एक

From Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Hindi[edit]

Hindi numbers (edit)
10
[a], [b] ←  0
1
2  →  10  → 
    Cardinal: एक (ek)
    Ordinal: पहला (pahlā), पहिला (pahilā), प्रथम (pratham)
    Fractional: पूरा (pūrā)

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Hindi एक (eka), from Sauraseni Apabhramsa एक्क (ekka), from Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀏𑀓𑁆𑀓 (ekka), from Sanskrit एक (éka), from Proto-Indo-Aryan *Háykas, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Háykas, from Proto-Indo-European *(H)óykos (one, single).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Delhi Hindi) IPA(key): /eːk/
  • (file)

Numeral[edit]

एक (ek) (Urdu spelling ایک) (cardinal)

  1. one; 1

Adjective[edit]

एक (ek) (indeclinable, Urdu spelling ایک)

  1. sole, only

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Konkani[edit]

Konkani cardinal numbers
एक दोन  > 
    Cardinal : एक (ek)
    Ordinal : पयलें (paylẽ)

Etymology[edit]

From Maharastri Prakrit, from Sanskrit एक (éka), from Proto-Indo-Aryan *Háykas, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Háykas.

Numeral[edit]

एक (ek) (Latin script ek, Kannada script ಎಕ್)

  1. one

Maithili[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit एक (éka), from Proto-Indo-Aryan *Háykas, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Háykas.

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

एक (ek)

  1. one

Marathi[edit]

Marathi numbers (edit)
10
 ←  0
1
2  →  10  → 
    Cardinal: एक (ek)
    Ordinal: पहिले (pahile)
    Adverbial: एकदा (ekdā)
    Collective: एकटा (ekṭā)

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Maharastri Prakrit, from Sanskrit एक (éka), from Proto-Indo-Aryan *Háykas, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Háykas, from Proto-Indo-European *(H)óykos (one, single).

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

एक (ek)

  1. one

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Berntsen, Maxine, “एक”, in A Basic Marathi-English Dictionary, New Delhi: American Institute of Indian Studies, 1982-1983.

Nepali[edit]

Nepali numbers (edit)
10[a], [b]
[a], [b] ←  0
1
2  →  10  → [a], [b]
    Cardinal: एक (ek)
    Ordinal: पहिलो (pahilo), प्रथम (pratham)
    Adverbial: एकचोटी (ekacoṭī), एकपटक (ekapaṭak)

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Khasa Prakrit [Term?] (compare Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀏𑀓𑁆𑀓 (ekka)), from Sanskrit एक (éka), from Proto-Indo-Aryan *Háykas, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Háykas.

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

एक (ek)

  1. one

Old Hindi[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sauraseni Apabhramsa एक्क, from Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀏𑀓𑁆𑀓 (ekka), 𑀇𑀓 (ika), from Sanskrit एक (eka).

Numeral[edit]

एक (eka)

  1. one
    • c. 1500, Kabīr 77.1:
      एक जोति तैं सब उतपंना, कौंण वारंण कौंण सूदा
      eka joti taiṃ saba utapaṃnā, kauṃṇa vāraṃṇa kauṃṇa sūdā
      All have arisen from one light, who is a brāhmin and who is a śūdra?

Descendants[edit]

  • Hindi: एक (ek)

Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Numeral[edit]

एक (eka)

  1. Devanagari script form of eka (one)
    • c. 500 AD, Kaccāyana, Pālivyākaraṇaṃ [Pali Grammar]‎[1], page 252; republished as Satish Chandra Acharyya Vidyabhusana, editor, Kaccayana's Pali Grammar (edited in Devanagari character and translated into English), Calcutta, Bengal: Mahabodhi Society, 1901:
      सब्बेसं तिण्णं पठममज्झिमुत्तमपुरिसानं एकाभिधाने परो पुरिसो गहेतब्बो। सो च पठति, ते च पठन्ति, त्वञ्च पठसि तुम्हे च पठथ, अहञ्च पठामि = मयं पठाम; सो पचति, ते च पचन्ति, त्वञ्च पचन्ति, तुम्हे च पठथ, अहञ्च पचआमि = मयं पचाम एवं सेसासु विभत्तीसु परो पुरिसो योजेतब्बो॥
      Sabbesaṃ tiṇṇaṃ paṭhamamajjhimuttamapurisānaṃ ekābhidhāne paro puriso gahetabbo. So ca paṭhati, te ca paṭhanti, tvañca paṭhasi, tumhe ca paṭhatha, ahañca paṭhāmi = mayaṃ paṭhāma; so pacati, te ca pacanti, tvañca pacasi, tumhe ca pacatha, ahañca pacāmi = mayaṃ pacāma. Evaṃ sesāsu vibhattīsu paro puriso yojetabbo.
      With all three, third, second, and first persons, in one expression, the last person is to be taken. He reads, they read, thou readest, you read, and I read = we read; he cooks, they cook, thou cookest, you cook , and I cook = we cook. The last person is to be applied thus for other endings.

Declension[edit]

Sanskrit[edit]

Sanskrit numbers (edit)
10[a], [b]
 ←  0
1
2  →  10  → [a], [b]
    Cardinal: एक (eka)
    Ordinal: प्रथम (prathama)
    Multiplier: एकधा (ekadhā)
    Distributive: एकशस् (ekaśas)

Alternative scripts[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-Aryan *Háykas, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Háykas, from Proto-Indo-European *(H)óykos (one, single).

