From Latin, by analogy with bonus (“additional compensation”)
malus (plural maluses)
- (business) The return of performance-related compensation originally paid by an employer to an employee as a result of the discovery of a defect in the performance.
- When bank fired the loan originator, they recovered the last two years of her bonuses under the malus clause in her contract.
- (rare) A penalty or negative thing.
- Might occur in financial services in connection with defaulted loans.
- Sometimes used in reference to games as a negative counterpart to "bonus."
From Proto-Italic, related to Oscan mallom and mallud (“bad”). Originally associated with Ancient Greek μέλας (mélas, “black, dark”), but support for this is waning. Perhaps from the same Proto-Indo-European root as Avestan 𐬨𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌𐬌𐬀 (mairiia, “treacherous”).
malus m (feminine mala, neuter malum, comparative peior, superlative pessimus); first/second declension
- bad, evil, wicked, injurious
- Malus et nequam homo.
- An evil and wicked man.
- Malam opinionem habere de aliquo.
- To have a bad opinion of someone.
- Consuetudo mala.
- A bad habit.
- destructive, mischievous, hurtful
- ill-looking, ugly, deformed
- (of fate) evil, unlucky
- Pessima puella.
- The unluckiest girl.
This adjective has irregular comparative and superlative degrees.
From Ancient Greek μηλέα (mēléa) (See also Ancient Greek μᾶλον (mâlon, “apple”), μῆλον (mêlon, “apple”)).
mālus f (genitive mālī); second declension
- an apple tree
- Malus bifera.
- An apple tree bearing fruit biannually.
- Et steriles platani malos gessere valentes.
- And the fruitless plane trees have borne strong apple trees.
- Felices arbores putantur esse quercus vel malus.
- The fruitful trees are thought to be an oak or apple tree.
By some referred to root mac-, from the Ancient Greek word μακρός (makrós, “long”) and Latin magnus (“long”); but perhaps the same word with malus.
mālus m (genitive mālī); second declension
- a mast of a ship
- Antemnas ad malos destinare.
- To fasten the sails to the masts.
- Malum erigi imperavit.
- He has ordered the mast to be erected.
- Attolli malos.
- The masts are lifted.
- a standard or pole to which the awnings spread over the theater were attached
- the beam in the middle of a winepress
- the corner beams of a tower
- Turrium mali.
- Beams of the towers.
- “malus” in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879.
- “malus” in Félix Gaffiot (1934), Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Paris: Hachette.
- Meissner, Carl; Auden, Henry William (1894) Latin Phrase-Book, London: Macmillan and Co.
- (ambiguous) to be broken down by misfortune: in malis iacere
- (ambiguous) to be hard pressed by misfortune: malis urgeri
- (ambiguous) to have a good or bad reputation, be spoken well, ill of: bona, mala existimatio est de aliquo
- (ambiguous) moral science; ethics: philosophia, in qua de bonis rebus et malis, deque hominum vita et moribus disputatur
- (ambiguous) to take a thing in good (bad) part: in bonam (malam) partem accipere aliquid
- (ambiguous) my mind forebodes misfortune: animus praesāgit malum
- (ambiguous) my mind forebodes misfortune: animo praesagio malum
- (ambiguous) a guilty conscience: conscientia mala or peccatorum, culpae, sceleris, delicti
- (ambiguous) to be tormented by remorse: conscientia mala angi, excruciari
- (ambiguous) to bless (curse) a person: precari alicui bene (male) or omnia bona (mala), salutem
- (ambiguous) from beginning to end: ab ovo usque ad mala (proverb.)
- OLD, p. 1069