Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/óynos

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Perhaps built on the pronominal stem *éy (he, she, it) +‎ *-nós, in which case the suffix would have been used in contradiction to its presumed usage. Homer's use of feminine ἴα (ía, one), from *ih₂, directly from the pronominal stem *i- has been suggested as a corroboration for this.

Alternative forms in PIE include *Hóywos, attested in Greek and Indo-Iranian (cf. Ancient Greek οἶος (oîos), Avestan 𐬀𐬉𐬎𐬎𐬀(aēuua)) and *Hóykos, attested only in Indo-Aryan (Sanskrit एक (éka)).

Numeral[edit]

Proto-Indo-European cardinal numbers
1 2  > 
    Cardinal : *óynos
    Ordinal : *pr̥h₃wós
    Adverbial : *somHós
    Fractional : *sēmi
    Prefix : *sm̥-

*óynos or h₁óynos

  1. one
  2. single
    Synonym: *sḗm

Inflection[edit]

Thematic
masculine feminine
nominative *h₁óynos *h₁óyneh₂
genitive *h₁óynosyo *h₁óyneh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *h₁óynos
vocative *h₁óyne
accusative *h₁óynom
genitive *h₁óynosyo
ablative *h₁óynead
dative *h₁óynoey
locative *h₁óyney, *h₁óynoy
instrumental *h₁óynoh₁
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *h₁óyneh₂
vocative *h₁óyneh₂
accusative *h₁óynām
genitive *h₁óyneh₂s
ablative *h₁óyneh₂s
dative *h₁óyneh₂ey
locative *h₁óyneh₂, *h₁óyneh₂i
instrumental *h₁óyneh₂h₁
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *h₁óynom
vocative *h₁óynom
accusative *h₁óynom
genitive *h₁óynosyo
ablative *h₁óynead
dative *h₁óynoey
locative *h₁óyney, *h₁óynoy
instrumental *h₁óynoh₁

Comment[edit]

Acute accent in Balto-Slavic points to a medial laryngeal, at least in the *HóyHnos form.

According to Arnaud Fournet, Proto Indo-Aryan *aikas is unique among all Indo-European languages and shows similarity with counterparts in Uralic languages. Compare, however, Proto-Albanian *ne uka (whence Albanian nuk).

Descendants[edit]

  • Proto-Albanian: *ainja
  • Proto-Celtic: *oinos (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *ainaz (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *óynos
    • Ancient Greek: οἶνος (oînos, the ace on dice), οἴνη (oínē, the ace on dice)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Háynas
  • Proto-Italic: *oinos

Derived terms[edit]

  • *Hóy-kos
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Háykas (see there for further descendants)
  • *Hóy-wos
    • Proto-Hellenic: *óywos
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Háywas (just, only) (see there for further descendants)
  • *óyH-nos
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *aiˀnas
      • Latgalian: vīns
      • Latvian: viêns
      • Lithuanian: víenas
      • Old Prussian: ains
      • Proto-Slavic: *edinъ (if not from *h₁edʰ-(H)iHnos) (see there for further descendants)

References[edit]

  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  • Fournet, Arnaud (2010) About the Mitanni-Aryan Gods, The Journal of Indo-European Studies, Volume 38, Number 1 & 2, Spring/Summer 2010, p.27
  • Julius Pokorny (1959), Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, in 3 vols, Bern, München: Francke Verlag