an

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English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (stressed)
    • IPA(key): /ˈæn/
    • (file)
    • Rhymes: -æn
    • IPA(key): [ˈɛən]
    • (file)
  • (unstressed)
    • IPA(key): /ən/
    • (file)
  • Homophone: in (in some accents)

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English an, from Old English ān (a, an, literally one). More at one.

Article[edit]

an (indefinite)

  1. Form of a (all article senses).
    1. Used before a vowel sound.
      I'll be there in half an hour.
    2. (rare or dialectal) Used before /h/ in an unstressed syllable.
    3. (now quite rare) Used before one and words with initial u, eu.
      • Numbers 24:8, KJV:
        God brought him forth out of Egypt; he hath as it were the strength of an unicorn: he shall eat up the nations his enemies, and shall break their bones, and pierce them through with his arrows.
      • (Can we date this quote?), John Mackay Wilson, Wilson's Tales of the Borders; Historical, Traditionary, and Imaginative[3], OCLC 41719251, page 84:
        My hopes, from my earliest years, have been hopes of celebrity as a writer- not of wealth, or of influence, or of accomplishing any of the thousand aims which furnish the great bulk of mankind with motives. You will laugh at me. There is something so emphatically shadowy and unreal in the object of this ambition, that even the full attainment of its provokes a smile. For who does not know
        'How vain that second life in others' breath,
        The estate which wits inherit after death!'
        And what can be more fraught with the ludicrous than an union of this shadowy ambition with mediocre parts and attainments! But I digress.
      • 1967, Brad Steiger, Joan Whritenour, “Someone Up There May Not Like Us”, in Flying Saucers Are Hostile[4], Tandem Publishing, published 1975, →ISBN, OCLC 873294638, page 13:
        After the case had been reported in the newspapers, Mrs. Gracindo de Souza, wife of a member of the local stock exchange, told police that she and her daughter had been driving down Alameda Sao Boaventura when they had seen an UFO hovering over the clearing where the bodies were later discovered.
      • 1979, Myrdal, Jan, Ann Hening, transl., The Silk Road: A Journey from the High Pamirs and Ili through Sinkiang and Kansu[5], New York: Pantheon Books, →ISBN, LCCN 78-51796, OCLC 611149389, OL 4740902M, page 160:
        An Uighur boy steps forward, carrying an instrument, a rahab. He sings a ballad: “We follow Chairman Mao.”
      • 1998, Paul M. Edwards, The Korean War: An Annotated Bibliography[6], Greenwood Press, →ISBN, LCCN 97-40189, OCLC 477058097, page 114:
        A very interesting history of United Nations at war in Korea, done in an unique question and answer style.
      • 2010, Casey Anderson, The Story of Brutus[7], New York: Pegasus Books, →ISBN, OCLC 464580440, page 173:
        Brutus gets excited when we pull his trailer up. He knows he is going somewhere and that he is going to have an unique experience that will leave him stimulated and fulfilled.
      • 2010, Larry Hochman, The Relationship Revolution[8], John Wiley and Sons, →ISBN, OCLC 855187346, page 109:
        To this day, ‘Winning for Customers’ still stands out as an unique example of a company deciding that, if customer loyalty was to become a reality, everyone had to own it: pilots, caterers, engineers, reservationists, cabin crew, cleaners, drivers — every single person had to understand the economics of customer loyalty and their individual role in making it happen.
      • 2011, CaseBase: Case Studies in Global Business[9], →ISBN, page 144:
        Second, according to an United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) for Palestinian refugees in the Near East report (UNRWA, 2006) the initial design and drawings used by construction companies can be improved.
      • 2019 November 21, “Don't miss the 'Mini Town' Christmas Lighting event”, in Aruba Today[10], OCLC 1011477511, page A16:
        What does a small house, a lighthouse, a candy shop and toys have to do with an utility company? Find out this Friday November 22nd, 2019.
    4. (nonstandard) Used before /h/ in a stressed syllable.
    5. (nonstandard, Britain, West Country) Used before all consonants.
Usage notes[edit]
  • In standard English, the article an is used before vowel sounds, while a is used before consonant sounds. Alternatively, an can be found before an unstressed syllable beginning with an h-sound, as in an historic. The h may then become silent or is at least very weakly articulated. This usage is favoured by only 6% of British speakers, and is only slightly more common in writing.[1]
  • Historically, an could also be found before one and many words with initial u, eu (now pronounced with initial /juː/, /jʊ/, /jə/), such as eunuch, unique, or utility; this is still occasionally encountered. This is as these words formerly started with a vowel sound, though the writing of an before words spelt with initial u, eu was usual until the 19th century, long after these words have acquired initial consonant sounds in standard English.[2]
  • In the other direction, a can rarely be found before a vowel in nonstandard (often dialectal) speech and written representations thereof, as in "ain't this a innerestin sitchation" (Moira Young, Blood Red Road).
  • The various article senses of a are all senses of an.
Translations[edit]

