on

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English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English on, from Old English on, an (on, upon, onto, in, into), from Proto-Germanic *ana (on, at), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂en-. Cognate with North Frisian a (on, in), Saterland Frisian an (on, at), West Frisian oan (on, at), Dutch aan (on, at, to), Low German an (on, at), German an (to, at, on), Swedish å (on, at, in), Faroese á (on, onto, in, at), Icelandic á (on, in), Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌰 (ana), Ancient Greek ἀνά (aná, up, upon), Albanian (in); and from Old Norse upp á: Danish , Swedish , Norwegian , see upon.

Adjective[edit]

on (not comparable)

  1. In the state of being active, functioning or operating.
    Antonym: off
    All the lights are on, so they must be home.
  2. Performing according to schedule; taking place.
    Are we still on for tonight?
    Is the show still on?
    We had to ration our food because there was a war on.
    That TV programme that you wanted to watch is on now.
  3. Fitted; covering; being worn.
    Your feet will soon warm up once your socks are on.
    I was trying to drink out of the bottle while the top was still on!
  4. (postpositive) Of a stated part of something, oriented towards the viewer or other specified direction.
    The photograph shows the UFO side on.
    edge on, side on, end on, face on
  5. (chiefly Britain, informal, usually negative) Acceptable, appropriate.
    You can't do that; it's just not on.
    • 1998 May 22, "Phoenix Gamma", If I was owned Nintendo..., alt.games.video.nintendo-64:
      This kind of over-packaging of goods is completely not on.
    • 2003 August 12, "DAB sounds worse than FM", Gerg Dyke's Speech at Radio Festival, alt.radio.digital:
      so Simon Nelson saying on Feedback "we'd prefer it if everybody listened to digital radio via DAB" is completely not on at all.
  6. (informal) Destined, normally in the context of a challenge being accepted; involved, doomed.
    "Five bucks says the Cavs win tonight." ―"You're on!"
    Mike just threw coffee onto Paul's lap. It's on now.
  7. (baseball, informal) Having reached a base as a runner and being positioned there, awaiting further action from a subsequent batter.
    • 2019 February 24, Chris Kennedy, “Aggies Earn Series Win Over Yale in Sunday Finale”, in New Mexico State University Athletics[1]:
      With one out and no men on, Tristen Carranza belted a ball to the opposite field for a solo home run to put the NM State deficit at just 2-1.
    • 2019 April 6, Daniel Martinez-Krams, “Baseball Falls Short in Game 2 of UCLA Series”, in The Stanford Daily[2]:
      Although Stanford was outhit 15-6, the Cardinal stranded eight runners to UCLA's three, hitting just 3-15 with runners on compared to the Bruin's 9-22.
  8. (cricket) Within the half of the field on the same side as the batsman's legs; the left side for a right-handed batsman.
    Synonym: leg; Antonym: off
    The captain moved two fielders to the on side.
    Ponsonby-Smythe hit a thumping on drive.
  9. (euphemistic) Menstruating.
    • 2011, Netmums, Hollie Smith, You and Your Tween: Managing the years from 9 to 13, Hachette, →ISBN:
      It still gets in the way of her doing things like swimming, and she avoids sleepovers when she's 'on'.
Synonyms[edit]
  • (baseball: positioned at a base): on base (not informal)
Translations[edit]

See on/translations § Adjective.

Adverb[edit]

on (not comparable)

For idiomatic meanings of phrasal verbs, such as carry on, hang on, have on, try on, etc., please see the individual entries.

  1. To an operating state.
    turn the television on
  2. So as to cover or be fitted.
    The lid wasn't screwed on properly.
    Put on your hat and gloves.
  3. Along, forwards (continuing an action).
    drive on, rock on
    • 2012 May 5, Phil McNulty, “Chelsea 2-1 Liverpool”, in BBC Sport[3]:
      He met Luis Suarez's cross at the far post, only for Chelsea keeper Petr Cech to show brilliant reflexes to deflect his header on to the bar. Carroll turned away to lead Liverpool's insistent protests that the ball had crossed the line but referee Phil Dowd and assistant referee Andrew Garratt waved play on, with even a succession of replays proving inconclusive.
  4. In continuation, at length.
    and so on
    He rambled on and on.
  5. (obsolete in the US) Later.
    Ten years on, nothing had changed in the village.
  6. Of betting odds, denoting a better-than-even chance. See also odds-on.
    Antonym: against
    That horse is twenty-to-one on, so you need to stake twenty pounds just to win one pound.
Antonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]

See on/translations § Adverb.

