-an

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English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -ānus, which forms adjectives of belonging or origin from a noun.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. Of or pertaining to; an adjectival suffix appended to various words, often nouns, to make an adjective form. (Often added to words of Latin origin, but also used with words of other origins. When a word ends in a, -n is used instead.)
    Rome : Roman
  2. Appended to nouns to form an agent noun. (When males with a profession are distinguished from females, males are -an, females -(i)enne.)
    comedian, from comedy +‎ -an
    historian, from history +‎ -an

Synonyms[edit]

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]



Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (added to possessive nouns) his, hers, its

Related terms[edit]



Cimbrian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. forms the infinitive of verbs

Esperanto[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. Obsolete form of -am.

See also[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (personal) Forms the impersonal indicative present forms of verbs that include back vowels (a, o or u or i or e with a, o or u — compare -än), appended to the infinitive.
    • No changes in verbs that end in one a.
    juosta + -an -> juostaan
    • Verbs ending in -oa the beginning stem is followed by -ta- and then by this.
    sanoa, stem sano- + -ta- + -an -> sanotaan
    • Verbs ending in -aa or -ea the beginning stem is followed by -eta- and then by this.
    laittaa, stem lait- + -eta- + -an -> laitetaan
    paistaa, stem paist- + -eta- + -an -> paistetaan
    laskea, stem lask- + -eta- + -an -> lasketaan
  2. (case suffix) A suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.
    laiva boat (word includes back vowels, a — cf. -än) -> + -an = laivaan (on)to a/the boat; (in)to a/the boat
  3. (possessive) A variant for the third-person suffix -nsa, see the usage notes below.

Usage notes[edit]

  • (third-person possessive suffix variant): When the third-person suffix -nsa is appended to non-nominative noun forms that end in a single -a (those that are in singular and plural inessive, elative, adessive, ablative, essive and abessive and plural partitive and singular partitive ending with -ta), the S and A are very often omitted from the suffix and the last A of the case suffix preceding the remaining N is doubled — resulting in this -an. In standard Finnish, both the "full" form and the shortened form are acceptable (cf. -nsä). This same omission takes very often place also in the nominal verb forms used in shortened sentences (see the meanings of -nsa) and in the adverbs requiring this suffix:
Singular
(parti.) laitettansa -> laitettaan — koiraansa -> -"- (no changes)
(iness.) laitteessansa -> laitteessaan — koirassansa -> koirassaan
(elat.) laitteestansa -> laitteestaan — koirastansa -> koirastaan
(adess.) laitteellansa -> laitteellaan — koirallansa -> koirallaan
(ablat.) laitteeltansa -> laitteeltaan — koiraltansa -> koiraltaan
(ess.) laitteenansa -> laitteenaan — koiranansa -> koiranaan
(abess.) laitteettansa -> laitteettaan — koirattansa -> koirattaan
Plural
(partit.) laitteitansa -> laitteitaan — koiriansa -> koiriaan
(iness.) laitteissansa -> laitteissaan — koirissansa -> koirissaan
(elat.) laitteistansa -> laitteistaan — koiristansa -> koiristaan
(adess.) laitteillansa -> laitteillaan — koirillansa -> koirillaan
(ablat.) laitteiltansa -> laitteiltaan — koiriltansa -> koiriltaan
(ess.) laitteinansa -> laitteinaan — koirinansa -> koirinaan
(abess.) laitteittansa -> laitteittaan — koirittansa -> koirittaan

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (adverbial suffix) Added to an adjective or numeral to create an adverb.
    pontos ‎(accurate) → pontosan ‎(accurately)
    hat ‎(six) → Hatan mentünk moziba. - Six of us went to the cinema.
    nyolc ‎(eight) → Nyolcan vannak a szobában. - There are eight people in the room.
  2. (verb suffix) Added to a stem - often an onomatopoeias - to form a verb expressing an instantaneous action.
    kattan ‎(to click, to make one clicking sound)
    robban ‎(to explode)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (adverbial suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -n is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -an is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -en is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant
  • (verb suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -an is added to back vowel words
    -en is added to front vowel words

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Malay -an, from Proto-Malayic *-an, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-an, from Proto-Austronesian *-an.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. Suffix for collectivity
  2. Suffix for similarity
  3. Suffix for object
  4. Suffix for place
  5. Suffix for instrument
    bangun ‎(to wake up, to get up) + -an = bangunan ‎(building)

Malay[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayic *-an, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-an, from Proto-Austronesian *-an.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an ‎(Jawi spelling -ان)

  1. Suffix for collectivity
  2. Suffix for similarity
  3. Suffix for object
  4. Suffix for place
  5. Suffix for instrument
    bangun ‎(to wake up, to get up) + -an = bangunan ‎(building)

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-aną

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (verbal suffix) used to form the infinitive of most verbs (exceptions are verbs like flēon ‎(to flee))
    singan ‎(to sing)
    niman ‎(to take)

Old Norse[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Presumably from Proto-Germanic *-ōniz.