Numeral[edit]

an

  1. (nonstandard, Britain, West Country) one

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage (2015, →ISBN, page 2: "Before words beginning with h [...] the standard modern approach is to use a (never an) together with an aspirated h [...], but not to demur if others use an with minimal or nil aspiration given to the following h (an historic /әn (h)ɪsˈtɒrɪk/, an horrific /әn (h)ɒˈrɪfɪk/, etc.)." Fowler's goes on to source the 6% figure to Wells (third edition, 2008).
  2. ^ a, adj.”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English an.

Conjunction[edit]

an

  1. (archaic) If
    • c. 1596–1598, William Shakespeare, “The Merchant of Venice”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene ii]:
      [] An the worst fall that ever fell, I hope I shall make shift to go without him.
    • 1886–88, Richard F. Burton, The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night:
      Thereupon, quoth he, "O woman, for sundry days I have seen thee attend the levée sans a word said; so tell me an thou have any requirement I may grant."
  2. (archaic) So long as.
    An it harm none, do what ye will.
  3. (archaic) As if; as though.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Georgian ან (an).

Noun[edit]

an (plural ans)

  1. The first letter of the Georgian alphabet, (Mkhedruli), (Asomtavruli) or (Nuskhuri).

Etymology 4[edit]

From the Old English an, on (preposition).

Preposition[edit]

an

  1. In each; to or for each; per.
    I was only going twenty miles an hour.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This is the same as the word a in such contexts, modified because of preceding an unpronounced h. The train was speeding along at a mile a minute.
Synonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Afrikaans[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

an

  1. (Western Cape) Alternative form of aan.

Ainu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Similar to Japanese ある.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

an (Kana spelling アン)

  1. (intransitive, copulative) to exist, be (somewhere); there is
    Aynu an ruwe ne.
    There is an Ainu.

See also[edit]

  • ne (to be)

Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Possibly a metaphorical use of anë (vessel).

Noun[edit]

an m (definite singular ani)

  1. (anatomy) womb, caul
    Synonym: mitër
  2. (anatomy) joint
  3. (dialectal) room, vessel
  4. (dialectal, Italy) ship

Related terms[edit]


Arin[edit]

Noun[edit]

an

  1. haunch

Aromanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin annus. Compare Romanian an.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

an n (plural anj or enj)

  1. year

Related terms[edit]


Azerbaijani[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic آن(ʾān).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

an (definite accusative anı, plural anlar)

  1. moment

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Bambara[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

an

  1. we

Bikol Central[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Central Philippine *aŋ. Cognate with Cebuano ang, Hiligaynon ang, Tagalog ang, Waray-Waray an.

Further etymology is debated; some have theorized a relationship to Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *a (direct marker), from Proto-Austronesian *a (direct marker) with the addition of an unclear nasal suffix. Compare Kapampangan ing.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: an
  • IPA(key): /ʔan/

Particle[edit]

an

  1. direct marker for all general nouns other than personal proper nouns
    Nagdalagan an lalaki.
    The man ran.
    Kinakan kan ikos an sira. (Naga)
    Kinaon kan ikos an sira. (Legazpi)
    The cat ate the fish.

Usage notes[edit]

  • This particle is analyzed as the definite article (i.e., the) when used alone, and the indefinite article (i.e., a or an) when used with the numeral "saro".
    An saldang. (Naga)
    An aldaw. (Legazpi)
    The sun.
    An sarong tawo.
    A person.
  • Specific nouns are marked with "si" or "su".
  • Direct personal proper nouns (primarily names) are marked with "si".

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

'an

  1. Clipping of iyan.

Bourguignon[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin annus.

Noun[edit]

an m (plural ans)

  1. year
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin in

Preposition[edit]

an

  1. in
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin inde

Pronoun[edit]

an

  1. used to indicate an indefinite quantity, of it, of them
    J'an veus deus
    I want two of them
    J'an seus seur
    I am sure of it

Breton[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Article[edit]

an

  1. the

Chuukese[edit]

Determiner[edit]

an

  1. third person singular possessive; his, hers, its (used with general-class objects)

Related terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

an

  1. path, road

Cimbrian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • a (Luserna)

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German ein, from Old High German ein, from Proto-Germanic *ainaz. Cognate with German ein, Dutch een, English one, Icelandic einn.