Preposition[edit]

A green pepper on (positioned on the upper surface of) a box

on

  1. Positioned at the upper surface of, touching from above.
    A vase of flowers stood on the table.
    Please lie down on the couch.
    The parrot was sitting on Jim's shoulder.
  2. Positioned at or resting against the outer surface of; attached to.
    He had a scar on the side of his face.
    There is a dirty smudge on this window.
    The painting hangs on the wall.
    The fruit ripened on the trees.
  3. Expressing figurative placement or attachment.
    All of the responsibility is on him.
    I put a bet on the winning horse.
  4. Denoting performance or action by contact with the surface, upper part, or outside of anything; hence, by means of; with.
    to play on a violin or piano
  5. At or in (a certain region or location).
    The lighthouse that you can see is on the mainland.
    The suspect is thought to still be on the campus.
  6. Near; adjacent to; alongside.
    Soon we'll pass a statue on the left.
    The fleet is on the American coast.
  7. Supported by (the specified part of itself).
    A table can't stand on two legs.
    After resting on his elbows, he stood on his toes, then walked on his heels.
  8. So as to impart force to.
    tug on the rope; push hard on the door
  9. So as to impact; against.
    I stubbed my toe on an old tree stump.
  10. Covering.
    He wore old shoes on his feet.
  11. (with certain modes of transport, especially public transport) Inside (a vehicle) for the purpose of travelling.
    on a bus, on a train, on a plane
  12. At the date of.
    Born on the 4th of July.
  13. Some time during the day of.
    On Sunday I'm busy. I'll see you on Monday.
    Can I see you on a different day?
  14. At a given time after the start of something; at.
    Smith scored again on twelve minutes, doubling Mudchester Rovers' lead.
    • 2011 September 24, Aled Williams, “Chelsea 4-1 Swansea”, in BBC Sport:
      The Spain striker had given Chelsea the lead on 29 minutes but was shown a straight red card 10 minutes later for a rash challenge on Mark Gower.
  15. Dealing with the subject of; about; concerning.
    I was reading a book on history.
    The city hosted the World Summit on the Information Society
    I have no opinion on this subject.
  16. (informal) In the possession of.
    I haven't got any money on me.
  17. Because of, or due to.
    to arrest someone on suspicion of bribery
    to contact someone on a hunch
  18. Upon; at the time of (and often because of).
    On Jack's entry, William got up to leave.
    On the addition of ammonia, a chemical reaction begins.
  19. Paid for by.
    The drinks are on me tonight, boys.
    The meal is on the house.
    I paid for the airfare and meals for my family, but the hotel room was on the company.
  20. Indicating a means or medium.
    I saw it on television.
    Can't you see I'm on the phone?
    My favorite shows are on BBC America.
    The Beatles' appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show is on YouTube.
    The film was released on DVD.
  21. Indicating the target of, or thing affected by, an event or action.
    They planned an attack on London.
    The soldiers mutinied and turned their guns on their officers.
    Her words made a lasting impression on my mind.
    What will be the effect on morale?
  22. Toward; for; indicating the object of an emotion.
    Have pity or compassion on him.
  23. Indicating a means of subsistence.
    They lived on ten dollars a week.
    The dog survived three weeks on rainwater.
  24. Away or occupied with (e.g. a scheduled activity).
    He's on his lunch break.
    on vacation;  on holiday
    I'm on nights all this week.
  25. Regularly taking (a drug).
    You've been on these antidepressants far too long.
    He's acting so strangely, I think he must be on something.
  26. Under the influence of (a drug).
    He's acting crazy because he's on crack right now.
  27. (mathematics) Having identical domain and codomain.
    a function on
  28. (mathematics) Having as domain and V as codomain, for some set V and integer n.
    an operator on
  29. (mathematics) Generated by.
    the free group on four letters
  30. In addition to; besides; indicating multiplication or succession in a series.
    heaps on heaps of food
    mischief on mischief; loss on loss
  31. (obsolete, regional) of
  32. Indicating dependence or reliance.
    I depended on them for assistance.
    He will promise on certain conditions.
  33. (obsolete) At the peril of, or for the safety of.
  34. Serving as a member of.
    He is on the jury; I am on the committee.
  35. By virtue of; with the pledge of.
    He affirmed or promised on his word, or on his honour.
  36. To the account or detriment of; denoting imprecation or invocation, or coming to, falling, or resting upon.
    On us be all the blame.
    A curse on him!
    Please don't tell on her and get her in trouble.
    He turned on her and has been her enemy ever since.
    He went all honest on me, making me listen to his confession.
  37. (especially when numbers of combatants or competitors are specified) Against; in opposition to.
    The fight was three on one, and he never stood a chance.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

See on/translations § Preposition.

Verb[edit]

on (third-person singular simple present ons, present participle oning or onning, simple past and past participle oned or onned)

  1. (transitive, Singapore, Philippines) to switch on
    Can you on the light?
    Synonym: turn on

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse ón, án (without), from Proto-Germanic *ēnu, *ēno, *ino (without), from Proto-Indo-European *anew, *enew (without). Cognate with North Frisian on (without), Middle Dutch an, on (without), Middle Low German āne (without), German ohne (without), Gothic 𐌹𐌽𐌿 (inu, without, except), Ancient Greek ἄνευ (áneu, without).

