, Iowa State University Press (2000), →ISBN, page 95:
      Ich is one of the most common diseases of freshwater fish.
Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Alemannic German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German ich, from Old High German ih, from Proto-Germanic *ek, *ik. Cognate with German ich, Dutch ik, English I, ich, Icelandic ég.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Lower Alemannic (Northern Alsace)) IPA(key): /iʃ/, /eʃ/, /iː/ (i is the unstressed pronoun, used after the verb, as in hiit hàw i dìs g'màcht (today I have done this), but it is always ìch before the verb, never i)
  • (Higher Alemannic (Southern Alsace)) IPA(key): /ix/, /ex/, /iː/ (unstressed)
  • (Zurich) IPA(key): /ix/, /i/ (unstressed), IPA(key): [ɪːx] (stressed)

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. I

Declension[edit]


Central Franconian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • eich (Moselle Franconian, stressed)
  • ech (some dialects of Ripuarian; Moselle Franconian, unstressed, enclitic)

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German ich, from Old High German ih, from Proto-Germanic *ek, *ik, from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂. The expected form is ech; the variant ich is from a form *īh with expressive lengthening (compare the corresponding diphthong in Moselle Franconian).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /iɕ/, [iɕ]
    • IPA(key): [eɕ][əɕ][ɕ] (unstressed; enclitic before a consonant)
    • IPA(key): [ij] (enclitic before a vowel)
  • The enclitic pronunciation is used after verbs and conjunctions (unless the pronoun is stressed).

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (some dialects of Ripuarian, including Kölsch) I; nominative of the first-person singular personal pronoun
    Dat senn ich op däm Fotto.
    That’s I (or: me) in this photo.

Declension[edit]

Ripuarian (regional forms: Aachen [A], Cologne [C]; reduced or unstressed forms: red.):

1st Person Singular 2nd Person Singular 3rd Person Singular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ich du
do; Do [C]
de (red.)

e (red.)
sei, sie
se (red.)
it
het [A]
et, 't, -'t (red.)
Dative mir
meer [C]
mer (red.)
[A] = acc.
dir
deer; Deer [C]
der (red.)
[A] = acc.
im
höm [A]
em (red.)
ihr
ehr [C]
hör [A] (or = nom.)
er (red.)
im
höm [A] (or = nom.)
em (red.)
Accusative mich dich; Dich in
en (red.)
[A] = dat.
= nom.
[A] = nom. or dat.
= nom.
1st Person Plural 2rd Person Plural 3rd Person Plural
Nominative mir
meer [C]
mer (red.)
vir [A], ver (red.)
ühr
ehr; Ehr [C]
er (red.)
sei, sie
se (red.)
Dative us, uns
os, ons [A]
üch; Üch inne
hön, hönne [A] (or = nom.)
en (red.)
Accusative = dat. = dat. = nom.

In other dialects:

  • ät (it) (Düren)

Cimbrian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • i (Luserna)

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German ich, from Old High German ih, from Proto-West Germanic *ik, from Proto-Germanic *ek. Cognate with German ich, English I.

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (Sette Comuni) I

Inflection[edit]

References[edit]

  • “ich” in Martalar, Umberto Martello; Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo
  • 2013, Umberto Patuzzi (ed.), Sette Comuni / Siben Komoinen: Le nostre parole – D’ögnar börtar – Unsere Wörter, Comitato unitario delle linguistiche storiche germaniche in Italia / Einheitskomitee der historischen deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien
  • 2013, Umberto Patuzzi (ed.), Luserna / Lusérn: Le nostre parole – Ünsarne börtar – Unsere Wörter, Comitato unitario delle linguistiche storiche germaniche in Italia / Einheitskomitee der historischen deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien

Crimean Gothic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *ik, from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂.

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. I

East Central German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate to German ich.

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (Silesian, also Breslauisch) I

Declension[edit]

1st Person Singular 2nd Person Singular 3rd Person Singular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ihch; ich du; de
Du; De
er; a'
är; a
sie, se, -'sche (after r), s', s'- es; 's, -'s, -s (less common), -'sch (after r), -sch (after r, less common)
Dative mir; mer dir; der
Dir (especially after prepositions and at the beginning of a sentence/clause); Der
ihm; i'm, im ihr; i'r, ir [Term?]
Accusative mihch; mich dihch; dich
Dihch; Dich
ihn; i'n sie, se, -'sche (after r) es; 's, -'s, -s (less common), -'sch (after r), -sch (after r, less common)
1st Person Plural 2rd Person Plural 3rd Person Plural
Nominative bir (bier); ber ihr; i'r sie, se, s', s'-
Dative uns, üns
üns
euch ihn'n; i'n'n, i'n
Accusative uns, üns
üns
euch se
  • sie/se and es can be contracted into s'e's (= SHG: sie es)