Article[edit]

an

  1. (Sette Comuni) a, an
    an gamègalndar manna married man
  2. (Luserna) oblique masculine of a
    I hån an pruadar un a sbestar.I have a brother and a sister.

Declension[edit]

Cimbrian indefinite articles (Sette Comuni dialect)
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative an an an
Accusative an an an
Dative aname anara aname

Derived terms[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

an

  1. (Sette Comuni) that (introduces a subordinate clause)
    Khömme an dar sbaighe.
    Tell him that he needs to shut up.

References[edit]

  • “an” in Martalar, Umberto Martello; Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo
  • Patuzzi, Umberto, ed., (2013) Luserna / Lusérn: Le nostre parole / Ünsarne börtar / Unsere Wörter [Our Words], Luserna, Italy: Comitato unitario delle isole linguistiche storiche germaniche in Italia / Einheitskomitee der historischen deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien

Cornish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Article[edit]

an

  1. the (definite article)

Crimean Tatar[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Ultimately from Arabic آن(ʾān).

Noun[edit]

an

  1. moment

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • Mirjejev, V. A.; Usejinov, S. M. (2002) Ukrajinsʹko-krymsʹkotatarsʹkyj slovnyk [Ukrainian – Crimean Tatar Dictionary]‎[11], Simferopol: Dolya, →ISBN

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

an

  1. (relative, archaic) which, who
    Synonyms: který, jenž
    Bělá se tam, bělá žena, ana malé dítě nese.(please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Vidíš-li poutníka, an dlouhou lučinou spěchá ku cíli, než červánky pohynou?(please add an English translation of this usage example)

Declension[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

an

  1. (archaic) when, while
    An tak mluvili, ruce se jim chvěly.(please add an English translation of this usage example)
  2. (archaic) because
    Ulehčilo se mi, an jsem byla uspokojena, že sama trpím.(please add an English translation of this usage example)

Further reading[edit]

  • an in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • an in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Middle Low German an and German an, from Proto-Germanic *ana (on, at), cognate with English on and doublet of Danish å, Danish .

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

an

  1. on (only used in lexicalized expressions)

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

an

  1. imperative of ane

Elfdalian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse hann. Cognate with Swedish han.

Pronoun[edit]

an m

  1. he

Emilian[edit]

Emiliano-Romagnolo Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia eml

Etymology[edit]

From Latin annus.

Noun[edit]

an m

  1. year

Fordata[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *kaən, from Proto-Austronesian *kaən.

Verb[edit]

an

  1. to eat

References[edit]

  • Drabbe, Peter (1932). Woordenboek der Fordaatsche Taal. Bandoeng: A.C. Nix & Co., p. 9.

Franco-Provençal[edit]

Noun[edit]

an m

  1. year
    Synonym: annâ

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French, from Latin annus, from Proto-Italic *atnos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂et-no-, probably from *h₂et- (to go).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

an m (plural ans)

  1. year

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Friulian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin annus.

Noun[edit]

an m (plural agns)

  1. year

Fula[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Determiner[edit]

an (singular)

  1. (possessive) Alternative form of am (my).
Usage notes[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

an

  1. second person singular emphatic pronoun you
Usage notes[edit]

Dialectal variants[edit]

References[edit]


Fuyug[edit]

Noun[edit]

an (plural aning)

  1. man

References[edit]

  • Robert L. Bradshaw, Fuyug grammar sketch (2007)

German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German ana.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

an (+ dative)

  1. (local) on; upon; at; in; against
    Das Bild hängt an der Wand.The picture hangs on the wall.
  2. by; near; close to; next to
  3. (temporal, with days or times of day) on; in; at
    Wir treffen uns am (an dem) Dienstag.
    We're meeting on Tuesday.
    Ich werde sie am (an dem) Abend sehen.
    I will see her in the evening.
  4. (temporal) a; per; only used with the word Tag (day), otherwise use in
    zweimal am Tagtwice a day

Preposition[edit]

an (+ accusative)

  1. on; onto
    Ich hänge das Bild an die Wand.I hang the picture on the wall.
  2. at; against
    Schauen Sie an die Tafel.Look at the blackboard.
  3. to; for
    Ein Brief an Anna.A letter for Anna.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Usually used to refer to something being on a vertical surface, as opposed to auf, which usually points to a horizontal surface.
  • When followed by the masculine/neuter definite article in the dative case (i.e. dem (the)), the two words generally contract to am (on the) if not emphasized.
  • When followed by the neuter definite article in the accusative case (i.e. das (the)), the two words generally contract to ans (on the) if not emphasized.