Alternative forms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

on

  1. (Britain dialectal, Scotland) Without.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Usually followed by a present participle, as being, having, etc.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Japanese 音読み (on'yomi, literally sound reading).

Noun[edit]

on

  1. In the Japanese language, a pronunciation, or reading, of a kanji character that was originally based on the character's pronunciation in Chinese, contrasted with kun.
    Most kanji have two kinds of reading, called "on" and "kun".
Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • on at OneLook Dictionary Search

Anagrams[edit]


Azerbaijani[edit]

Other scripts
Cyrillic он
Roman on
Perso-Arabic
Azerbaijani cardinal numbers
 <  9 10 11  > 
    Cardinal : on
    Ordinal : onuncu

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Turkic *ōn (ten).[1] Cognate with Old Turkic [Term?] (/on/, ten).

Numeral[edit]

on

  1. ten

References[edit]

  1. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003) , “*ōn”, in Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill

Basque[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Basque *boń.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

on (comparative hobe, superlative onen or hoberen, excessive onegi)

  1. good
  2. useful, convenient

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • on” in Euskaltzaindiaren Hiztegia, euskaltzaindia.eus
  • on” in Orotariko Euskal Hiztegia, euskaltzaindia.eus

Catalan[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Occitan [Term?] (compare Occitan ont), from Latin unde (compare French dont).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

on

  1. where

Further reading[edit]


Central Franconian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • un (widely in free variation)
  • en (some western dialects)

Etymology[edit]

The native form in most dialects was Old High German indi, whence the variant en. In parts of the Eifel, this indi regularly becomes on (compare Luxembourgish an). In southern and eastern dialects, on the other hand, on may have been inherited from the Old High German variant unde (unti). From these two groups of dialects, the form will have spread, without doubt under influence of German und.

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

on

  1. and
    Salz on Päfer
    salt and pepper

Classical Nahuatl[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

on, ōn

  1. (demonstrative) that; those

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Michel Launey; Christopher Mackay (2011) An Introduction to Classical Nahuatl, Amazon Kindle: Cambridge University Press, pages Loc 1408

Cornish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *ognos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂egʷnós (lamb).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Revived Middle Cornish) IPA(key): [ɔːn]
  • (Revived Late Cornish) IPA(key): [oːn]

Noun[edit]

on m (plural en)

  1. lamb

Crimean Tatar[edit]

Numeral[edit]

on

  1. ten

Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Czech on, from Proto-Slavic *onъ, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ónos

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

on m

  1. he (third person personal singular)

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • on in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • on in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Dutch[edit]

Adverb[edit]

on

  1. rarely used as shorthand for oneven (odd), the prefix on- means not (corresponds to English un-)


Estonian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

on

  1. third-person singular present indicative of olema
  2. third-person plural present indicative of olema

Finnish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈon/, [ˈo̞n]
  • Rhymes: -on
  • Syllabification: on

Verb[edit]

on

  1. third-person singular indicative present of olla
    Se on tuolla.
    It is there.
    Se on ollut tuolla.
    It has been there.

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French hom, om (nominative form), from Latin homō (human being) (compare homme from the Old French oblique form home, from the Latin accusative form hominem). Its pronominal use is of Germanic origin. Compare Old English man (one, they, people), reduced form of Old English mann (person); Catalan hom; German man (one, they, people); Dutch men (one, they, people).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

on ?

  1. (indefinite) one, people, you, someone (an unspecified individual)
    Synonyms: quelqu'un (in some contexts), l'on (formal)
    • 2003, Natasha St. Pier, L’instant d’après (album), Quand on cherche l’amour (song)
      Quand on cherche l'amour...
      When one searches for love...
    On ne peut pas pêcher iciYou can’t fish here
  2. (personal, informal) we
    Synonym: nous (in some contexts)
    On s’est amusés.We had fun.

Usage notes[edit]

  • In informal French, on has almost completely replaced the pronoun nous (we) to indicate the first person plural.
  • The variant l'on is used in more formal or literary contexts.

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Esperanto: oni
    • Ido: onu
  • Interlingue: on

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


German Low German[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

on

  1. (in several dialects, including Low Prussian) Alternative form of un (and)
    Melk on Brot
    milk and bread

Ido[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

on

  1. Apocopic form of onu; one, someone, they (indefinite personal pronoun)

See also[edit]


Ingrian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

on

  1. third-person singular indicative present active of olla
    • 1936, N. A. Iljin and V. I. Junus, Bukvari iƶoroin șkouluja vart, Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 55:
      Heil on suksat liukkaat.
      They have slippery skis.

