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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative forms[edit]


Given the attested forms in the daughter languages, some have proposed that the original form was *wéḱs (whence Armenian, Old Prussian and possibly Ancient Greek). The initial *s- would then be secondary (imported from *septḿ̥), and when it was just added the result was *swéḱs (Celtic, Iranian, and Ancient Greek if it is not from *wéḱs), whereas when it was substituted for the original consonant, the result was *séḱs (Sanskrit, Latin, Germanic, and Balto-Slavic).


Proto-Indo-European cardinal numbers
 <  5 6 7  > 
    Cardinal : *swéḱs
    Ordinal : *sweḱstós[2]


  1. six


  • Proto-Albanian: *seksti (see there for further descendants)
  • Armenian:
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *šéš (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *swexs (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *sehs (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *hwéks (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *šwáćš (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *seks (see there for further descendants)
  • Tocharian:
  • Proto-Kartvelian: *eks₁w- (see there for further descendants)

Further reading[edit]


  1. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (Oxford Linguistics), New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 313
  2. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004, 2010) Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, Oxford: Blackwell