Adverb[edit]

an

  1. onward; on
    von heute anfrom today on

Adjective[edit]

an (strong nominative masculine singular aner, not comparable)

  1. (predicative) on
    Synonyms: angeschaltet, ein, eingeschaltet
    Antonyms: aus, ausgeschaltet
    Ist der Schalter an oder aus? [= Ist der Schalter an- oder ausgeschaltet?]
    Is the switch on or off. [Is the switch switched on or off.]

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Girawa[edit]

Noun[edit]

an

  1. water

Further reading[edit]

  • Patricia Lillie, Girawa Dictionary

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

an

  1. Romanization of 𐌰𐌽

Haitian Creole[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From French un.

Article[edit]

an

  1. the (definite article)
Usage notes[edit]

Use this word when:

  • It modifies a singular noun, and
  • It is preceded by a word that ends with either:

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From French an (year)

Noun[edit]

an

  1. year
Synonyms[edit]

Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English onGerman an. Decision no. 759, Progreso V.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

an

  1. at, on (indicates contiguity, juxtaposition)
    Me pendis pikturi an la parieto.I hung paintings on the wall.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Progreso IV (in Ido), 1911–1912, pages 409, 523, 591, 622
  • Progreso V (in Ido), 1912–1913, page 659



Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish in, from Proto-Celtic *sindos.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ənˠ/, (between consonants) /ə/, (before a/á, o/ó, u/ú) /ə.nˠ-/, (before e/é, i/í) /ə.n̠ʲ-/

Article[edit]

an

  1. the
    an t-uiscethe water
    an bheanthe woman
    an pháisteof the child
    ag an gcailín/chailínat the girl
Declension[edit]
Case Masculine singular Feminine singular Plural
Nominative anT anL naH
Genitive anL naH naE
Dative anD anD naH
D: Triggers lenition after de, do, and i (except of d, t), no mutation with idir, and eclipsis otherwise (varies by dialect);
s lenites to ts; s always lenites with feminine nouns, even with prepositions that normally trigger eclipsis, but does
not lenite at all with masculine nouns
E: Triggers eclipsis
H: Triggers h-prothesis
L: Triggers lenition (except of d, t; s lenites to ts)
T: Triggers t-prothesis

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Irish in.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (preverbal particle): IPA(key): (before a consonant) /ə/, (before a/á, o/ó, u/ú) /ə.nˠ-/, (before e/é, i/í) /ə.n̠ʲ-/
  • (copular particle): IPA(key): /ənˠ/, (before é, ea, í, iad) /ə.n̠ʲ-/

Particle[edit]

an (triggers eclipsis; takes the dependent form of irregular verbs if available; not used in the past tense except of some irregular verbs)

  1. Used to form direct and indirect questions
    An bhfuil tú ag éisteacht?Are you listening?
    Níl a fhios agam an bhfuil sé anseo.I don’t know if/whether he is here.
Related terms[edit]
  • ar (used with the past tense of regular and some irregular verbs)

Particle[edit]

an

  1. used to introduce copular questions, both direct and indirect, in the present/future tense
    An maith leat bainne?Do you like milk?
    Níl a fhios agam an é Conchúr a chonaic mé.I don’t know if it’s Connor whom I saw.
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Verb[edit]

an (present analytic anann, future analytic anfaidh, verbal noun anacht, past participle anta)

  1. (transitive, intransitive) Alternative form of fan (stay, wait, remain)
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Particle[edit]

an

  1. Alternative form of a (used before numbers when counting)

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
an n-an han not applicable
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

an

  1. Rōmaji transcription of あん

Ladin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin annus.