See also[edit]

other personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns:

  • mei (1st ps. sg. possessive pronoun)
  • dei; Dei (2nd ps. sg. possessive pronoun)
  • ihr (3rd ps. sg. fem. possessive pronoun)
  • unser, ünser / ünser (1st ps. pl. possessive pronoun)
  • Ihr; Euch (grammatically: 2nd ps. pl.)
  • Sie; Ihn'n (grammatically: 3rd ps. pl.)
  • sihch, sich / sich (reflexive pronoun)

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (Silesian, also Gebirgsschlesisch) I

Declension[edit]

Gebirgsschlesisch:

1st Person Singular 2nd Person Singular 3rd Person Singular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative iech; ich du; de
Du;
a sie, se es; -'s, -s (merged with a preceding s into ß as in (SHG: ist es) from is, biß (SHG: bis es) from bis), -sch (after r)
Dative mir; merr, mer dir; derr, der
Dir;
ihm ihr
Accusative miech; mich diech; dich
Diech;
ihn; se es; -'s, -s (merged with a preceding s into ß as in (SHG: ist es) from is, biß (SHG: bis es) from bis), -sch (after r)
1st Person Plural 2rd Person Plural 3rd Person Plural
Nominative mirr, mir; merr, mer ihr sie, se
Dative ins euch a
Accusative ins euch se

Additionally there are:

  • sa (= SHG: sie ihn)
  • sa (= SHG: es ihnen)
  • marn (= SHG: wir ihn)
  • mida (= SHG: mit ihnen; from mit (with))

Also:

1st Person Singular 2nd Person Singular 3rd Person Singular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative iech; ich du; de
Du; De
är; a sie, se es; 's, -'s, -'sch (after r)
Dative mir; mer dir; der
Dir; Der
ihm; i'm ihr; i'r
Accusative miech; mich diech;
Diech;
i'n se es; 's, -'s, -'sch (after r)
1st Person Plural 2rd Person Plural 3rd Person Plural
Nominative bier; ber sie, se
Dative üns (uns) (euch)
Accusative üns (uns) (euch) se

Additionally there are:

  • Ihr, I'r; Eich (Euch) (grammatically: 2nd ps. pl.; semantically: 2nd ps. sg. or pl.)
  • Sie, Se; I'n (grammatically: 3rd ps. pl.; semantically: 2nd ps. sg.)

Notes:

  • The forms uns, euch, Euch are rare, and could arguably be mistakes or misprints influenced by SHG uns, euch.

See also[edit]

possessive and reflexive pronouns - Gebirgsschlesisch:

  • mei (1st ps. sg. possessive pronoun)
  • dei (2nd ps. sg. possessive pronoun)
  • insa (1st ps. pl. possessive pronoun)
  • siech (reflexive pronoun)

possessive and reflexive pronouns - also:

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (Silesian, Gebirgsschlesisch) I

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

other personal and possessive pronouns:

  • mei (1st ps. sg. possessive pronoun)
  • du, de; dir, der; dich; dei (2nd ps. sg.)
  • a; ihm; ihn (3rd ps. sg. m.)
  • -'s, -s, -'sch (after r as in mer'sch) (3rd ps. sg. n.)
  • sei (3rd ps. sg. m. & n. possessive pronoun)
  • se (3rd ps. sg. f.)
  • ihr (3rd ps. sg. f. possessive pronoun)
  • mer; ins; ins; inser (1st ps. pl.)

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (Silesian) I

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (Obererzgebirge, Salzungen, Ruhla) I

Declension[edit]

Obererzgebirge:

Salzungen:

Ruhla:

1st Person Singular 2nd Person Singular 3rd Person Singular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ich dåu, de hä̂, ä, e sü̂, se es
Genitive s'n
Dative mäi, me däi, de ü̂n, ün, en ü̂r, er ü̂n, ün, en
Accusative mich dich ü̂n, ün, en sü̂, se es
1st Person Plural 2rd Person Plural 3rd Person Plural
Nominative mäi, me å̈ü sü̂, se
Genitive onser å̈ürer ürner, örner, er
Dative ons ü̂ch, üch ün, en
Accusative ons ü̂ch, üch sü̂, se

Alternative forms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Die Ruhlaer Mundart dargestellt von Karl Regel.   Weimar, Hermann Boehlau. 1868

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (Oberlausitz, Altenburg, Mansfeld, Niederlausitz) I

Declension[edit]

Oberlausitz, Altenburg:

Mansfeld:

Niederlausitz:

  • Nominative: ich; -'ich (as in hua-'ich = SHG habe ich), -ich (as in hua-ich = SHG habe ich)
  • Dative: merr
  • Accusative: merr

See also[edit]

  • du (2nd ps. sg.)

