ser

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser

  1. Abbreviation of serial.

Etymology 2[edit]

From sir.

Noun[edit]

ser (plural sers)

  1. (in some fantasy novels) An address or courtesy title to any person, especially if their gender and/or form of address are unknown.
    Would ser care to dine this evening?
    (The addition of quotations indicative of this usage is being sought:)

Anagrams[edit]


Aragonese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin sedeō, sedēre (to sit, to reside) and sum (to be).

Verb[edit]

ser

  1. to be

Asturian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin sedeō, sedēre (to sit, to reside) sum (to be).

Verb[edit]

ser

  1. to be

Conjugation[edit]

Impersonal forms
Infinitive ser
Gerund siendo
Past participle sío
Personal forms
yo tu él~elli/-a/-o nosotros/-es~nós vosotros/-es~vós ellos/-es
Indicative Present soi
so
yes ye somos sois son
Imperfect preterite yera yeres yera yéremos~yéramos yereis~yerais yeren
Perfect preterite fui fuesti
fuisti
foi fuemos
fuimos
fuestis
fuistis
fueron
Pluperfect preterite fuera~fuere fueras~fueres fuera~fuere fuéramos~fuéremos fuerais~fuereis fueran~fueren
yo tu él~elli/-a/-o nosotros/-es~nós vosotros/-es~vós ellos/-es
Subjunctive Present seya seyas seya seyamos seyáis seyan
Imperfect preterite fuera~fuere fueras~fueres fuera~fuere fuéramos~fuéremos fuerais~fuereis fueran~fueren
yo tu él~elli/-a/-o nosotros/-es~nós vosotros/-es~vós ellos/-es
Potential Future seré serás será seremos seréis serán
Conditional sería~sedría seríes~sedríes sería~sedría seríamos~seríemos~sedríamos~sedríemos seríais~seríeis~sedríais~sedríeis seríen~sedríen
- tu vusté nosotros/-es~nós vosotros/-es~vós vustedes
Imperative vamos ser sei

Noun[edit]

ser m (plural seres)

  1. being

Derived terms[edit]


Baure[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser

  1. tooth
    niser — my tooth
    eser — a tooth, someone's tooth
    nitorak to eser — I found a/someone's tooth

References[edit]

  • Languages of the Amazon (2012, →ISBN

Catalan[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From a reduction of ésser, from Latin sum, from Proto-Italic *ezom, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti (I am, I exist).

Pronunciation[edit]

(verb)

(noun)

Verb[edit]

ser (first-person singular present sóc, past participle estat)

  1. (intransitive) to be, to exist
    Ser o no ser, aquesta és la qüestió.
    To be or not to be, that is the question.
  2. (intransitive, +adverbial phrase) to be located (to be in a place)
  3. (transitive, copulative) to be (used to connect a noun to another noun)
  4. (transitive, copulative) to have a characteristic (used to connect a noun to an adjective that describes an inherent property)
  5. (auxiliary) Used to form the passive voice, together with a past participle

Usage notes[edit]

This is one of two verbs that can be translated as to be, the other being estar. Ser/ésser indicates an inherent quality, whereas estar indicates temporary qualities that apply only at a particular time. Ser/ésser relates to estar as essence relates to state, etymologically as well as semantically.

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser m (plural sers)

  1. being (living creature)

Further reading[edit]


Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ser

  1. second-person singular imperative of srát

Danish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ser

  1. present of se

Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Mostly from Old Galician and Old Portuguese seer, from Latin sedeō, sedēre (to sit, to reside), and sum (to be).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ser (first-person singular present son, first-person singular preterite fun, past participle sido)

  1. to be
  2. first-person singular personal infinitive of ser
  3. third-person singular personal infinitive of ser

Usage notes[edit]

Like Portuguese and Spanish, Galician has two different verbs that are usually translated to English as “to be”. The verb ser relates to essence, origin, or physical description. In contrast, the verb estar relates to current state or position.

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser m (plural seres)

  1. being (living creature)

See also[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser (countable and uncountable, plural serek)

  1. (archaic, dialectal, humorous) Alternative form of sör (beer).

Usage notes[edit]

An archaic and dialectal variant of sör, but today it can also be humorous in informal conversations. In compound words and derivations, almost only sör is used.

