ach

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See also: ACH, aćh, -ach, ách, and ạch

Translingual[edit]

Symbol[edit]

ach

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-2 & ISO 639-3 language code for Acholi.

English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English ache, from Old French ache, from Latin apium (parsley).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ach (plural aches)

  1. (obsolete) Any of several species of plants, such as smallage, wild celery, parsley.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

ach

  1. An expression of annoyance.
    • 1958, Anthony Burgess, The Enemy in the Blanket (The Malayan Trilogy), published 1972:
      "Ach." Auntie frowned hugely. "That is all nonsense."
  2. An expression of woe or regret.
  3. Alternative form of och

Anagrams[edit]

Central Franconian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German ahte, from Old High German ahto, from Proto-West Germanic *ahtō, from Proto-Germanic *ahtōu, from Proto-Indo-European *oḱtṓw.

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

ach

  1. (Limburgan Ripuarian) eight (numerical value represented by the Arabic numeral 8; or describing a set with eight elements)

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • “ach” in d'r nuie Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer 2nd ed., 2017.

Chuukese[edit]

Determiner[edit]

ach

  1. First-person plural inclusive general possessive; our (inclusive)

Related terms[edit]

Cimbrian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronoun[edit]

ach

  1. (Sette Comuni) accusative of iart: you (plural; polite singular)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • “ach” in Martalar, Umberto Martello; Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɑx/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: ach
  • Rhymes: -ɑx

Interjection[edit]

ach

  1. oh, expresses compassion, surprise and dismay

Descendants[edit]

  • Afrikaans: ag
  • Papiamentu: ag
  • Peranakan Indonesian: ach

Esperanto[edit]

Interjection[edit]

ach

  1. H-system spelling of

German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German ach, from Old High German ah.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

ach

  1. oh, alas (expressing surprise, sorrow, or understanding)
    • 1808, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, “Vor dem Thor”, in Faust: Der Tragödie erster Teil [Faust, Part One]‎[1]; republished as Bayard Taylor, transl., 1870:
      Zwey Seelen wohnen, ach! in meiner Brust, / Die eine will sich von der andern trennen;
      Two souls, alas! reside within my breast, / And each withdraws from, and repels, its brother.
  2. oh (preceding an offhand or annoyed remark)
  3. oh (preceding an invocation or address, but rarely a solemn one)

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Danish: ah
    • Norwegian Bokmål: ah, a
  • Yiddish: אַך (akh)

Further reading[edit]

  • ach” in Duden online
  • Friedrich Kluge (1883), “ach”, in , John Francis Davis, transl., Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, published 1891
  • ach” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish acht (but, except), from Proto-Celtic *extos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eǵʰs.

Alternative forms[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ach

  1. but

Preposition[edit]

ach (plus nominative, triggers no mutation)

  1. except, but
Derived terms[edit]

Adverb[edit]

ach

  1. but, only, merely

Etymology 2[edit]

Onomatopoeic.

Alternative forms[edit]

Interjection[edit]

ach!

  1. ah! och! ugh!

Further reading[edit]

Lithuanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Old Polish ach.

Interjection[edit]

ach (archaic)

  1. o (used to address someone or a group)

Further reading[edit]

Middle Low German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

ach

  1. oh (an expression of grievance or displeasure)

North Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Frisian achta. Compare West Frisian acht.

Numeral[edit]

ach

  1. (Heligoland) eight

Old Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *axъ, ultimately a natural expression. First attested in the 14th century.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

ach

  1. ah! (expresses surprise)
    • 1915 [End of the 15th century], Jan Łoś, editor, Przegląd językowych zabytków staropolskich do r. 1543[2], page 315:
      Ach boze moy, pomozy my
      [Ach Boże moj, pomoży mi]
    • 1915 [Middle of the 15th century], Jan Łoś, editor, Przegląd językowych zabytków staropolskich do r. 1543[3], page 514:
      Ach nyestocze proch dolor
      [Ach niestocie proch dolor]
    • 1885 [End of the 15th century], Jan Baudouina de Courtenay, Jan Karłowicz, Antoni Adam Kryńskiego, Malinowski Lucjan, editors, Prace Filologiczne[4], volume III, page 289:
      Ach gelacze heu
      [Ach jełacie heu]
    • Middle of the 15th century, Rozmyślanie o żywocie Pana Jezusa[5], page 56:
      Takoż płakał rzekąc: Ach mnie nędznemu
      [Takoż płakał rzekąc: Ach mnie nędznemu]

Descendants[edit]

  • Lithuanian: ach
  • Polish: ach

References[edit]

Peranakan Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Dutch ach (oh).

Interjection[edit]

ach

  1. oh, expresses compassion, surprise and dismay
    Ach, ia laen tida minta doeit.[1](please add an English translation of this usage example)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kwee Hing Tjiat (1921) Doea Kapala Batoe [Two Hardheaded (Persons)], Nauer & Dimmick, page 10

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish ach, from Proto-Slavic *axъ, ultimately a natural expression.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

ach

  1. ah! (expresses surprise)
    Synonyms: och, ojej, ależ

Derived terms[edit]

adjective
interjections
noun
verbs

Trivia[edit]

According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), ach is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 0 times in scientific texts, 0 times in news, 0 times in essays, 10 times in fiction, and 44 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 54 times, making it the 1186th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990), “ach”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków; Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 1

Further reading[edit]

  • ach in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • ach in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • Maria Renata Mayenowa, Stanisław Rospond, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Hrabec, Władysław Kuraszkiewicz (2010-2023) “ach, ah”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish]
  • Krystyna Siekierska (08.06.2022) “ACH”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century]
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814) Słownik języka polskiego[6], volume 1, pages 3-4
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861), “ach”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1900), “ach”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 1, Warsaw, page 6

Scots[edit]

Etymology[edit]

In imitation of a cry.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

ach

  1. An exclamation of impatience, disappointment, contempt, remonstrance.
  2. expression of satisfaction or pleasure.

References[edit]

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish acht (but, except), from Proto-Celtic *extos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eǵʰs-tos.

Conjunction[edit]

ach

  1. but
    Thèid mise ach cha tèid thusa.I'll go but you won't [go].
  2. except, only
    Cha robh ann ach trì daoine.There were only three people (literally "there was not there but/except for three people").

Etymology 2[edit]

Shortened form of feuch.

Conjunction[edit]

ach

  1. so that
    Dh'aontaich e ach am biodh adhartas air choireigin ann.He agreed so that there would be some progress.

References[edit]

Temascaltepec Nahuatl[edit]

Adverb[edit]

ach

  1. maybe

Welsh[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *akkā, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ekkeh₂ (compare Latin Acca (Larentia), a Roman goddess, Ancient Greek Ἀκκώ (Akkṓ, nurse of Demeter), Sanskrit अक्का (akkā, mother)).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ach f (plural achau or achoedd)

  1. kinship
  2. pedigree, ancestry
  3. (in the plural) lineage
  4. (in the plural) genealogy, family roots
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

och, ych

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

ach

  1. yuck
Derived terms[edit]

ach-y-fi

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
ach unchanged unchanged hach
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “ach”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies