-an

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English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -ian (euphonic variant)
  • -n (when added to a word ending in a)

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English -an, regularly -ain, -ein, -en, from Old French -ain, -ein, or before i, -en (modern French -ain, -en, feminine -aine, -enne), from Latin -ānus (feminine -āna), which forms adjectives of belonging or origin from a noun, being -nus [cognate with Ancient Greek -νος (-nos)] preceded by a vowel, from Proto-Indo-European *-nós. Cognate with English -en. Compare with -in, -ine.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. Of or pertaining to; an adjectival suffix appended to various words, often nouns, to make an adjective form. (Often added to words of Latin origin, but also used with words of other origins. When a word ends in a, -n is used instead.)
    Rome + ‎-an → ‎Roman
    Synonyms: -al, -ar, -ese, -esque, -ic, -id, -ish, -like, -oid, -ous, -y
  2. Appended to nouns to form an agent noun. (When males with a profession are distinguished from females, males are -an, females -(i)enne.)
    comedy + ‎-an → ‎comedian
    history + ‎-an → ‎historian

Derived terms[edit]


Translations[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Azerbaijani[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / Ə / İ / Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -an -ən
postvocalic -yan -yən

-an

  1. Postconsonantal form of -ən after the vowels A / I / O / U.

Bikol Central[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. a place where a large quantity of the thing meant by the root is put, planted, or can be found
    basura (trash) + ‎-an → ‎basurahan (trash can)
  2. a place where the action expressed by the root is performed
    kawat (play) + ‎-an → ‎kawatan (playground)

Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (added to possessive nouns) his, hers, its

Related terms[edit]



Cimbrian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German -en, a merger of various terminations in Old High German reflecting different conjugational patterns, namely -an, -ōn, -en (-ien), and -nen, from Proto-Germanic *-aną, *-ōną, *-janą, *-āną, and *-naną. Cognate with German -en.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. A suffix of all verbs in their infinitive form.

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an m

  1. Forms nouns, including inhabitant names.

Derived terms[edit]


Further reading[edit]


Esperanto[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. Obsolete form of -am.

See also[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From earlier *-han, *-hVn, from Proto-Finnic *-hen, *-sen (passive or reflexive suffix). Initial -ta- is from the causative suffix as seen in *-tadak.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (personal) Forms the impersonal indicative present forms of verbs that include back vowels (a, o or u or i or e with a, o or u — compare -än), appended to the infinitive.
    • No changes in verbs that end in one a.
    juosta + ‎-an → ‎juostaan
    • Verbs ending in -oa the beginning stem is followed by -ta- and then by this.
    sanoa, stem sano- + -ta- + -an -> sanotaan
    • Verbs ending in -aa or -ea the beginning stem is followed by -eta- and then by this.
    laittaa, stem lait- + -eta- + -an -> laitetaan
    paistaa, stem paist- + -eta- + -an -> paistetaan
    laskea, stem lask- + -eta- + -an -> lasketaan

Etymology 2[edit]

See -Vn.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (case suffix) A suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.
    laiva boat (word includes back vowels, a — cf. -än) -> + -an = laivaan (on)to a/the boat; (in)to a/the boat

Etymology 3[edit]

From earlier *-hVn, from Proto-Uralic *-sin, the third-person dual possessive for singular nouns.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (possessive) A variant for the third-person suffix -nsa, see the usage notes below.

Usage notes[edit]

When the third-person suffix -nsa is appended to non-nominative noun forms that end in a single -a (those that are in singular and plural inessive, elative, adessive, ablative, essive and abessive and plural partitive and singular partitive ending with -ta), the S and A are very often omitted from the suffix and the last A of the case suffix preceding the remaining N is doubled — resulting in this -an. In standard Finnish, both the "full" form and the shortened form are acceptable (cf. -nsä). This same omission takes very often place also in the nominal verb forms used in shortened sentences (see the meanings of -nsa) and in the adverbs requiring this suffix:

Singular
(parti.) laitettansa -> laitettaan — koiraansa -> -"- (no changes)
(iness.) laitteessansa -> laitteessaan — koirassansa -> koirassaan
(elat.) laitteestansa -> laitteestaan — koirastansa -> koirastaan
(adess.) laitteellansa -> laitteellaan — koirallansa -> koirallaan
(ablat.) laitteeltansa -> laitteeltaan — koiraltansa -> koiraltaan
(ess.) laitteenansa -> laitteenaan — koiranansa -> koiranaan
(abess.) laitteettansa -> laitteettaan — koirattansa -> koirattaan
Plural
(partit.) laitteitansa -> laitteitaan — koiriansa -> koiriaan
(iness.) laitteissansa -> laitteissaan — koirissansa -> koirissaan
(elat.) laitteistansa -> laitteistaan — koiristansa -> koiristaan
(adess.) laitteillansa -> laitteillaan — koirillansa -> koirillaan
(ablat.) laitteiltansa -> laitteiltaan — koiriltansa -> koiriltaan
(ess.) laitteinansa -> laitteinaan — koirinansa -> koirinaan
(abess.) laitteittansa -> laitteittaan — koirittansa -> koirittaan

