Traditionally allophone with /u/, and realized as [u ~ ʊ ~ o]. May be diphthongized as /au/. Becomes [u] before [m] followed by [b] or [p] (e.g. in kombinasyon, kompleto, kompanya). May also be interpreted as /ɔ/.
Implied in the onset of words beginning with vowels. Marked as a hyphen when it occurs between a consonant and a vowel. Final glottal stops are marked using a circumflex (if syllable has stress) or grave (if stress is on the penultimate).
Where spelled as ⟨dy⟩ or ⟨diy⟩, can be realized as [dj] in slow or rural pronunciation. As ⟨dy⟩, ⟨g⟩, ⟨j⟩, in respelled English loanwords, can be realized as [dz] or [ʒ]. Represented by ⟨J⟩ in new loanwords from all other languages except those from Spanish.
/ŋ/ becomes /m/ before /m/ and /b/, which is reflected in contemporary spelling. Also represented by n before /k/, /ɡ/, or rarely, /h/ in some Spanish-derived loanwords or proper nouns, e.g. Cuenca, ingrato, San Jose, kongreso.
Traditionally allophone of /d/ (see above) in Old Tagalog. /d/ between vowels usually, but not always, become /ɾ/. Now pronounced in free variation as [r ~ ɾ ~ ɹ], especially in loanwords and proper nouns of foreign origin.
Tagalog uses a stress accent combining stress and/or final glottal stops to distinguish homographs. Stress is implied in the penultimate (second to last) syllables. Vowels are lengthened in open syllables when stressed, except in final positions, but as Tagalog has no phonemic vowel length, they are implied by the stress symbol.