mali

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Malis (etymology 1) or gardeners shifting seedlings from nursery beds into polybags at the Aravali Biodiversity Park, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

Borrowed from Hindi माली (mālī, gardener), from Sanskrit माली (mālī, wreath-maker, garland-maker; florist; gardener), मालिन् (mālin, florist; gardener), from माला (mālā, wreath, garland; chaplet, crown).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali (plural malis)

  1. (India, South Asia) A member of a caste in South Asia whose traditional occupation is gardening; hence, any South Asian gardener. [from mid 18th c.]
    • 1840, G. T. Frederic Speede, Indian Hand-book of Gardening; Containing Directions for the Management of the Kitchen and Flower Garden, etc. etc. in India: [], Calcutta: W. Thacker & Co. St. Andrew's Library, OCLC 474754220, page 1:
      [H]ence the slow progress hitherto made in the cultivation of such produce of the garden as is generally held in estimation by the European portion of the community, left as it generally is, to the simple Hindoo mallee (or gardener,) it is not to be wondered at, that our bazars want what are deemed the more delicate articles of vegetable production for the table; []
    • 1848, “Report of Exhibitions of Vegetables, Fruits, Flowers and Agricultural Produce, Held at Bhaugulpore, on 11th February and 25th May, 1848. (Communicated by Major [T. E. A.] Napleton, Honorary Secretary Branch Agri-Horticultural Society.)”, in Journal of the Agricultural & Horticultural Society of India, volume VI, part II (Correspondence and Selections), number 3, Calcutta: Bishop's College Press, OCLC 648779148, page 125:
      Prizes were awarded to ten other mallees for best samples of vegetables, fruits and flowers, and last though not least we have to note, that a prize of two rupees was awarded to the mallee of Robert Fulton, Esq., of Sultangunge, for a remarkably fine bunch of grapes, clearly showing that either the soil of Mr. Fulton's garden, the climate of Sultangunge, or the skill of that gentleman's gardener, are highly favorable to the growth, and bringing to maturity of this delicious fruit.
    • 1871 November 29, “Cachar: Further Correspondence on the Subject of the Looshai Raids and the Consequent Hostilities (in Continuation of Paper, No. 398, of 1871)”, in Accounts and Papers: [], volume X (East India—continued), [London]: [] The House of Commons, [], published 28 May 1872, OCLC 941810036, page 301:
      I sent down dhobies, sweepers, cooks, and mallees, last to dig trenches for burying the dead, when burning was not possible.
    • 1924 June 4, E[dward] M[organ] Forster, chapter XXII, in A Passage to India, London: Edward Arnold & Co., OCLC 621012, part II (Caves), page 203:
      He found, as he expected, that the poor girl was crying. And, as always, an Indian close outside the window, a mali in this case, picking up sounds.
    • 1934 October, George Orwell [pseudonym; Eric Arthur Blair], Burmese Days, New York, N.Y.: Harper & Brothers, Publishers, OCLC 1810828; republished as chapter 2, in Burmese Days (ebook no. 0200051h.html), Australia: Project Gutenberg Australia, November 2015:
      A nearly naked mali, watering-can in hand, was moving in the jungle of flowers like some large nectar-sucking bird.
    • 2008, Amitav Ghosh, chapter 5, in Sea of Poppies, London: John Murray, →ISBN, pages 91–92:
      The grounds of the estates were extensive enough to provide each mansion with a surrounding park, and these were, if anything, even more varied in design than the houses they enclosed – for the malis who tended the gardens, no less than the owners themselves, vied to outdo each other in the fancifulness of their plantings, creating here a little patch of topiary and there an avenue of trees, trimmed in the French fashion; []
Alternative forms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Money is known as mali (etymology 2) in South Africa.

Borrowed from Xhosa imali, Zulu imali (money), both ultimately from Swahili mali (riches, wealth; property), from Arabic مَال(māl, money; affluence, wealth; possessions, property).[3] Some dictionaries[4] suggest an origin in English money instead, making no attempt to account for the distribution of the loanword nor the proposed shift from /n/ to /l/, both of which make this unlikely.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali (uncountable)

  1. (South Africa) Money, cash. [from mid 19th c.]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Latin malī, a plural form of malus (adverse, unfavourable, unfortunate, unlucky; destructive, hurtful; bad, evil) (probably ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *(s)mel- (erroneous, false; bad, evil)).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali

  1. plural of malus
    • c. 1997, ASTIN Bulletin, page 48:
      The existence of boni and mali for the different risks can be interpreted through the sign of estimated covariances.
    • 2000, Jean Pinquet, “Experience Rating through Heterogeneous Models”, in Georges Dionne, editor, Handbook of Insurance, Kluwer Academic Publishers, page 462:
      If the boni and mali do not depend on the frequency of claims, the average bonus-malus coefficient increases with the frequency.
    • 2014, Akmal Akramkhanov; Bernhard Tischbein; Usman Khalid Awan, “Effective management of soil salinity – revising leaching norms”, in John P. A. Lamers, Asia Khamzina, Inna Rudenko, and Paul L. G. Vlek, editors, Restructuring Land Allocation, Water Use and Agricultural Value Chains: Technologies, Policies and Practices for the Lower Amudarya Region, V & R unipress, Bonn University Press, →ISBN, page 131:
      Akramkhanov et al. (2010) also suggested a system of boni and mali on taxes to support the implementation of measures to achieve both water saving and salinity control (Table 3.3.1).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Monier Williams (1872), “माऌ māla”, in A Sanskṛit–English Dictionary: [], Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, OCLC 3592375, page 774, columns 2–3.
  2. ^ mali, n.1”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, December 2020; “mali1, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  3. ^ Baldi, Sergio (2020-11-30) Dictionary of Arabic Loanwords in the Languages of Central and East Africa (Handbuch der Orientalistik; Erste Abteilung: Der Nahe und der Mittlere Osten; 156), Leiden • Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  4. ^ For example, “mali, n.2”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2021.

Anagrams[edit]


Albanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali ? definite singular form of mal

  1. mountain

Amis[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali

  1. ball

References[edit]


Bunun[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali

  1. ball

Dyirbal[edit]

Adjective[edit]

mali

  1. wonderful, fantastic

Dyula[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali

  1. hippopotamus

Finnish[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali

  1. wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)

Declension[edit]

Inflection of mali (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
nominative mali malit
genitive malin malien
partitive malia maleja
illative maliin maleihin
singular plural
nominative mali malit
accusative nom. mali malit
gen. malin
genitive malin malien
partitive malia maleja
inessive malissa maleissa
elative malista maleista
illative maliin maleihin
adessive malilla maleilla
ablative malilta maleilta
allative malille maleille
essive malina maleina
translative maliksi maleiksi
instructive malein
abessive malitta maleitta
comitative maleineen
Possessive forms of mali (type risti)
possessor singular plural
1st person malini malimme
2nd person malisi malinne
3rd person malinsa

Synonyms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Italian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈma.li/
  • Rhymes: -ali
  • Hyphenation: mà‧li

Noun[edit]

mali m

  1. plural of male

Anagrams[edit]


Jingpho[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ləj (four). Cognate with Burmese လေး (le:), S'gaw Karen လွံၢ် (lwee̱), Sichuan Yi (ly), Tibetan བཞི (bzhi), Sikkimese ཞི (zhi).

Numeral[edit]

mali

  1. four

Kambera[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali

  1. tonight
  2. late afternoon

References[edit]

  • Marian Klamer (1998) A Grammar of Kambera, Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, →ISBN, page 213

Kavalan[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali

  1. ball

Latin[edit]

Adjective[edit]

malī

  1. inflection of malus:
    1. nominative/vocative plural
    2. genitive singular

Noun[edit]

mālī

  1. inflection of mālus:
    1. nominative/vocative plural
    2. genitive singular

Latvian[edit]

Verb[edit]

mali

  1. 2nd person singular past indicative form of malt

Lubuagan Kalinga[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali

  1. peanut

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Participle[edit]

mali

  1. (non-standard since 2012) feminine singular of malen
  2. (non-standard since 2012) neuter singular of malen

Verb[edit]

mali

  1. (non-standard since 2012) supine of mala

Anagrams[edit]


Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

mali

  1. virile nominative/vocative plural of mały

Sakizaya[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali

  1. ball

Sardinian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin male. Compare Italian male.

Adverb[edit]

mali

  1. (Campidanese) badly

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Adjective[edit]

mali

  1. inflection of mal:
    1. masculine nominative/vocative plural
    2. definite masculine nominative/vocative singular
    3. definite inanimate masculine accusative singular

Sicilian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin malus. Compare Italian mali, male.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈma.lɪ/
  • Hyphenation: mà‧li

Adjective[edit]

mali m pl or f pl

  1. masculine plural of malu; bad.
  2. feminine plural of malu

Inflection[edit]

Masculine Feminine
Singular malu mala
Plural mali mali

Noun[edit]

mali m (plural mali)

  1. evil, harm

Slovak[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Participle[edit]

mali

  1. plural l-participle of mať

Swahili[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic مَال(māl, property).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali (ma class, plural only)

  1. wealth, riches
  2. property

Usage notes[edit]

This word is morphologically plural but semantically singular. If a plural sense is required, it may be put in the n class.

Descendants[edit]

  • Ila: madi
  • Northern Ndebele: imali
  • Rwanda-Rundi: imari
  • Shona: mari
  • Tswana: madi
  • Xhosa: imali
  • Zulu: imali

Tagalog[edit]

Adjective[edit]

malî

  1. wrong

Anagrams[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic مَالِيّ(māliyy), from مَال(māl, property, wealth).

Adjective[edit]

mali

  1. financial, fiscal

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Woiwurrung[edit]

Noun[edit]

mali

  1. mallee