Anagrams[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (adverb-forming suffix) Added to an adjective to create an adverb.
    pontos (accurate) + ‎-an → ‎pontosan (accurately)
  2. (adverb-forming suffix) Added to a numeral or a pronoun with this sense to create an adverb, expressing the number of people.
    hat (six)hatan (six people, six of us/you/them)
    Hatan mentünk moziba.Six of us went to the cinema.
    nyolc (eight)nyolcan (eight people, eight of us/you/them)
    Nyolcan vannak a szobában.There are eight people in the room.
    hány (how many)hányan (how many (of us/you/them))
    néhány (some, a few)néhányan (some (of us/you/them))
    sok (many)sokan (many (of us/you/them))
    Sokan vannak a meghívottak, de kevesen a választottak.For many are called, but few are chosen.
    millió (million)millióan (a million (of us/you/them))
Usage notes[edit]
  • Harmonic variants:
    -n is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -an is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant.
    -en is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant, as well as some front-vowel words ending in a vowel (kettő, ).
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (verb-forming suffix) Added to a stem ― often an onomatopoeia ― to form a verb expressing an instantaneous action.
    kattan (to click, to make one clicking sound)
    robban (to explode)
Usage notes[edit]
  • Harmonic variants:
    -on is added to some back-vowel words
    -an is added to back vowel words
    -en is added to front vowel words
Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Malay -an, from Proto-Malayic *-an, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-an, from Proto-Austronesian *-an.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. Suffix for collectivity
  2. Suffix for similarity
  3. Suffix for object
  4. Suffix for place
  5. Suffix for instrument
    bangun (to wake up, to get up) + ‎-an → ‎bangunan (building)

Malay[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayic *-an, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-an, from Proto-Austronesian *-an.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an (Jawi spelling -ان)

  1. Suffix for collectivity
  2. Suffix for similarity
  3. Suffix for object
  4. Suffix for place
  5. Suffix for instrument
    bangun (to wake up, to get up) + ‎-an → ‎bangunan (building)

Manx[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish -án, from Primitive Irish -ᚐᚌᚅᚔ (-agni).

Suffix[edit]

-an m

  1. Alternative form of -ane

Derived terms[edit]



Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-aną

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (verbal suffix) used to form the infinitive of most verbs (exceptions are verbs like flēon (to flee))
    singanto sing
    nimanto take

Old Norse[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Presumably from Proto-Germanic *-ōniz.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (deverbative suffix) Used to derive nouns from class 2 weak verbs.
    friða (to pacify) + ‎-an → ‎friðan (pacifying)
    sanna (to assert, prove) + ‎-an → ‎sannan (assertion, confirmation)
    synja (to deny) + ‎-an → ‎synjan (denial)
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-anē

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. Forms adverbs with ablative direction.
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. strong accusative singular ending of adjectives

Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-aną

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (verbal suffix) used to form the infinitive of strong verbs (exceptions are a few verbs ending in -ian like biddian or liggian)
    drinkan (to drink)
    hwerƀan (to travel)

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Needs splitting by etymology”)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an m or n (feminine singular -ană, masculine plural -ani, feminine and neuter plural -ane)

  1. Added to nouns and adjectives as an augmentative suffix.
    gras (fat) + ‎-an → ‎grăsan (fatso)
  2. Forms adjectives and nouns describing things and characteristics of a city, region, or country; -an
    Australia (Australia) + ‎-an → ‎australian (Australian)
  3. Forms names of male animals.
    gâscă (goose) + ‎-an → ‎gâscan (gander)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]



Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish -án, from Primitive Irish -ᚐᚌᚅᚔ (-agni).

Pronunciation[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

The non-schwa clear vowel /a/ distinguishes this from the homograph plural suffix -an which is pronounced /ən/ i.e. with a schwa.

Suffix[edit]

-an m

  1. A masculine suffix used to form nouns meaning a smaller form of something, often used for male given names.
    Cailean, Eòghan, Ailean, Beathan
    clàran, clachan, bioran

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate to Irish -anna, Manx -yn.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an pl

  1. Used to form regular plurals of nouns.
    clach (stone) + ‎-an → ‎clachan
    damh (ox, stag) + ‎-an → ‎damhan
    leannan (lover, sweetheart) + ‎-an → ‎leannanan

Derived terms[edit]



Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-an (Cyrillic spelling -ан)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a (often negative) feature or endearment.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ьnъ.

