इव

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Hindi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Sanskrit इव (iva).

Adverb[edit]

इव (iva) (Urdu spelling او)

  1. thus
  2. as
  3. almost

Preposition[edit]

इव (iva) (Urdu spelling او)

  1. as
  2. like

Sanskrit[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *éy. Compare Hittite 𒄿𒉿𒅈 (i-wa-ar /iwar/).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Vedic) IPA(key): /i.ʋɐ/
  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈi.ʋɐ/
  • Adverb[edit]

    इव (iva)

    1. like, in the same manner as (in this sense = यथा (yathā), and used correlatively to तथा (tathā))
    2. as it were, as if
      पथेवpathevaas if on a path
    3. in a certain manner, in some measure, a little, perhaps (in qualification or mitigation of a strong assertion)
    4. nearly, almost, about
      मुहूर्तम् इवmuhūrtam ivaalmost an hour
    5. so, just so, just, exactly, indeed, very (especially after words which involve some restriction:)
      ईषद् इवīṣad ivajust a little
      किंचिद् इवkiṃcid ivajust a little bit
      न चिराद् इवna cirād ivavery soon
    6. (as a particle) connected vaguely, and somewhat pleonastically, with an interrogative pronoun or adverb
      किम् इवkim ivawhat?
      कथम् इवkatham ivahow could that possibly be?
      क्वेवkvevawhere, I should like to know?

    Usage notes[edit]

    In the pada texts of the Rigveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda, and by native grammarians, इव (iva) is considered to be enclitic, and therefore compounded with the word after which it stands.

    References[edit]

    • Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 0168