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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Formally the dual of a stem *(H)oḱto- (four fingers). This erstwhile singular seems to appear in Avestan 𐬀𐬱𐬙𐬌(ašti-, breadth of four fingers).


Proto-Indo-European cardinal numbers
 <  7 8 9  > 
    Cardinal : *oḱtṓw

*oḱtṓw or *h₁oḱtṓw

  1. eight


  • Albanian: *aktṓ
    • Albanian: tetë
  • Anatolian: [Term?]
  • Armenian: [Term?]
  • Balto-Slavic: *aśtō
  • Celtic: *oxtū (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *ahtōu (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic: *oktṓ
    • Ancient Greek: ὀκτώ (oktṓ) (see there for further descendants)
  • Indo-Iranian: *Haštā́
    • Indo-Aryan: *Haṣṭā́
      • Sanskrit: अष्ट (aṣṭá) (see there for further descendants)
    • Iranian: *Haštā́
      • Central Iranian
      • Eastern Iranian
        • Northeastern Iranian
          • Ossetian: аст (ast)
          • Sogdo-Bactrian
            • Bactrian: αταο (atao)
            • Khwarezmian: [script needed] (ʾšt /āšt/)
            • Sogdic: [Term?]
              • Sogdian: [script needed] (əšt(a))
              • Yagnobi: ашт (ašt)
        • Southeastern Iranian
      • Western Iranian
        • Northwestern Iranian
          • Baluchi: [script needed] (hašt)
          • Kurdish: heşt
          • Medo-Parthian: [Term?]
        • Southwestern Iranian
  • Italic: *oktō
    • Latin: octō (see there for further descendants)
  • Tocharian: *óktä
  • Kartvelian: *otxo- (see there for further descendants)