Noun[edit]

an m (plural ani)

  1. year

Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *an, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂en. Cognate with Lithuanian angu (or), Gothic 𐌰𐌽 (an, so? now?). May also be related to Ancient Greek ἄν (án, particle), Sanskrit अना (anā́), Avestan 𐬀𐬥𐬁(anā), Lithuanian anàs, Albanian a, Proto-Slavic *onъ.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

an

  1. or, or whether (A conjunction that introduces the second part of a disjunctive interrogation, or a phrase implying doubt.)
    1. in disjunctive interrogations
      1. direct
        1. (introduced by utrum (whether))
        2. (introduced by -ne (interrogative enclitic))
        3. (introduced by nonne ([is it] not))
        4. (introduced by num (interrogative particle))
        5. (without an introductory particle)
      2. indirect
        1. (introduced by utrum (whether))
        2. (introduced by -ne, interrogative enclitic)
        3. (introduced by an)
        4. (without an introductory particle)
      3. or rather, or on the contrary (where the opinion of the speaker or the probability inclines to the second interrogative clause, and this is made emphatic, as a corrective of the former)
        1. hence, in the comic poets, as an potius
      4. or, or rather, or indeed, or perhaps (where, as is frequent, the first part of the interrogation is not expressed, but is to be supplied from the context, an begins the interrogation, but it does not begin an absolute – i.e., non-disjunctive – interrogation)
      5. (in the phrase an nōn) or not
        1. in direct questions
        2. in indirect questions
      6. (in the phrase an ne) pleonastic usage for an
        1. in direct questions
        2. in indirect questions
    2. (in disjunctive clauses that express doubt) or
      1. ?
      2. denoting uncertainty by itself, without a verb of doubting
      3. (chiefly in and after the Augustean period) standing for sīve
      4. where the first disjunctive clause is to be supplied from the general idea or where an stands for utrum or necne
      5. Since in such distributive sentences expressive of doubt, the opinion of the speaker or the probability usually inclines to the second, i.e. to the clause beginning with an, the expressions haud sciō an, nesciō an, and dubitō an incline to an affirmative signification, “I almost know”, “I am inclined to think”, “I almost think”, “I might say”, “I might assert that”, etc., for “perhaps”, “probably”.
      6. Sometimes the distributive clause beginning with an designates directly the opposite, the more improbable, the negative; in which case nesciō an, haud sciō an, etc., like the English I know not whether, signify “I think that not”, “I believe that not”, etc.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used with utrum (whether) in the construction utrum...an (whether...or):
    Nescio quid intersit, utrum nunc veniam, an ad decem annos.
    I know not what matter it is, whether I come now or after ten years.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • ăn in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • an in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[1], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN

Loniu[edit]

Noun[edit]

an

  1. fresh water

References[edit]

  • Malcolm Ross, Andrew Pawley, Meredith Osmond, The Lexicon of Proto-Oceanic →ISBN, 2007)
  • Blust's Austronesian Comparative Dictionary (as ʔan)

Low German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Low German an, from Old Saxon an, ana, from Proto-Germanic *an, *ana.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Rhymes: -an
  • IPA(key): /an/, /aːn/, /ɒːn/, /ɔːn/

Preposition[edit]

an

  1. on
  2. to, at

Inflection[edit]

Neither the spelling nor grammar of these forms applies to all, or even necessarily the majority, of dialects.

Adverb[edit]

an

  1. on

See also[edit]


Luxembourgish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old High German indi.

Conjunction[edit]

an

  1. and

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *in.

Preposition[edit]

an

  1. in

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

an

  1. Nonstandard spelling of ān.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of án.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of ǎn.
  4. Nonstandard spelling of àn.

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

an

  1. Alternative form of āne

Middle English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

An unstressed form of oon (one), from the occasional use of Old English ān (one) as an article.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /a(n)/ (see usage notes)

Article[edit]

an

  1. a, an (indefinite article):
    1. Any example or instance of a thing.
    2. A certain or particular thing.
    3. Any, every; several or all instances of a thing.
  2. Used in conjunction with numerals (especially hundred, thousend)

Usage notes[edit]

  • In later non-Northern Middle English, a is usually found before vowels and /h/, while an is usually found preceding other consonants. However, an often occurs before any consonants in earlier Middle English.
  • In early Middle English, the indefinite article is often omitted; occasional omission persists into later Middle English.
  • Inflected forms of the indefinite article are sometimes found in early Middle English; see the inflection table below.

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • English: an, a
  • Scots: a
  • Yola: a
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Preposition[edit]

an

  1. Alternative form of in

Etymology 3[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

an

  1. Alternative form of and

Etymology 4[edit]

Numeral[edit]

an

  1. Alternative form of oon

Etymology 5[edit]

Verb[edit]

an

  1. Alternative form of haven

Middle French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French an, from Latin annus.

Noun[edit]

an m (plural ans)

  1. year

Descendants[edit]

  • French: an

Middle Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

an

  1. Alternative form of yn

Mirandese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin in.

Preposition[edit]

an

  1. in
  2. on

Mòcheno[edit]

Article[edit]

an

  1. oblique masculine of a

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Norman[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French an, from Latin annus.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Noun[edit]

an m (plural ans)

  1. (Guernsey, Jersey) year

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Northern Kurdish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Conjunction[edit]

an

  1. or

Synonyms[edit]

  • yan (after a vowel-ending word)

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

an

  1. imperative of ane

Anagrams[edit]


Occitan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Occitan an, from Latin annus.

Noun[edit]

an m (plural ans)

  1. year
Usage notes[edit]
  • Also used with the verb aver (to have) to indicate age

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb[edit]

an

  1. third-person plural present indicative of aver

Old English[edit]

Old English numbers (edit)
10
1 2  → 
    Cardinal: ān
    Ordinal: forma
    Adverbial: ǣne
    Multiplier: ānfeald

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *ain, from Proto-Germanic *ainaz.

Germanic cognates include Old Frisian ān, Old Saxon ēn, Old High German ein, Old Norse einn, Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐌽𐍃 (ains). The Indo-European root is also the source of Latin ūnus, Ancient Greek οἶος (oîos), Old Irish oen.

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

ān

  1. one
    Ġif weorold on būtan ānum þinge stōde and on nāwihte elles, meahte man cweðan þæt ān þing wǣre?
    If the world consisted of one thing and nothing else, could we say that there was one thing?
    • c. 990, Wessex Gospels, Mark 14:37
      Þā cōm hē and fand hīe slǣpende, and cwæþ tō Petre, "Simon, slǣpst þū? Ne meahtest þū āne tīd wacian?"
      Then he came and found them asleep, and said to Peter, "Simon, are you asleep? Couldn't you stay awake for one hour?"
    • early 12th century, the Peterborough Chronicle, year 1100
      On morgen æfter Hlāfmæssedæġe wearþ sē cyning Willelm on huntoþe fram his ānum menn mid āne flāne ofsċoten.
      On the morning after Lammas day, King William was out hunting when he was shot with an arrow by one of his servants.

Declension[edit]

Article[edit]

ān

  1. a; an (indefinite article)

Adjective[edit]

ān

  1. only
    Ne bēoþ wē ġeboren ūs selfum ānum.
    We aren't born for ourselves alone.
    Mæġ man sprecan be rīmum ġif þing ān sind?
    Can we speak of numbers if there are only things?
    • 11th century, Durham Proverbs, no. 22
      Earg mæġ þæt ān þæt hē him ondrǣde.
      A coward can only do one thing: fear.
    • c. 995, Ælfric, Extracts on Grammar in English
      Āne twā word sind þǣre fēorðan ġeþīednesse: eō ("iċ gange"), īs ("þū gǣst"); queō ("iċ mæġ"), quīs ("þū meaht").
      Only two words follow the fourth declension: eo ("I go"), is ("you go"); queo ("I can"), quis ("you can").
    • c. 990, Wessex Gospels, John 5:18
      Þæs þe mā þā Iudēiscan sōhton hine tō ofslēanne, næs nā for þon āne þe hē þone ræstedæġ bræc, ac for þon þe hē cwæþ þæt God wǣre his fæder, and hine selfne dyde Gode ġelīcne.
      That made the Jews try even harder to kill him, not just for breaking the Sabbath, but for saying God was his father, and making himself equal to God.
  2. alone
    Ne eart þū ġenōg eald þæt þū āna on sund gā.
    You're not old enough to go swimming by yourself.
    Sē ūðwita, swā swā sē bēatere, sċeal standan āna.
    A philosopher, like a boxer, must stand alone.
    Hē stōd æt þǣre sǣ rande, āna, sundor fram his swǣsum.
    He stood at the edge of the sea, alone, apart from his family.
    Sē mōna and þæt seofonstierre ēodon tō setle. Hit is midniht, and sēo tīd āgǣþ, ac iċ slǣpe āna.
    The moon and the Pleiades have set. It is midnight, and the time is passing, but I sleep alone.
    • c. 992, Ælfric, "St. Benedict, Abbot"
      Gang nū tō mynstre ġif þū mæġe, and mē āna forlǣt.
      Now go to the monastery if you can, and leave me alone.
    • c. 995, Ælfric, Extracts on Grammar in English
      Foresetnessa ne bēoþ nāhwǣr āna, ac bēoþ ǣfre tō sumum ōðrum worde ġefēġeda.
      Prepositions never occur by themselves: they are always attached to some other word.

Usage notes[edit]

In the above senses ("only" and "alone"), this word was often used in the weak declension, often indeclinably as āna.

