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Borrowed from Sanskrit इव (iva).


इव (iva) (Urdu spelling او)

  1. thus
  2. as
  3. almost


इव (iva) (Urdu spelling او)

  1. as
  2. like



Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *éy. Compare Hittite 𒄿𒉿𒅈 (i-wa-ar /iwar/).


  • (Vedic) IPA(key): /i.ʋɐ/
  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈi.ʋɐ/
  • Adverb[edit]

    इव (iva)

    1. like, in the same manner as (in this sense = यथा (yathā), and used correlatively to तथा (tathā))
    2. as it were, as if
      पथेवpathevaas if on a path
    3. in a certain manner, in some measure, a little, perhaps (in qualification or mitigation of a strong assertion)
    4. nearly, almost, about
      मुहूर्तम् इवmuhūrtam ivaalmost an hour
    5. so, just so, just, exactly, indeed, very (especially after words which involve some restriction:)
      ईषद् इवīṣad ivajust a little
      किंचिद् इवkiṃcid ivajust a little bit
      न चिराद् इवna cirād ivavery soon
    6. (as a particle) connected vaguely, and somewhat pleonastically, with an interrogative pronoun or adverb
      किम् इवkim ivawhat?
      कथम् इवkatham ivahow could that possibly be?
      क्वेवkvevawhere, I should like to know?

    Usage notes[edit]

    In the pada texts of the Rigveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda, and by native grammarians, इव (iva) is considered to be enclitic, and therefore compounded with the word after which it stands.


    • Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 0168