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative ser serek
accusative sert sereket
dative sernek sereknek
instrumental serrel serekkel
causal-final serért serekért
translative serré serekké
terminative serig serekig
essive-formal serként serekként
essive-modal serül
inessive serben serekben
superessive seren sereken
adessive sernél sereknél
illative serbe serekbe
sublative serre serekre
allative serhez serekhez
elative serből serekből
delative serről serekről
ablative sertől serektől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
seré sereké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
seréi serekéi
Possessive forms of ser
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. serem sereim
2nd person sing. sered sereid
3rd person sing. sere serei
1st person plural serünk sereink
2nd person plural seretek sereitek
3rd person plural serük sereik

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • ser , redirecting to sör in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh: A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’An Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962.

Italian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Shortening of messer.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser m (plural ser)

  1. (historical) sir (title and form of address for a gentleman, shortened from messer)
    Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci

Ladino[edit]

Verb[edit]

ser (Latin spelling, Hebrew spelling סיר‎)

  1. to be

Lolopo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Loloish *swa² (Bradley), from Proto-Sino-Tibetan. Cognate with Burmese သွား (swa:), Japhug ɕɣa, Tibetan སོ (so), Drung sa, Tedim Chin ha:², Jingpho wa.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser 

  1. (Yao'an) tooth

Mauritian Creole[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From French sœur

Noun[edit]

ser

  1. sister
    Synonym: didi

Etymology 2[edit]

From French cher

Adjective[edit]

ser

  1. dear
  2. expensive

Middle Dutch[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser

  1. (title and pronoun) sir, lord
    • 1301-1350, Van den VII vroeden van binnen Rome. Een dichtwerk der XIVde eeuw (INL)
      Garijn, ser Diederecs sone
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
    • 1414, Hennen van Merchtenen's Cornicke van Brabant (INL)
      Als ijemen sterven plach, hinc men daer teken ser wapen
      (please add an English translation of this quote)

Further reading[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser

  1. Alternative form of sire
    • 1407, The Testimony of William Thorpe, page 40
      And I seide, “Ser, in his tyme maister Ioon Wiclef was holden of ful many men the grettis clerk that thei knewen lyuynge vpon erthe.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old English sēar.

Noun[edit]

ser

  1. Alternative form of sere (dry)

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Norse sér.

Adjective[edit]

ser

  1. Alternative form of sere (differing)

Mirandese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin sedeō, sedēre (to sit, to reside) and sum (to be).

Verb[edit]

ser

  1. to be (indicates a permanent quality)

Noun[edit]

ser m (plural seres)

  1. being

See also[edit]


Northern Kurdish[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser m

  1. head

Preposition[edit]

ser

  1. on
    li ser maseyêon the table

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Verb[edit]

ser

  1. present of se

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Verb[edit]

ser

  1. present of sjå

Pohnpeian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ser

  1. (intransitive) to run aground

Interjection[edit]

ser

  1. An exclamation used to attract the attention of two or more people.

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *syrъ, from Proto-Indo-European *súHros (sour, salty, bitter), whence English sour.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /sɛr/
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

ser m inan (diminutive serek)

  1. cheese

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • ser in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese seer, with forms from multiple sources:

  • Latin sedeō: personal and impersonal infinitives (sedēre), gerund, present subjunctive, affirmative imperative
  • Latin sum: present indicative, imperfect indicative, preterite indicative, pluperfect indicative, imperfect subjunctive, future subjunctive
    • Vulgar Latin *sonō: sou
    • Vulgar Latin *sutis: sois
  • later developments: past participle, future indicative, conditional, negative imperative

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ser (first-person singular present indicative sou, past participle sido)

