Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/ís

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

*ís or h₁e

  1. the (just named, anaphoric). This demonstrative was used instead of a third-person pronoun.

Declension[edit]

Andrew Sihler's reconstruction
Singular Plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
nominative *ís *íh₂ *íd *éyes *íh₂es *íh₂
accusative *ím *íh₂m *íd *íns *íh₂ms *íh₂
genitive *ésyo *ésyeh₂s *ésyo *éysom *éysom *éysom
ablative *ésmod *ésyeh₂s *ésyo *éysom *éysom *éysom
dative *ésmey *ésyeh₂ey *ésmey *eybʰ- *eybʰ- *eybʰ-
locative *ésmi *? *ésmi *eysu *eysu *eysu
Donald Ringe's reconstruction
Singular Plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
nominative *éy *íh₂ *íd *éyes *íh₂es (?) *íh₂
accusative *ím *íh₂m̥ *íd *íns *íh₂n̥s (?) *íh₂
genitive *ésyo *ésyeh₂s *ésyo *éysoHom *íh₂soHom *éysoHom
ablative *ésmead (?) *ésyeh₂s *ésmead (?) *éymos *íh₂mos *éymos
dative *ésmey *ésyeh₂ey *ésmey *éymos *íh₂mos *éymos
locative *ésmi *ésyeh₂(i) *ésmi *éysu *íh₂su *éysu
instrumental *íh₁ ? *íh₁ *éybʰi *íh₂bʰi *éybʰi
Robert Beekes' reconstruction
Singular Plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
nominative *h₁e *ih₂ *id *h₁ey *ih₂es *ih₂
accusative *im *ih₂m̥ *id *ins *ih₂n̥s *ih₂
genitive *h₁éso *h₁eseh₂s (?) *h₁éso *h₁éso(m) *h₁éso(m) *h₁éso(m)
ablative *h₁esmōd *h₁esmōd *h₁esmōd *h₁eyos *h₁eyos *h₁eyos
dative *h₁esmōy *h₁esieh₂ey *h₁esmōy *h₁eymus *h₁eymus *h₁eymus
locative *h₁esmi *h₁esyeh₂i *h₁esmi *h₁eysu *h₁eysu *h₁eysu
instrumental *h₁ey (?) *h₁ey (?) *h₁ey (?) *h₁eybʰi *h₁eybʰi *h₁eybʰi

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press, page 56f
  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2011) Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, revised and corrected by Michiel de Vaan, 2nd edition, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pages 227–229
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  • Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 281
  • Martínez García, Javier; de Vaan, Michiel (2014) Introduction to Avestan (Brill Introductions to Indo-European Languages; 1), Brill, →ISBN, page 73