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

एक (éka)

  1. one

Adjective[edit]

एक (éka) stem (Vedic áika)

  1. (with and without एव (eva)) alone, solitary, single, happening only once, that one only
  2. the same, one and the same, identical
  3. one of two or many
  4. single of its kind, unique, singular, chief, pre-eminent, excellent
  5. sincere, truthful
  6. little, small
  7. (sometimes used as an indefinite article) a, an
  8. (in the plural) some, certain ones

Declension[edit]

Masculine a-stem declension of एक (éka)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative एकः
ékaḥ
-
-
एके
éke
Vocative -
-
-
-
-
-
Accusative एकम्
ékam
-
-
एकान्
ékān
Instrumental एकेन
ékena
-
-
एकैः / एकेभिः¹
ékaiḥ / ékebhiḥ¹
Dative एकस्मै
ékasmai
-
-
एकेभ्यः
ékebhyaḥ
Ablative एकस्मात् / एकात्
ékasmāt / ékāt
-
-
एकेभ्यः
ékebhyaḥ
Genitive एकस्य
ékasya
-
-
एकेषाम्
ékeṣām
Locative एकस्मिन् / एके
ékasmin / éke
-
-
एकेषु
ékeṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic
Feminine ā-stem declension of एका (ékā)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative एका
ékā
-
-
एकाः
ékāḥ
Vocative -
-
-
-
-
-
Accusative एकाम्
ékām
-
-
एकाः
ékāḥ
Instrumental एकया / एका¹
ékayā / ékā¹
-
-
एकाभिः
ékābhiḥ
Dative एकस्यै
ékasyai
-
-
एकाभ्यः
ékābhyaḥ
Ablative एकस्याः
ékasyāḥ
-
-
एकाभ्यः
ékābhyaḥ
Genitive एकस्याः
ékasyāḥ
-
-
एकासाम्
ékāsām
Locative एकस्याम्
ékasyām
-
-
एकासु
ékāsu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic
Neuter a-stem declension of एक (éka)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative एकम्
ékam
-
-
एकानि / एका¹
ékāni / ékā¹
Vocative -
-
-
-
-
-
Accusative एकम्
ékam
-
-
एकानि / एका¹
ékāni / ékā¹
Instrumental एकेन
ékena
-
-
एकैः / एकेभिः¹
ékaiḥ / ékebhiḥ¹
Dative एकस्मै
ékasmai
-
-
एकेभ्यः
ékebhyaḥ
Ablative एकस्मात् / एकात्
ékasmāt / ékāt
-
-
एकेभ्यः
ékebhyaḥ
Genitive एकस्य
ékasya
-
-
एकेषाम्
ékeṣām
Locative एकस्मिन् / एके
ékasmin / éke
-
-
एकेषु
ékeṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

Noun[edit]

एक (éka) stemm (Vedic áika)

  1. name of a teacher
  2. name of a son of रय (Raya)

Declension[edit]

Masculine a-stem declension of एक (eka)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative एकः
ekaḥ
एकौ / एका¹
ekau / ekā¹
एकाः / एकासः¹
ekāḥ / ekāsaḥ¹
Vocative एक
eka
एकौ / एका¹
ekau / ekā¹
एकाः / एकासः¹
ekāḥ / ekāsaḥ¹
Accusative एकम्
ekam
एकौ / एका¹
ekau / ekā¹
एकान्
ekān
Instrumental एकेन
ekena
एकाभ्याम्
ekābhyām
एकैः / एकेभिः¹
ekaiḥ / ekebhiḥ¹
Dative एकाय
ekāya
एकाभ्याम्
ekābhyām
एकेभ्यः
ekebhyaḥ
Ablative एकात्
ekāt
एकाभ्याम्
ekābhyām
एकेभ्यः
ekebhyaḥ
Genitive एकस्य
ekasya
एकयोः
ekayoḥ
एकानाम्
ekānām
Locative एके
eke
एकयोः
ekayoḥ
एकेषु
ekeṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

Noun[edit]

एक (éka) stemn (Vedic áika)

  1. unity, a unit (at the end of a compound)

Declension[edit]

Neuter a-stem declension of एक (eka)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative एकम्
ekam
एके
eke
एकानि / एका¹
ekāni / ekā¹
Vocative एक
eka
एके
eke
एकानि / एका¹
ekāni / ekā¹
Accusative एकम्
ekam
एके
eke
एकानि / एका¹
ekāni / ekā¹
Instrumental एकेन
ekena
एकाभ्याम्
ekābhyām
एकैः / एकेभिः¹
ekaiḥ / ekebhiḥ¹
Dative एकाय
ekāya
एकाभ्याम्
ekābhyām
एकेभ्यः
ekebhyaḥ
Ablative एकात्
ekāt
एकाभ्याम्
ekābhyām
एकेभ्यः
ekebhyaḥ
Genitive एकस्य
ekasya
एकयोः
ekayoḥ
एकानाम्
ekānām
Locative एके
eke
एकयोः
ekayoḥ
एकेषु
ekeṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Monier Williams (1899), “एक”, in A Sanskrit–English Dictionary, [], new edition, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, →OCLC, page 0227/3.
  • Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992) Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan]‎[2] (in German), volume 1, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, pages 262-3