  1. (copulative) to be (to have the given quality), especially a quality that is intrinsic or not expected to change, contrasting with estar which denotes a temporary quality
    Ela está bonita, mas não é bonita.
    She is beautiful right now, but she is not a beautiful person.
  2. (transitive) to be (to be an example or type of, or the same as)
    Pessoas são mamíferos.
    People are mammals.
    A soma de um e dois é três.
    The sum of one and two is three.
  3. (auxiliary with a verb in the past participle) to be (forms the passive voice)
    O carro foi vendido pelo seu antigo dono.
    The car was sold by its previous owner.
    Espero que os criminosos sejam punidos.
    I hope the criminals are punished.
  4. (impersonal) to be (indicates a point in time)
    Que horas são?
    What time is it?
    São cinco horas.
    It is five o’clock.
  5. (transitive with em or another locational preposition) to be in (to be located in)
    Minha casa é num bairro pobre.
    My house is in a poor neighbourhood.
    Onde são essas cidades?
    Where are these cities?
  6. (transitive with de) to be from (to have as one’s place of origin)
    Esses equipamentos são da Alemanha.
    These pieces of equipment are from Germany.
    Nenhum de nós é de um país estrangeiro.
    None of us is from a foreign country.
  7. (transitive with de) to be (someone’s); to belong to
    Essa casa é do prefeito.
    This house belongs to the mayor.
    Não mexa em nada que não for seu.
    Don’t touch anything that is not yours.
  8. (transitive or auxiliary with para or de and a verb in the personal infinitive) to be for; to be to (to have as its purpose)
    Esse tipo de faca é para cortar tomates.
    This type of knife is for cutting tomatoes.
  9. (impersonal, auxiliary with para and a verb in the personal infinitive) to be supposed to; should (introduces an expected or demanded action)
    Não sei porque está demorando, já era para o filme ter começado.
    I don’t know why it is taking so long, the film should have started already.
    É para comermos toda a carne.
    We are supposed to eat all the meat.
  10. (transitive) to be; to cost (to be worth a given amount of money)
    Duas maçãs são dez centavos.
    Two apples are ten cents.
  11. (intransitive) to happen; to take place; to occur
    O que será, será.
    Whatever happens happens.
    Quando é seu aniversário?
    When is your birthday?
  12. (transitive with por or a favor de or contra) to be against or in favour of
    Alguns foram contra a guerra, mas a maioria foi a favor.
    Some were against the war, but most were in favour.
  13. (poetic, intransitive) to exist; to be
    O mal não é.
    Evil does not exist.
  14. (impersonal, transitive) used for emphasis
    Eu é que vim.
    I’m the one who came here.

Usage notes[edit]

Portuguese and Spanish have two different verbs that are usually translated to English as “to be”: generally ser relates to essence, contrasting with estar, which relates to state.

Contrast the following:

  • O homem está feliz.The man is [currently] happy.
  • O homem é feliz.The man is [always] happy.
  • Você está louco?Are you crazy [acting or currently insane]?
  • Você é louco?Are you crazy [permanently insane]?
  • Ela está em casa.She is [currently] at home.
  • Ela é do Brasil.She is [originally] from Brazil.

Conjugation[edit]

Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:ser.

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser m (plural seres)

  1. being (a living creature)

Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:ser.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin serum, French sérum. Cf. also zer.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser n (plural seruri)

  1. serum

Declension[edit]


Romansch[edit]

Verb[edit]

ser

  1. (Sursilvan) Alternative form of seser

Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Spanish seer, from two sources:

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ser (first-person singular present soy, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle sido)

  1. to be (essentially or identified as)
    • 2007, El Sueño de Morfeo, Nada es Suficiente
      ¿Qué voy a ser si te he dado lo que soy?
      What am I going to be if I've given you what I am?
    • 2007, El Sueño de Morfeo, Para Toda la Vida
      Si fueras una gota de agua, nadie volvería a tener sed
      If you were a drop of water, no one would thirst again
    Yo soy de los Estados Unidos.I am from the United States.
    Errar es humano.To err is human.
  2. to be (in the passive voice sense)
    La guitarra fue tocada.The guitar was played.
  3. to exist; to occur
    La fiesta será mañana.The party will be tomorrow.

Usage notes[edit]

Spanish has two different verbs that are usually translated to English as “to be”: ser relates to essence, contrasting with estar, which relates to state. Contrast the following:

  • El hombre está feliz.The man is [currently] happy.
  • El hombre es feliz.The man is [always] happy.
  • ¿Estás loco?Are you crazy [currently out of your mind]?
  • ¿Eres loco?Are you crazy [an insane person]?
  • El hombre está en España.The man is [currently] in Spain.
  • El hombre es de España.The man is [originally] from Spain.

However, when stating the location of an object, estar is used whether the location is permanent or not:

Madrid está en el centro de España.Madrid is in central Spain.

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Noun[edit]

ser m (plural seres)

  1. a being, organism
  2. nature, essence
  3. value, worth

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Verb[edit]

ser

  1. present tense of se.

Anagrams[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Persian سر(sar)

Noun[edit]

ser (definite accusative seri, plural serler)

  1. (archaic) head
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Verb[edit]

ser

  1. second-person singular imperative of sermek

Volapük[edit]

Numeral[edit]

ser

  1. zero

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Welsh serr, Proto-Celtic *serrā. Cf. Middle Irish serr.

Noun[edit]

ser m (plural serrod or serroedd, not mutable)

  1. billhook, sickle, scythe
  2. (dictionary) sword

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present) , “ser”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies
  • Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN