इव • (iva)
- like, in the same manner as (in this sense = यथा (yathā), and used correlatively to तथा (tathā))
- as it were, as if
- पथेव ― patheva ― as if on a path
- in a certain manner, in some measure, a little, perhaps (in qualification or mitigation of a strong assertion)
- nearly, almost, about
- मुहूर्तम् इव ― muhūrtam iva ― almost an hour
- so, just so, just, exactly, indeed, very (especially after words which involve some restriction:)
- ईषद् इव ― īṣad iva ― just a little
- किंचिद् इव ― kiṃcid iva ― just a little bit
- न चिराद् इव ― na cirād iva ― very soon
- (as a particle) connected vaguely, and somewhat pleonastically, with an interrogative pronoun or adverb
- किम् इव ― kim iva ― what?
- कथम् इव ― katham iva ― how could that possibly be?
- क्वेव ― kveva ― where, I should like to know?
In the pada texts of the Rigveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda, and by native grammarians, इव (iva) is considered to be enclitic, and therefore compounded with the word after which it stands.