standard

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: Standard

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has articles on:
Wikipedia

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English standard, from Old French estandart (gathering place, battle flag), from Frankish *standahard (literally stand firm, stand hard), equivalent to stand +‎ -ard. Alternative etymology derives the second element from Frankish *oʀd (point, spot, place) (compare Old French ordé (pointed), Old English ord (point, source, vanguard), German Standort (location, place, site, position, base, literally standing-point)). Merged with Middle English standar, stander, standere (flag, banner, literally stander), equivalent to stand +‎ -er. More at stand, hard, ord.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

standard (comparative more standard, superlative most standard)

  1. Falling within an accepted range of size, amount, power, quality, etc.
  2. (of a tree or shrub) Growing alone as a free-standing plant; not trained on a post etc.
    • 1863, Anthony Trollope, Rachel Ray:
      There are women who cannot grow alone as standard trees;—for whom the support and warmth of some wall, some paling, some post, is absolutely necessary […].
  3. Having recognized excellence or authority.
    standard works in history; standard authors
  4. Of a usable or serviceable grade or quality.
  5. (not comparable, of a motor vehicle) Having a manual transmission.
  6. As normally supplied (not optional).
  7. (linguistics) Conforming to the standard variety.

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

A mail standard of the 16th century; the transition between the more densely linked upstanding throat/neck part and the less densely linked shoulder section of the collar can be seen.

Noun[edit]

standard (plural standards)

  1. A principle or example or measure used for comparison.
    1. A level of quality or attainment.
      • 1897 December (indicated as 1898), Winston Churchill, chapter 8, in The Celebrity: An Episode, New York, N.Y.: The Macmillan Company; London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd., OCLC 222716698:
        The humor of my proposition appealed more strongly to Miss Trevor than I had looked for, and from that time forward she became her old self again; []. Our table in the dining-room became again the abode of scintillating wit and caustic repartee, Farrar bracing up to his old standard, and the demand for seats in the vicinity rose to an animated competition.
    2. Something used as a measure for comparative evaluations; a model.
    3. A musical work of established popularity.
    4. A rule or set of rules or requirements which are widely agreed upon or imposed by government.
    5. The proportion of weights of fine metal and alloy established for coinage.
      • 1727, John Arbuthnot, Tables of Ancient Coins, Weights and Measures. Explain'd and exemplify'd in several dissertations:
        By the present standard of the coinage, sixty-two shillings is coined out of one pound weight of silver.
    6. (sociolinguistics) standard idiom, a prestigious or standardized language variety; standard language[1]
    7. A bottle of wine containing 0.750 liters of fluid.
    8. (India) Grade level in primary education.
      • 2020, Avni Doshi, Burnt Sugar, Hamish Hamilton, page 179:
        I finished my twelfth standard with less than stellar marks.
      I am in fifth standard.
  2. A vertical pole with something at its apex.
    1. An object supported in an upright position, such as a lamp standard.
    2. The flag or ensign carried by a military unit.
    3. One of the upright members that supports the horizontal axis of a transit or theodolite.
    4. Any upright support, such as one of the poles of a scaffold.
    5. A sturdy, woody plant whose upright stem is used to graft a less hardy ornamental flowering plant on, rather then actually planting it.
    6. A tree of natural size supported by its own stem, and not dwarfed by grafting on the stock of a smaller species nor trained upon a wall or trellis.
      • 1685, William Temple, “Upon the Gardens of Epicurus, or of Gardening in the Year 1685”, in Miscellanea. The Second Part. [...], 2nd edition, London: [] J. R. for Ri[chard] and Ra[lph] Simpson, [], published 1690, OCLC 863624292, page 111:
        In the more temperate parts of France [gardens are] part laid out for Flowers, others for Fruits, ſome Standards, ſome againſt Walls or Paliſades, [...]
    7. The sheth of a plough.
  3. A manual transmission vehicle.
  4. (botany) The upper petal or banner of a papilionaceous corolla.
  5. (shipbuilding) An inverted knee timber placed upon the deck instead of beneath it, with its vertical branch turned upward from that which lies horizontally.
  6. A large drinking cup.
    • c. 1590, “A Looking Glass for London”, in The Complete Plays of Robert Greene[1], London: Ernest Ben Limited, published 1909:
      Frolic, my lords; let all the standards walk, / Ply it till every man hath ta’en his load.
  7. (historical) A collar of mail protecting the neck.
    Synonym: pisane
    • 1903, The Archaeological Journal, page 104:
      The scales generally showed on the face of the garment or defence, and we find body armour, gorgets, habergeons, standards or neck defences, and even the camailt of this class of armour.
    • 1992, Matthias Pfaffenbichler, British Museum, Armourers
      Goldsmiths also made gold and silver mail for the decorations of helmets and gorgets. The will of Duke Philip the Good shows that he owned a mail standard (collar) made of solid gold.
    • 2008, Josephine Wilkinson, Richard III: The Young King to be, Amberley Publishing Limited (→ISBN)
      The throat and upper chest was protected by the gorget plate, mail standard or a metal wrapper. Whichever helm Richard chose to wear, it might have had a keyhole at the top to allowed insignia to be inserted.
    • 2013, George Cameron Stone, A Glossary of the Construction, Decoration and Use of Arms and Armor: in All Countries and in All Times, Courier Corporation (→ISBN):
      [page 286:] A defense for the neck variously described as a combination of gorget and bevor worn with a salade, and as a standard of mail, or collar, worn under the plate gorget.
      [page 426:] Baron de Cosson says (Helmets and Mail 110): “Thus in the British Museum there is a standard of mail of which the rings of the top edge are exceedingly close and stiff, [] "
    • 2016, Ivor Noel Hume, Audrey Noel Hume, The Archaeology of Martin's Hundred: Part 1, Interpretive Studies; Part 2, Artifact Catalog, University of Pennsylvania Press (→ISBN), page 151:
      Mail was also used to provide skirts substituting for tassets, for collars called "standards" substituting for gorgets, as well as for coats (long) and shirts (short). Consequently finding a few links gives little or no clue to their source. The few from the Fort, however, include copper-alloy (brass?) links, ...

Hyponyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Translations[edit]

Interjection[edit]

standard

  1. (slang) An expression of agreement

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jack Croft Richards; Richard W. Schmidt (2010) Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Pearson Education Limited, →ISBN, pages 554

Anagrams[edit]


Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

standard m

  1. standard

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • standard in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • standard in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English standard.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

standard c (singular definite standarden, plural indefinite standarder)

  1. standard

Inflection[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English standard. Doublet of étendard

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

standard m (plural standards)

  1. standard
  2. switchboard

Adjective[edit]

standard (feminine singular standarde, masculine plural standards, feminine plural standardes)

  1. standard

Descendants[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • Often treated as invariable (with the single form standard used for masculine and feminine, singular and plural), but dictionary accounts vary.[1]

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ standard”, in Trésor de la langue française informatisé [Digitized Treasury of the French Language], 2012.

Further reading[edit]


Italian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

standard (invariable)

  1. standard

Noun[edit]

standard m (invariable)

  1. standard

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ standard in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di Pronuncia Italiana (DiPI)

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

Etymology[edit]

From Old French estandart, via English standard

Adjective[edit]

standard (singular and plural standard, comparative mer standard, superlative mest standard)

  1. standard

Noun[edit]

standard m (definite singular standarden, indefinite plural standarder, definite plural standardene)

  1. a standard

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French estandart, via English standard

Adjective[edit]

standard (singular and plural standard, comparative meir standard, superlative mest standard)

  1. standard

Noun[edit]

standard m (definite singular standarden, indefinite plural standardar, definite plural standardane)

  1. a standard

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Polish[edit]

Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Etymology[edit]

From English standard, from Middle English, from Old French estandart (gathering place, battle flag), from Old Frankish *standhard (literally stand firm, stand hard).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

standard m inan

  1. standard

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • standard in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • standard in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French standard.

Noun[edit]

standard n (plural standarde)

  1. standard

Declension[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /stǎndard/
  • Hyphenation: stan‧dard

Noun[edit]

stàndard m (Cyrillic spelling ста̀ндард)

  1. standard

Declension[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Noun[edit]

standard c

  1. a standard, a norm

Declension[edit]

Declension of standard 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative standard standarden standarder standarderna
Genitive standards standardens standarders standardernas

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]