μῆλον

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

 
  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /mɛ̂ː.lon/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ˈme.lon/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /ˈmi.lon/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /ˈmi.lon/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /ˈmi.lon/
  • Etymology 1[edit]

    Uncertain. Multiple theories have been put forth.

    Beekes declares it to be a Pre-Greek Mediterranean substrate borrowing, comparing it with Hittite [script needed] (mahla, grape).[1]

    Kroonen (2016) reconstructs a byform *smh₂l-, from which he also derives Hittite [script needed] (šam(a)lu-, apple). He also connects this word with Proto-Kartvelian *msxal- (pear) and proposes that the Indo-European words may have come from a metathesis of that Kartvelian word. [2]

    However, Fenwick (2016) argues for an Indo-European origin of both μῆλον and [script needed] (šam(a)lu-, apple), deriving them from Proto-Indo-European *meh₂-. She proposes the existence of an -l- deverbal suffixed onto that root (which she concludes also occurred when Proto-Germanic *wibilaz (weevil) was derived from *webʰ-), leading to a new root.[3]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    μῆλον (mêlonn (genitive μήλου); second declension

    1. apple
    2. any fruit from a tree
    3. (figuratively, in the plural) a woman's breast
    4. (in the plural) cheeks
    Declension[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Uncertain. Compare Old Irish mil (small animal), Dutch maal (young cow), Old Church Slavonic малъ (malŭ), and Old English smæl (English small).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    μῆλον (mêlonn (genitive μήλου); second declension

    1. sheep
    2. goat
    3. beast
    Declension[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “μῆλον”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 943-944
    2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2016), “On the origin of Greek μῆλον, Latin mālum, Albanian mollë and Hittite šam(a)lu- ‘apple’”, in The Journal of Indo-European Studies[1], volume 44, pages 85-91
    3. ^ Fenwick, Rhona S. H. (2016), “Descendants and ancestry of a Proto-Indo-European phytonym *meh₂l-”, in The Journal of Indo-European Studies, volume 44, pages 441-456