Wiktionary:Nepali transliteration

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These are the rules concerning transliteration in Nepali entries.

Wiktionary's system for the transliteration of Devanagari for Nepali uses the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) system with a few modications. The changes from the IAST standard are meant for convenience.


Consonants[edit]

Wiktionary standard transliteration for Nepali
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
glottal deva. /
trans. h/ḥ
IPA [ɦ]/[h]
velar deva.
trans. k kh g gh
IPA [k] [kʰ] [g] [gʱ] [ŋ]
palatal deva.
trans. y
IPA [j]
retroflex deva.
trans. ṭh ḍh
IPA [ʈ] [ʈʰ] [ɖ] [ɖʱ] [ɳ]/[ɽ̃]
alveolar deva. /
trans. c ch j jh ñ/n r l ś s
IPA [t͡s] [t͡sʰ] [d͡z] [d͡zʱ] [n] [r] [l] [s] [s] [s]
dental deva.
trans. t th d dh
IPA [t̪] [t̪ʰ] [d̪] [d̪ʱ]
labial deva.
trans. p ph b bh m w/v
IPA [p] [pʰ] [b] [bʱ] [m] [w]/[b]

Vowels[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6
short independent
diacritic inherent ि
trans. a i u e o
IPA [ʌ] [i] [u] [ri] [e] [o]
long independent
diacritic
trans. ā ī ū ai au
IPA [a] [i] [u] [ʌi̯] [ʌu̯]

Nasalization[edit]

The nasal diacritic () (अनुस्वार, anusvāra) is transliterated according to its context in a word. The consonant immediately following the nasal diacritic determines exactly how the transliteration will occur.

  • If a word ends with the anusvāra, ṃ is added to the end, e.g. तपाईं = tapāīṃ
  • If a consonant follows the anusvāra, the transliteration of the consonant's corresponding nasal consonant follows.
  1. Velars (क, ख, ग, घ), glottal (), and alveolars () will use (for )
  2. Alveolars (च, छ, ज, झ) will use ñ (for )
  3. Dentals (त, थ, द, ध) and alveolars (न ष स) will use n (for )
  4. Retroflex consonants (ट, ठ, ड, ढ) will use (for )
  5. Labials (प, फ, ब, भ, म, व), palatal (), and alveolar (र, ल) will use m (for )

The nasal diacritic (̃) (चन्द्रबिन्दु, candrabindu) is transliterated as a tilde diacritic (̃) above the nasalized vowel.

Other[edit]

  • The character ज्ञ, which is a ligature of and , while typically transliterated "jñ" in Sanskrit is transliterated "gy" for Nepali.
  • Nuqtas
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Deva. क़ ख़ ग़ ज़ श़/झ़ फ़ ड़ ढ़ थ़ द़ व़
trans. q x ġ z ž f ṛh θ ð V
IPA [q] [x] [ɣ] [z] [ʒ] [f] [ɽ] [ɽʱ] [θ] [ð] [ɭ] [ɹ] [v]

See also[edit]