Declension[edit]

Noun[edit]

ān n

  1. one (digit or figure)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin annus.

Noun[edit]

an m (oblique plural anz, nominative singular anz, nominative plural an)

  1. year

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle French: an
    • French: an
  • Norman: an

Old Frisian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

ān

  1. Alternative form of ēn

References[edit]

  • Bremmer, Rolf H. (2009) An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISBN

Old Irish[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

an (triggers eclipsis, takes a leniting relative clause)

  1. Alternative form of a
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 112b13
      Is demniu liunn a n-ad·chiam hua sulib ol·daas an ro·chluinemmar hua chluasaib.
      What we see with the eyes is more certain for us than what we hear with the ears.

Verb[edit]

·an

  1. third-person singular preterite conjunct of anaid

an

  1. second-person singular imperative of anaid

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
an unchanged n-an
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Old Occitan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin annus (year).

Noun[edit]

an m (oblique plural ans, nominative singular ans, nominative plural an)

  1. year

Descendants[edit]

  • Occitan: an

Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *an.

Preposition[edit]

an

  1. on, in

Proto-Norse[edit]

Romanization[edit]

an

  1. Romanization of ᚨᚾ

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin annus (year), from Proto-Italic *atnos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂et-no-, probably from *h₂et- (to go). Compare Megleno-Romanian an and Aromanian an.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

an m (plural ani)

  1. year

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Romansch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Surmiran) onn
  • (Sutsilvan, Vallader) on

Etymology[edit]

From Latin annus.

Noun[edit]

an m (plural ans)

  1. (Puter) year

Saterland Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Frisian an, from Proto-West Germanic *an, from Proto-Germanic *an. Cognates include West Frisian oan and German an.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

an (neuter or distal adverb deeran, proximal adverb hieran, interrogative adverb wieran)

  1. on
    Mien Jasse honget an dän Hoake.My jacket is hanging on the hook.
  2. at
    Iek sitte an dän Disk.I'm sitting at the table.
  3. next to
    Iek sitte an mien Suster.I'm sitting next to my sister.
  4. towards, to
    Dät Boot is an Lound kemen.The boat came ashore (literally, “The boat has come to land.”)
  5. of, from
    Mien Bääsje is an Kanker stúurven.My grandmother died of cancer.
  6. about, circa
    Iek häbe an do fjautig Ljudene blouked.I have seen about forty people.

Adjective[edit]

an

  1. on, switched on, burning
    Dät Fjúur is an.The fire is burning.
    Ju Laampe is an.The lamp is switched on.

References[edit]

  • Marron C. Fort (2015), “an”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN

Scots[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English and, ond, end (and), from Proto-Germanic *andi, *anþi, *undi, *unþi (and, furthermore), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti (facing opposite, near, in front of, before). Cognate with English and, North Frisian en (and), West Frisian en, in (and), Low German un (and), Dutch en (and), German und (and), Danish end (but), Swedish än (yet, but), Icelandic enn (still, yet), Albanian edhe (and) (dialectal ênde, ênne), ende (still, yet, therefore), Latin ante (opposite, in front of), and Ancient Greek ἀντί (antí, opposite, facing).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

an

  1. and
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English oon, from Old English ān (one), from Proto-Germanic *ainaz, from Proto-Indo-European *óynos. Cognate to English an.

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

an

  1. (before a vowel) a, an
Usage notes[edit]
  • In colloquial usage mostly replaced by a. However, still widely used in literature, probably due to English influence. [1]
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /an/, /ən/
  • Hyphenation: an

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish in. Cognates include Irish an and Manx yn.

Article[edit]

an

  1. the
Declension[edit]
Variation of an (definite article)
Masculine Feminine Plural
nom. dat. gen. nom. dat. gen. nom. dat. gen.
+ f- am anL anL na na nam
+ m-, p- or b- am a'L a'L na na nam
+ c- or g- an anL anL na na nan
+ sV-, sl-, sn- or sr- an anT anT na na nan
+ other consonant an an an na na nan
+ vowel anT an an naH naH nan
L Triggers lenition; H Triggers H-prothesis; T Triggers T-prothesis

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Irish a. Cognates include Irish a.

Determiner[edit]

an

  1. their
See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Irish i. Cognates include Irish i and Manx ayns.

