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From Proto-Italic *atnos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂et-no-, probably from *h₂et- (to go). Cognate with Oscan akno- (year, holiday, time of offering), Gothic *𐌰𐌸𐌽 (*aþn) or *𐌰𐌸𐌽𐍃 (*aþns, year) (attested in 𐌰𐍄𐌰𐌸𐌽𐌹 (ataþni, year)), dialectal Dutch aden (year). For the root, compare Sanskrit अतति (atati, he wanders, goes).



annus m (genitive annī); second declension

  1. year
    Viginti annos natus est.
    He is twenty years old.
    Abhinc duo annos factum est.
    It happened two years ago.
  2. time; season

Usage notes[edit]

  • In Ancient Rome, the word annus originally meant "ten months" which was the duration of the Roman year (from the month martius to december 304 days, with the remaining two months of winter not assigned to a specific month). This later came to mean "twelve months" as the calendar was rearranged by Numa Pompilius, who added January and February to the start of the year. Many centuries later, Augustus Caesar renamed the months of Quintilis and Sextilis to be July and August after his adoptive father Julius Caesar and himself, but neither Julius Caesar nor Augustus were responsible for increasing the year to 12 months.


Second-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative annus annī
Genitive annī annōrum
Dative annō annīs
Accusative annum annōs
Ablative annō annīs
Vocative anne annī

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]



  • annus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • annus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • annus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • annus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) at the beginning of the year: initio anni, ineunte anno
    • year by year; day by day: singulis annis, diebus
    • a year from now: ad annum
    • it is more than twenty years ago: amplius sunt (quam) viginti anni or viginti annis
    • twenty years and more: viginti anni et amplius, aut plus
    • twenty years ago: abhinc (ante) viginti annos or viginti his annis
    • I have not seen you for five years: quinque anni sunt or sextus annus est, cum te non vidi
    • he has been absent five years: quinque annos or sextum (iam) annum abest
    • the division of the year (into months, etc.: anni descriptio
    • the intercalary year (month, day): annus (mensis, dies) intercalaris
    • Homer lived many years before the foundation of Rome: Homerus fuit multis annis ante Romam conditam
    • how old are you: quot annos natus es?
    • I am thirteen years old: tredecim annos natus sum
    • I am in my thirteenth year: tertium decimum annum ago
    • a boy ten years old: puer decem annorum
    • to be entering on one's tenth year: decimum aetatis annum ingredi
    • to be ten years old: decem annos vixisse
    • to be more than ten years old, to have entered on one's eleventh year: decimum annum excessisse, egressum esse
    • to be not yet twenty: minorem esse viginti annis
    • I was ten years old at the time: tum habebam decem annos
    • to reach one's hundredth year, to live to be a hundred: centum annos complere
    • to reach one's hundredth year, to live to be a hundred: vitam ad annum centesimum perducere
    • the addition of a few years: accessio paucorum annorum
    • to happen during a person's life, year of office: in aetatem alicuius, in annum incidere
    • to prolong the command for a year: imperium in annum prorogare
    • (ambiguous) to be elected at the age required by law (lex Villia annalis): suo (legitimo) anno creari (opp. ante annum)
    • to prolong a person's command: prorogare alicui imperium (in annum)
    • (ambiguous) in the past year: praeterito anno (not praeterlapso)
    • (ambiguous) last year: superiore, priore anno
    • (ambiguous) (1) last year; (2) next year: proximo anno
    • (ambiguous) in the following year: insequenti(e) anno (not sequente)
    • (ambiguous) after a year has elapsed: anno peracto, circumacto, interiecto, intermisso
    • (ambiguous) in the course of the year: anno vertente
    • (ambiguous) at the beginning of the year: initio anni, ineunte anno
    • (ambiguous) at the end of the year: exeunte, extremo anno
    • (ambiguous) every fifth year: quinto quoque anno
    • (ambiguous) in the fifth year from the founding of the city: anno ab urbe condita quinto
    • (ambiguous) to be elected at the age required by law (lex Villia annalis): suo (legitimo) anno creari (opp. ante annum)
  • annus in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • annus in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016
  • annus in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin

Further reading[edit]