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (Nord-Thüringisch, Wasungen, Erzgebirge) I

Declension[edit]

Erzgebirge:

Nord-Thüringisch:

1st Person Singular 2nd Person Singular 3rd Person Singular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative iche, ich; duu; de hee; he sie; se es; 's
Dative mich; me dich; een; 'n eer; er ; 'n
Accusative mich; me dich; een; 'n sie; se es; 's
1st Person Plural 2rd Person Plural 3rd Person Plural
Nominative mie; me die; de sie; se
Dative uns; uch; ; 'n
Accusative uns; uch; sie; se
Separated by semicolon are: strong/normal form ; weak/enclitic form

Wasungen:

1st Person Singular 2nd Person Singular 3rd Person Singular
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative īch, ich dūe, du, , , ə sǖə, , äs, əs, s
Genitive is usually paraphrased sən ər, ərə sən
Dative mīə, dīə, ün, ən ǖər, ər ün, ən
Accusative mīch, mich dīch, dich ün, ən sǖə, , äs, əs, s
1st Person Plural 2rd Person Plural 3rd Person Plural
Nominative mīə, mi, ǖə, ü, ə sǖə, ,
Genitive is always paraphrased ər, ərə
Dative ons, also onz æ̊üch, ı̣ch ün, ən
Accusative ons, also onz æ̊üch, ı̣ch sǖə, ,

References[edit]

  • Idioticon der nord-thüringischen Mundart. – Den Bürgern Nordhausens gewidmet von Dr. Martin Schultze.   Nordhausen. Verlag von Ferd. Förstemann. 1874
  • Schriften des Vereins für Sachsen-Meiningische Geschichte und Landeskunde. 71. Heft. Inhalt: Die Wasunger Mundart, 2. Teil. Von Kirchenrat Edinhard Reichardt in Meiningen.   Hildburghausen. F. W. Gadow & Sohn, Herzogliche Hofbuchdruckerei. 1914

See also[edit]

Erzgebirge:

Nord-Thüringisch:

  • sich (reflexive pronoun)

See also[edit]


German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German ich, from Old High German ih, from Proto-Germanic *ek, *ik, from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɪç/
  • (file)
  • (Austria)
    (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɪç

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. I (first person singular nominative (subject) pronoun)

Declension[edit]

In contemporary German, the genitive forms of personal pronouns are restricted to formal style and are infrequent even there. They may be used

  • for the genitive object still found in a handful of verbs: Er erbarmte sich meiner. – "He had mercy on me". (Colloquially one would either use the dative case, or a prepositional object, or replace the verb with another.)
  • after the preposition statt ("instead of, in place of"): Er kam statt meiner in die Mannschaft. – "He joined the team in my place." This sounds antiquated, and an meiner Statt or an meiner Stelle is preferable (in which case meiner is not a genitive, but a form of the possessive determiner mein).

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • ich” in Duden online

Hunsrik[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German ich, from Old High German ih, from Proto-Germanic *ek, *ik, from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. I
    Ich sin en Fraa.
    I am a woman.
    Ich komme fun de Fabrick.
    I'm coming from the factory.

Inflection[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Jakaltek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Mayan *iihk.

Noun[edit]

ich

  1. chili pepper

References[edit]

  • Church, Clarence; Church, Katherine (1955) Vocabulario castellano-jacalteco, jacalteco-castellano[1] (in Spanish), Guatemala C. A.: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, pages 18; 24

Limburgish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German ih, from Proto-Germanic *ek, *ik.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ich (personal)

  1. I

Inflection[edit]

Singular Dual[* 1] Plural
nominative ich, 'ch weet weer, veer, v'r
genitive[* 2] miener, miens ózzer ózzer
locative[* 3] miches ózzes ózzes
dative[* 4] mir ós ós
accusative mich ós ós
  1. ^ Dual has been extinct for many centuries.
  2. ^ Genitive is no longer part of the living language.
  3. ^ Locative may have existed at some point in the past.
  4. ^ Dative is nowadays obsolete, accusative is used instead.

Luo[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ich

  1. stomach

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. Alternative form of I
Usage notes[edit]
  • Ich is the Southern and sometimes Midland form of I in Middle English, which corresponds to ik of the Northern dialect.

