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Borrowed from Sanskrit इव (iva).


इव (iva) (Urdu spelling او)

  1. thus
  2. as
  3. almost


इव (iva) (Urdu spelling او)

  1. as
  2. like



Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *éy. Compare Hittite 𒄿𒉿𒅈 (i-wa-ar /iwar/).


इव (iva)

  1. like, in the same manner as (in this sense = यथा (yathā), and used correlatively to तथा (tathā))
  2. as it were, as if
    patheva — as if on a path
  3. in a certain manner, in some measure, a little, perhaps (in qualification or mitigation of a strong assertion)
  4. nearly, almost, about
    muhūrtam iva — almost an hour
  5. so, just so, just, exactly, indeed, very (especially after words which involve some restriction:)
    īṣad iva — just a little
    kiṃcid iva — just a little bit; and after a negation e.g.
    na cirād iva — very soon
  6. (as a particle) connected vaguely, and somewhat pleonastically, with an interrogative pronoun or adverb, e.g.
    kim iva — what?
    katham iva — how could that possibly be?
    kveva — where, I should like to know?

Usage notes[edit]

In the pada texts of the Rigveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda, and by native grammarians, iva is considered to be enclitic, and therefore compounded with the word after which it stands.


  • Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 0168