Preposition[edit]

an (+ dative)

  1. in
Inflection[edit]
Personal inflection of an
Number Person Simple Emphatic
Singular 1st annam annamsa
2nd annad annadsa
3rd m ann annsan
3rd f innte inntese
Plural 1st annainn annainne
2nd annaibh annaibhse
3rd annta anntasan
Usage notes[edit]
  • This form is not used before nouns beginning with b, f, m or p, where am and ann am are used instead.
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

From Old Irish in. Cognates include Irish an.

Particle[edit]

an

  1. Used together with a dependent form of a verb to form the interrogative.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Before verbs beginning with b, f, m or p, the form am is used. Before bheil (am, is, are), the form a is also used.

Verb[edit]

an

  1. Present interrogative form of is (the copula).
Inflection[edit]
Usage notes[edit]
  • Before words beginning with b, f, m or p, the form am is used.

References[edit]


Siraya[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Austronesian *-an.

Noun[edit]

an

  1. place

Sumerian[edit]

Romanization[edit]

an

  1. Romanization of 𒀭 (an)

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Middle Low German an and German an, and less commonly from English on, from Proto-Germanic *ana (on, at), cognate with English on and doublet of Swedish å, Swedish .

Adverb[edit]

an

  1. used as a verb particle, similar to German preposition an (at, in, on, to)

Related terms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

an

  1. (accounting) to

Anagrams[edit]


Torres Strait Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English hand.

Noun[edit]

an

  1. hand, lower arm
  2. flipper

Turkish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish آن(an), from Arabic آن(ʾān).

Noun[edit]

an (definite accusative anı, plural anlar)

  1. moment
    • 1939 February 14, “Acaba İspanyada Krallık iade edilecek mi!”, in Aydin, page 1:
      İnglitere Fransa ile Frankoyu tanımak üzeredir. Bu kararı iki hükümet bir anda ilan edecektir.
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
Declension[edit]
Inflection
Nominative an
Definite accusative anı
Singular Plural
Nominative an anlar
Definite accusative anı anları
Dative ana anlara
Locative anda anlarda
Ablative andan anlardan
Genitive anın anların
Possessive forms
Nominative
Singular Plural
1st singular anım anlarım
2nd singular anın anların
3rd singular anı anları
1st plural anımız anlarımız
2nd plural anınız anlarınız
3rd plural anları anları
Definite accusative
Singular Plural
1st singular anımı anlarımı
2nd singular anını anlarını
3rd singular anını anlarını
1st plural anımızı anlarımızı
2nd plural anınızı anlarınızı
3rd plural anlarını anlarını
Dative
Singular Plural
1st singular anıma anlarıma
2nd singular anına anlarına
3rd singular anına anlarına
1st plural anımıza anlarımıza
2nd plural anınıza anlarınıza
3rd plural anlarına anlarına
Locative
Singular Plural
1st singular anımda anlarımda
2nd singular anında anlarında
3rd singular anında anlarında
1st plural anımızda anlarımızda
2nd plural anınızda anlarınızda
3rd plural anlarında anlarında
Ablative
Singular Plural
1st singular anımdan anlarımdan
2nd singular anından anlarından
3rd singular anından anlarından
1st plural anımızdan anlarımızdan
2nd plural anınızdan anlarınızdan
3rd plural anlarından anlarından
Genitive
Singular Plural
1st singular anımın anlarımın
2nd singular anının anlarının
3rd singular anının anlarının
1st plural anımızın anlarımızın
2nd plural anınızın anlarınızın
3rd plural anlarının anlarının
Derived terms[edit]
  • ansız (sudden; suddenly)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Verb[edit]

an

  1. second-person singular imperative of anmak

Vietnamese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Sino-Vietnamese word from (tranquil). The character can also be read as yên.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

an

  1. (only in compounds) safe, secure

Derived terms[edit]

Derived terms

Further reading[edit]


Vilamovian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

an

  1. and

Related terms[edit]

Numeral[edit]

ān

  1. one

Related terms[edit]


Yola[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English an, from Old English and, ond, end, from Proto-Germanic *andi, *anþi.

Alternative forms[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

an

  1. and
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY:
      coardhed an recoardhed.
      searched and researched.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English an, from Old English an.

Alternative forms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

an

  1. on
    • 1867, SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY:
      Lidge w'ouse an a milagh.
      Lie with us on the clover.

References[edit]

  • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 31 & 84

Yoruba[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

an

  1. him, her, it (third-person singular non-honorific object pronoun following a monosyllabic verb with a high-tone /ã/)

Pronoun[edit]

án

  1. him, her, it (third-person singular non-honorific object pronoun following a monosyllabic verb with a low- or mid-tone /ã/)

See also[edit]