Etymology 2[edit]

Determiner[edit]

ich

  1. Alternative form of ech

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. Alternative form of ech

Middle High German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German ih

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (personal) I

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Alemannic German: ich, ig, i
    Sensler: [iː][1]
    Swabian: i
    Sathmar Swabian: i
  • Bavarian: i
    Cimbrian: ich (Setti Comuni), i (Luserna)
    Gottscheerish: , ī, i (unstressed), iχχe (emphatic)
    Mòcheno: i
  • Central Franconian: ich, eich, ech
    Hunsrückisch: äijsch
    Hunsrik: ich [ɪç][2]
    Britten: [æɪ̯ʃ], [ɪʃ][3]
    Kölsch: ich[4]
  • East Central German:
    Erzgebirgisch: iech
    Silesian German: iech
    Upper Saxon: isch, ische
  • East Franconian: i, iech
  • German: ich
  • Luxembourgish: ech
  • Rhine Franconian:
    Hessian: aisch
    Pennsylvania German: ich [ɪç][5]
  • Vilamovian: ych
  • Yiddish: איך(ikh), ich(ich)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schmutz, Christian; Haas, Walter. (2004). Senslerdeutsches Wörterbuch. 2nd edition, Freiburg: Paulusverlag.
  2. ^ Altenhofen, Cléo Vilson. (1996). Hunsrückisch in Rio Grande do Sul: Ein Beitrag zur Beschreibung einer deutschbrasilianischen Dialektvarietät im Kontakt mit dem Portugiesischen. (Mainzer Studien zur Sprach- und Volksforschung 21.) Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
  3. ^ "ich". In: Besse, Maria. (2004). Britter Wörterbuch. Losheim am See: Verein für Heimatkunde in der Gemeinde Losheim am See.
  4. ^ Online-Wörterbuch der Akademie för uns kölsche Sproch, Stichwort »ich« (URL).
  5. ^ Kelz, Heinrich P. (1971). Phonologische Analyse des Pennsylvaniadeutschen. Hamburg: Buske.

Pennsylvania German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German ich, from Old High German ih. Compare German ich, Dutch ik, English I, Old Norse ek.

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. I

Declension[edit]


Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ich (indeclinable)

  1. possessive pronoun for oni or one, namely their or theirs

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. genitive of oni; them
  2. genitive of one; them
  3. personal masculine accusative of oni; them

See also[edit]


Rhine Franconian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate to German ich.

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (Kassel) I

See also[edit]

  • Du; De (you (singular))

Slovak[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ich

(The genitive plural and accusative plural of on (he), ona (she), and one (it).)
  1. (possessive) their, theirs
  2. them

Further reading[edit]

  • ich in Slovak dictionaries at slovnik.juls.savba.sk

Swabian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate to German ich.

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. (possible less common) I
    • 1863, Jakob Friedrich Schmidt, Gedichte in schwäbischer Mundart von J. F. Schmidt
      • p. 16:
        Daß iar aber it moinet, i dä gar nix dett doba, so habe ich nothwendig Euch zu sagen, daß dau Arbet gnug geit, [...]
        Ich habe zwar nicht nothwendig Euch zu sagen, warum i net mitturna dua, abr [...]
      • P 30:
        „Herr Fürst,“ haut do der Pfortner gsait,
        Ich habs verstekt da nei,
        Denn da kommt ebn die ganze Zeit
        Kei eiz'ger Mensch nich rei!“
      • P 46:
        Darum will ich ihm iatz deuta,
        Daß mir ganz mit Heaz und Händ
        Alles Loid und alle Freuda
        Redlich mit ihm thoila wend.

Declension[edit]

  • Nominative: ich (less common); i
  • Dative: mir
  • Accusative: mi

Alternative forms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Sathmar Swabian: i

See also[edit]

  • Du, dat. Dir, acc. Di (you (singular))
  • -s (it, enclitic)

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. dative and accusative of ihr (you (plural))

Transylvanian Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate to German ich.

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. I

Yola[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English ich, from Old English , from Proto-West Germanic *ik. Compare obsolete English ich.

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. I

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 29

Yucatec Maya[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Mayan *Haty.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ich (plural ichoʼob)

  1. eye
  2. face
  3. fruit

References[edit]

  • Beltrán de Santa Rosa María, Pedro (1746) Arte de el idioma maya reducido a succintas reglas, y semilexicon yucateco (in Spanish), Mexico: Por la Biuda de D. Joseph Bernardo de Hogal, page 164: “Ich ssssss s ssss Ojo.”
  • Montgomery, John (2004) Maya-English, English-Maya (Yucatec) Dictionary & Phrasebook, New York: Hippocrene Books, Inc., →ISBN, page 59

Zipser German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate to German ich.

Pronoun[edit]

ich

  1. I