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (deverbative suffix) Used to derive nouns from class 2 weak verbs.
    friða ‎(to pacify) + ‎-an → ‎friðan ‎(pacifying)
    sanna ‎(to assert, prove) + ‎-an → ‎sannan ‎(assertion, confirmation)
    synja ‎(to deny) + ‎-an → ‎synjan ‎(denial)

Derived terms[edit]



Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-aną

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. (verbal suffix) used to form the infinitive of strong verbs (exceptions are a few verbs ending in -ian like biddian or liggian)
    drinkan "to drink"
    hwerƀan "to travel"

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology Scriptorium.
Particularly: “Needs splitting by etymology”

Suffix[edit]

-an m, n ‎(feminine singular -ană, masculine plural -ani, feminine and neuter plural -ane)

  1. Added to nouns and adjectives as an augmentative suffix.
    gras ‎(fat) + ‎-an → ‎grăsan ‎(fatso)
  2. Forms adjectives and nouns describing things and characteristics of a city, region, or country; -an
    Australia ‎(Australia) + ‎-an → ‎australian ‎(Australian)
  3. Forms names of male animals.
    gâscă ‎(goose) + ‎-an → ‎gâscan ‎(gander)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]



Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish -án.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an m

  1. A masculine suffix used to form nouns meaning a smaller form of something, often used for male given names.
    Cailean, Eòghan, Ailean, Beathan
    clàran, clachan, bioran

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate to Irish -anna, Manx -yn.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an pl

  1. Used to form regular plurals of nouns.
    clach ‎(stone) → clachan pl
    damh ‎(ox, stag) → damhan pl
    leannan ‎(lover, sweetheart) → leannanan pl

Derived terms[edit]



Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology Scriptorium.

Suffix[edit]

-an (Cyrillic spelling -ан)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a (often negative) feature or endearment.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ьnъ.

Suffix[edit]

-an (Cyrillic spelling -ан)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create an adjective.

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person plural present indicative of -ar verbs.
  2. Suffix indicating the third-person plural present subjunctive of -er and -ir verbs.
  3. Suffix indicating the third-person plural imperative of -er and -ir verbs.

See also[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. making a noun from a verb, similar to -ing and -ning, having -ningar as the plural, e.g. predika ‎(to preach) → predikan ‎(a sermon)
  2. -an; making a noun, describing a person by belief or nationality, e.g. Tibettibetan, lutheran, vegetarian

Derived terms[edit]



Tagalog[edit]

Verbal Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. actor trigger: to do something to a person or a thing
    Buksan mo ang pinto.
    (You) open the door. (You is focused).
  2. object trigger: to cause something to become; to make
    Binagalan ni Sue ang kotse.
    Sue slowed down the car. (The car is focused).
  3. directional trigger: to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of
    Tinitingnan ko ang manwal.
    I'm looking at the manual. (The manual is focused).
  4. benefactive trigger: to do something for
    Titirhan ko si Roy ng keyk.
    I'll leave some cake for Roy. (Roy is focused).
  5. object trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Winawalis-walisan; ko ang sahig.
    I'm sweeping the floor a bit. (The floor is focused).
  6. directional trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of, occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Tinutulung-tulungan ni Jessy si Patty.
    Jessy helped Patty a bit. (Patty is focused).

Noun Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. a place where a large quantity of the thing meant by the root is put, planted, or can be found
    aklat (book) + -an = aklatan (library)
    basura (trash) + -an = basurahan (trash can)
  2. a place where the action expressed by the root is performed
    kain (eat) + -an = kainan (place where people eat e.g. restaurant, café,...)
  3. a period in which the action expressed by the root is collectively performed
    ani (harvest) + -an = anihan (harvest time)
    pasok (entry, class, work) + -an = pasukan (school time, school year)
  4. a tool or an object that is used to measure what is meant by the root
    oras (time) + -an = orasan (clock, watch)
    timbang (weight) + -an = timbangan (weighing scale)
  5. reciprocal or joint performance of the action expressed by the root
    sayaw (dance) + -an = sayawan (dancing together)
    kanta (sing) + -an = kantahan (singing together)

Note on morphophonemics[edit]

  • Normally, /h/ is inserted before -an when the root word end with a vowel that is not followed by a glottal stop. In some cases, phoneme change can occur and /h/ becomes /n/.
    ganti + -an = gantihan
    talo + -an = talunan
  • Sometimes, the final vowel of the root word disappears when the suffix is added.
    sunod + -an = sundan
    takip + -an = takpan

Derived terms[edit]



Volapük[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-an

  1. Used to indicate someone who is or does something

Derived terms[edit]