References[edit]

  • V. I. Junus (1936) Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka[4], Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 122
  • Vitalij Chernyavskij (2005) Ižoran keel (Ittseopastaja)[5], page 11

Interlingua[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

on

  1. one (indefinite personal pronoun)

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

on

  1. Rōmaji transcription of おん

Karelian[edit]

Verb[edit]

on

  1. (there) is

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English on, from Proto-Germanic *ana (on, at).

Preposition[edit]

on

  1. on, in

Adverb[edit]

on

  1. on

Alternative forms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Numeral[edit]

on

  1. Alternative form of oon

Pronoun[edit]

on

  1. Alternative form of oon

Adverb[edit]

on

  1. Alternative form of oon

Determiner[edit]

on

  1. (Early Middle English) Alternative form of a (indefinite article)

Etymology 3[edit]

Verb[edit]

on

  1. (Early Middle English) first/third-person singular present of unnen

Etymology 4[edit]

Noun[edit]

on (uncountable)

  1. Alternative form of wone (course)

Etymology 5[edit]

Noun[edit]

on (uncountable)

  1. Alternative form of oven

Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Kautokeino) IPA(key): /ˈoːn/

Adverb[edit]

ōn

  1. again

Further reading[edit]

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002-2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[6], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Occitan[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adverb[edit]

on

  1. (Gascony) where

References[edit]

  • Patric Guilhemjoan, Diccionari elementari occitan-francés francés-occitan (gascon), 2005, Orthez, per noste, 2005, →ISBN, page 99.

Old Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *onъ, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ónos.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

on (third person)

  1. he

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *ana

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

on (West Saxon)

  1. on, in, at, among [+dative or instrumental]

Adverb[edit]

on (West Saxon)

  1. (with verbs of taking or depriving) from

Descendants[edit]


Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

See hom, om.

Pronoun[edit]

on

  1. one (gender-neutral third-person singular pronoun)

Descendants[edit]

  • French: on

Old Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *an (on), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂en- (up). Cognates include Old English on, Old Saxon ana and Old Dutch ana.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

on

  1. on

Descendants[edit]

  • North Frisian: a
  • Saterland Frisian: an, oun
  • West Frisian: oan

References[edit]

  • Bremmer, Rolf H. (2009) An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISBN

Old Irish[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

on

  1. Alternative spelling of ón

Article[edit]

on

  1. Alternative spelling of ón

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *onъ, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ónos.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

on (plural: masculine personal oni, all others one)

  1. he (for animate nouns), it (for inanimate nouns)

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

on m

  1. (dated) this (demonstrative)

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • on in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romansch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Surmiran) onn
  • (Puter) an

Etymology[edit]

From Latin annus.

Noun[edit]

on m (plural ons)

  1. (Sutsilvan, Vallader) year

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *onъ, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ónos

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ȏn (Cyrillic spelling о̑н)

  1. he

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]


Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *onъ, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ónos; inflected forms from Proto-Slavic *jь, from Proto-Indo-European *éy.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

on

  1. he (third-person personal masculine singular pronoun)

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • on in Slovak dictionaries at korpus.sk

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *onъ, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ónos

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ȍn

  1. he

Inflection[edit]

Forms between parentheses indicate clitic forms; the main forms are used for emphasis.

See also[edit]


Southeastern Tepehuan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Uto-Aztecan *ona.

Noun[edit]

on

  1. salt

References[edit]

  • R. de Willett, Elizabeth, et al. (2016) Diccionario tepehuano de Santa María Ocotán, Durango (Serie de vocabularios y diccionarios indígenas “Mariano Silva y Aceves”; 48)‎[7] (in Spanish), electronic edition, Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, A.C., page 140

Swedish[edit]

Noun[edit]

on

  1. indefinite plural of o

Anagrams[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Turkish cardinal numbers
 <  9 10 11  > 
    Cardinal : on
    Ordinal : onuncu
    Distributive : onar
Turkish Wikipedia article on on

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish اون(on), from Proto-Turkic *ōn (ten). Compare Old Turkic 𐰆𐰣(un¹ /on/, ten)

Numeral[edit]

on

  1. ten

Declension[edit]

Inflection
Nominative on
Definite accusative onu
Singular Plural
Nominative on onlar
Definite accusative onu onları
Dative ona onlara
Locative onda onlarda
Ablative ondan onlardan
Genitive onun onların

Turkmen[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Turkic 𐰆𐰣(un¹ /on/, ten), from Proto-Turkic *ōn (ten).

Numeral[edit]

on

  1. ten

Venetian[edit]

Article[edit]

on m sg

  1. a, an

Usage notes[edit]

  • Variant of un

Volapük[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French on.

Pronoun[edit]

on

  1. it
  2. (obsolete, indefinite personal pronoun) one

Declension[edit]


Walloon[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Numeral[edit]

on

  1. one