Suffix[edit]

-an (Cyrillic spelling -ан)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create an adjective.

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin -ant, the third-person plural present active indicative ending of first conjugation verbs.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person plural (also used with ustedes) present indicative of -ar verbs.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -eant, Latin -ant, and Latin -iant, the third-person plural present active subjunctive endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person plural (also used with ustedes) present subjunctive of -er and -ir verbs.
  2. Suffix indicating the third-person plural imperative of -er and -ir verbs.

See also[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. making a noun from a verb, similar to -ing and -ning, having -ningar as the plural.
    predika (to preach) + ‎-an → ‎predikan (a sermon)
  2. -an; making a noun, describing a person by belief or nationality
    Tibet + ‎-an → ‎tibetan
    lutheran
    vegetarian

Derived terms[edit]


Anagrams[edit]


Tagalog[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. object trigger: to do something to a person or a thing
    Buksan mo ang pinto.(You) open the door
    (door is focused).)
  2. object trigger: to cause something to become; to make
    Binagalan ni Sue ang kotse.Sue slowed down the car.
    (The car is focused.)
  3. directional trigger: to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of
    Tinitingnan ko ang manwal.I'm looking at the manual.
    (The manual is focused).)
  4. benefactive trigger: to do something for
    Titirhan ko si Roy ng keyk.I'll leave some cake for Roy.
    (Roy is focused).)
  5. object trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Winawalis-walisan; ko ang sahig.I'm sweeping the floor a bit.
    (The floor is focused).)
  6. directional trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of, occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Tinutulung-tulungan ni Jessy si Patty.Jessy helped Patty a bit.
    (Patty is focused).)
  7. object trigger: to perform the action of the verb on something
    Huwag mong sulatan ang dokumento.Don't write anything on the document.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. a place where a large quantity of the thing meant by the root is put, planted, or can be found
    aklat (book) + ‎-an → ‎aklatan (library)
    basura (trash) + ‎-an → ‎basurahan (trash can)
  2. a place where the action expressed by the root is performed
    kain (eat) + ‎-an → ‎kainan (place where people eat e.g. restaurant, café,...)
  3. a period in which the action expressed by the root is collectively performed
    ani (harvest) + ‎-an → ‎anihan (harvest time)
    pasok (entry, class, work) + ‎-an → ‎pasukan (school time, school year)
  4. a tool or an object that is used to measure what is meant by the root
    oras (time) + ‎-an → ‎orasan (clock, watch)
    timbang (weight) + ‎-an → ‎timbangan (weighing scale)
  5. reciprocal or joint performance of the action expressed by the root
    sayaw (dance) + ‎-an → ‎sayawan (dancing together)
    kanta (sing) + ‎-an → ‎kantahan (singing together)
  6. (used with reduplication of root word) Used to create a diminutive, pretensive, or imitative form of something
    bahay (house) + ‎-an → ‎bahay-bahayan (toy house)
    Diyos (God) + ‎-an → ‎diyos-diyosan (false god)
    baril (gun) + ‎-an → ‎baril-barilan (toy gun)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Normally, /h/ is inserted before -an when the root word end with a vowel that is not followed by a glottal stop. In some cases, phoneme change can occur and /h/ becomes /n/.
    ganti + ‎-an → ‎gantihan
    talo + ‎-an → ‎talunan
  • Sometimes, the final vowel of the root word disappears when the suffix is added.
    sunod + ‎-an → ‎sundan
    takip + ‎-an → ‎takpan

Derived terms[edit]



Volapük[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. Used to indicate someone who is or does something

Derived terms[edit]



Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. diminutive suffix, -let
    bwyell (axe) + ‎-an → ‎bwyellan (small axe, hatchet)
    gwraig (woman, wife) + ‎-an → ‎gwreigan (little woman, little wife)
    barf (beard) + ‎-an → ‎barfan (little beard, goatee, whiskers)
  2. person or object with characteristics of the root word
    mud (mute) + ‎-an → ‎mudan (mute person)
    llai (grey) + ‎-an → ‎lleian (nun)
    crwm (crooked, curved) + ‎-an → ‎cryman (sickle, pruning hook)
  3. used to form pet names
    Gwen + ‎-an → ‎Gwennan
    Dai + ‎-an → ‎Deian
    Elisabeth + ‎-an → ‎Bethan

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. verbnoun suffix

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (colloquial) verb suffix for the third-person plural future

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950-), “-an”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies