malus

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See also: Malus and mālus

English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin malus, by analogy with bonus (additional compensation). Doublet of mal.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈmeɪ.ləs/, /ˈmɑː.ləs/, /ˈmæ.ləs/

Noun[edit]

malus (plural maluses or mali)

  1. (business) The loss or return of performance-related compensation originally paid by an employer to an employee as a result of the discovery of a defect in the performance.
    When bank fired the loan originator, they recovered the last two years of her bonuses under the malus clause in her contract.
    • c. 1997, ASTIN Bulletin, page 48:
      The existence of boni and mali for the different risks can be interpreted through the sign of estimated covariances.
    • 2000, Jean Pinquet, “Experience Rating through Heterogeneous Models”, in Georges Dionne, editor, Handbook of Insurance, Kluwer Academic Publishers, page 462:
      If the boni and mali do not depend on the frequency of claims, the average bonus-malus coefficient increases with the frequency.
    • 2008, Henner Gimpel, Nicolas R. Jennings, Gregory E. Kersten, Axel Ockenfels, Christof Weinhardt, Negotiation, Auctions, and Market Engineering: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, November 12-17, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, Springer Science & Business Media (→ISBN), page 62:
      Bidders with inferior quality, higher transport costs or additional switching costs receive a Malus which decreases their bid automatically to incorporate the disadvantages. Bonus Malus Auctions are used by about 50% of all companies.
    • 2014, Akmal Akramkhanov; Bernhard Tischbein; Usman Khalid Awan, “Effective management of soil salinity – revising leaching norms”, in John P. A. Lamers, Asia Khamzina, Inna Rudenko, and Paul L. G. Vlek, editors, Restructuring Land Allocation, Water Use and Agricultural Value Chains: Technologies, Policies and Practices for the Lower Amudarya Region, V & R unipress, Bonn University Press, →ISBN, page 131:
      Akramkhanov et al. (2010) also suggested a system of boni and mali on taxes to support the implementation of measures to achieve both water saving and salinity control (Table 3.3.1).
    • 2016, David Aveiro, Robert Pergl, Duarte Gouveia, Advances in Enterprise Engineering X: 6th Enterprise Engineering Working Conference, EEWC 2016, Funchal, Madeira Island, Portugal, May 30-June 3 2016, Proceedings, Springer (→ISBN), page 26:
      If both the estimated payment- and checking-rate is not above a threshold in a district, the contracted party will receive a malus for that district, and no bonus for any other district.
  2. (rare) A penalty or negative thing.
    • 2016, Rosa Bottino, Johan Jeuring, Remco C. Veltkamp, Games and Learning Alliance: 5th International Conference, GALA 2016, Utrecht, The Netherlands, December 5–7, 2016, Proceedings, Springer (→ISBN), page 305:
      The driver game has a game screen with less number of properties and representations (see Fig. 3(a)). [] If the user completes a level within the allocated time, then the user gets a bonus and will be advanced to another level[,] and if user is unable to complete a level, then a malus is provided and the user gets retained in the same level.
Usage notes[edit]
  • May occur in financial services in connection with defaulted loans.
  • Sometimes used in reference to games as a negative counterpart to "bonus".
Synonyms[edit]
Coordinate terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin mālus and translingual Malus.

Noun[edit]

malus (plural maluses)

  1. A plant of the genus Malus (the apples).
    • 1922, Gardener’s Chronicle of America, volume 26, page 228, column 2:
      It leads to a certain extent to an evergreen type Docynia which is distributed in the Himalayas and western China and whose magnificence of bloom I learned to know on my travels in Yunnan; it is distinct from from genuine maluses.
    • 1959, Gardeners Chronicle & Gardening Illustrated, volume 145, page 65, column 2:
      Malus ‘Dartmouth’ is a variety of M. pumila, the wild crab-apple, and is only one of the several maluses which offer a wider choice than the commonly planted ‘John Downie,’ lemoinei and eleyi.
    • 1968, Agriculture in Northern Ireland, volume 43, page 290:
      In gardens which are rather open and exposed, the ornamental crabs or maluses are generally less satisfactory than the cherries as flowering trees.
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

malus

  1. plural of malu

Anagrams[edit]


Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *malos, related to Oscan mallom and mallud (bad), probably from Proto-Indo-European *mel- (to deceive), cognate with Lithuanian melas (lie) and the first element of Ancient Greek βλάσφημος (blásphēmos, jinx). Alternatively, from Proto-Indo-European *(s)mal-, it would then be a cognate with English small.

Originally associated with Ancient Greek μέλας (mélas, black, dark), but support for this is waning. Also compare Avestan 𐬨𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌𐬌𐬀(mairiia, treacherous) and Sanskrit मल (mala, dirtiness, impurity)

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

malus (feminine mala, neuter malum, comparative pēior, superlative pessimus, adverb male); first/second-declension adjective

  1. unpleasant, distressing, painful, nasty, bad
    Abī in malam crucem, malum cruciātum.Go away to a bad cross, bad crucifixion. [ a saying referring back to a Roman army post defeat mass fratricide / suicide act ( to avoid a worse fate from the enemy victors; i.e., our own Roman engineered torture is a better fate / prospect ) cited from Ceasar's Gallic War Commentaries ]
    Mala rēs.Trouble, bad business.
    Mala aetās.Old age.
  2. unpleasant to the senses, sight, smell, taste, touch
    Mala faciēs.Ugly face.
  3. bad, evil, wicked, mischievous
    Malus et nēquam homō.An evil and wicked man.
    Dolus malus.Deliberate deception, malice afterthought (legal language).
  4. destructive, hurtful, noxious, evil
    Consuētūdō mala.A bad habit.
    Mala vōta, carmina susurrāre.To whisper evil spells, incantations.
  5. unkind, hostile, abusive
    Mala verba.Abuses.
  6. associated with bad luck, unlucky, unfavourable, unfortunate, adverse, evil
    Mala tempestās.Bad, unfavourable, unsuitable weather.
    Malam fāmam ferre.To bring bad reputation, ill fame.
    Malīs avibus.Under evil auspices. (literally, “Under bad birds.”)
    Reliquiae malae pugnae.Remnants of an unsuccessful, adverse battle.
  7. poor in condition or capacity, inept
    Mala merx/mers.A bad lot (of persons).
    Malā mente esse.To be out of one's mind.
    Pessimus poēta.The worst poet.
Declension[edit]

First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative malus mala malum malī malae mala
Genitive malī malae malī malōrum malārum malōrum
Dative malō malō malīs
Accusative malum malam malum malōs malās mala
Ablative malō malā malō malīs
Vocative male mala malum malī malae mala
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Asturian: malu
  • Bourguignon: mal
  • Champenois: mau
  • Dalmatian: mul
  • Friulian: mâl
  • Italian: malo
  • Padanian:
  • Old French: mal
    • Middle French: mal
  • Old Occitan: mal
  • Portuguese: mal, mar
    • Guinea-Bissau Creole: mal
    • Kabuverdianu: mal
  • Portuguese: mau
    • Guinea-Bissau Creole: mau
    • Kabuverdianu: mau
  • Romansch: mal, mel
  • Sardinian: malu, malosu
  • Sicilian: malu
  • Spanish: mal
  • Spanish: malo
  • English: malus

Etymology 2[edit]

From Ancient Greek μηλέα (mēléa) (See also Ancient Greek μᾶλον (mâlon, apple), μῆλον (mêlon, apple)).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mālus f (genitive mālī); second declension

  1. an apple tree; specifically, a plant in the genus Malus in the family Rosaceae.
    Malus bifera.
    An apple tree bearing fruit biannually.
    Et steriles platani malos gessere valentes.
    And the fruitless plane trees have borne strong apple trees.
    Felices arbores putantur esse quercus vel malus.
    The fruitful trees are thought to be an oak or apple tree.
Declension[edit]

Second-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative mālus mālī
Genitive mālī mālōrum
Dative mālō mālīs
Accusative mālum mālōs
Ablative mālō mālīs
Vocative māle mālī
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

By some referred to root mac-, from the Ancient Greek word μακρός (makrós, long) and Latin magnus (long); but perhaps the same word as mālus (apple tree).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

mālus m (genitive mālī); second declension

  1. a mast of a ship
    Antemnas ad malos destinare.
    To fasten the sails to the masts.
    Malum erigi imperavit.
    He has ordered the mast to be erected.
    Attolli malos.
    The masts are lifted.
  2. a standard or pole to which the awnings spread over the theater were attached
  3. the beam in the middle of a winepress
  4. the corner beams of a tower
    Turrium mali.
    Beams of the towers.
    • Caesar, de Bello Gallico VII, 22:
      nostrarum turrium altitudinem [...] commissis suarum turrium malis adaequabant
      They equaled the height of our towers [...] by the beams of their towers spliced together
Declension[edit]

Second-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative mālus mālī
Genitive mālī mālōrum
Dative mālō mālīs
Accusative mālum mālōs
Ablative mālō mālīs
Vocative māle mālī

References[edit]

  • malus”, in Charlton T[homas] Lewis; Charles [Lancaster] Short (1879) [] A New Latin Dictionary [], New York, N.Y.; Cincinnati, Ohio; Chicago, Ill.: American Book Company; Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • malus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • malus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • malus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) to be broken down by misfortune: in malis iacere
    • (ambiguous) to be hard pressed by misfortune: malis urgeri
    • (ambiguous) to have a good or bad reputation, be spoken well, ill of: bona, mala existimatio est de aliquo
    • (ambiguous) moral science; ethics: philosophia, in qua de bonis rebus et malis, deque hominum vita et moribus disputatur
    • (ambiguous) to take a thing in good (bad) part: in bonam (malam) partem accipere aliquid
    • (ambiguous) my mind forebodes misfortune: animus praesāgit malum
    • (ambiguous) my mind forebodes misfortune: animo praesagio malum
    • (ambiguous) a guilty conscience: conscientia mala or peccatorum, culpae, sceleris, delicti
    • (ambiguous) to be tormented by remorse: conscientia mala angi, excruciari
    • (ambiguous) to bless (curse) a person: precari alicui bene (male) or omnia bona (mala), salutem
    • (ambiguous) from beginning to end: ab ovo usque ad mala (proverb.)
  • malus”, in The Perseus Project (1999) Perseus Encyclopedia[2]
  • malus”, in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • malus”, in William Smith, editor (1848) A Dictionary of Greek Biography and Mythology, London: John Murray
  • malus”, in William Smith, editor (1854, 1857) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, volume 1 & 2, London: Walton and Maberly
  • malus”, in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin
  • malus” on page 1069 of the Oxford Latin Dictionary (1st ed., 1968–82)

Malecite-Passamaquoddy[edit]

Noun[edit]

malus anim (plural malusiyik)

  1. hop hornbeam, ironwood, Ostrya virginiana

References[edit]

  • Francis, David A.; Leavitt, Robert R.; Apt, Margaret (2008), “malus”, in The Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Dictionary, The Passamaquoddy Language Preservation Project