normal

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See also: Normal and normál

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology[edit]

From Latin normālis (made according to a carpenter's square; later: according to a rule), from nōrma (carpenter's square), of uncertain origin.[1][2][3][4] The earliest use of the word in English was to mean "perpendicular; forming a right angle" like something normālis (made according to a carpenter's square),[1][5] but by Latin Latin normālis had also come to mean "according to a rule", from which modern English senses of the word derive:[5] in the 1800s, as people began to quantitatively study things like height and weight and blood pressure, the usual or most common values came to be referred to as "normal", and by extension values regarded as healthy or desirable came to be called "normal" regardless of their usuality.[6]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

normal (comparative normaler or more normal, superlative normalest or most normal)

  1. According to norms or rules or to a regular pattern.
    Organize the data into third normal form.
    • 2007, Steven Wilson, "Normal", Porcupine Tree, Nil Recurring.
      Prescription drugs, they help me through the day / And that restraining order keeps me well at bay / And what's normal now, anyway?
    • 2014, Michael Rush, Politics & Society, Routledge (→ISBN), page 210:
      In other words, although the legal processes were observed, it was not a normal transfer of power within each of the ruling communist parties. [] Demonstrations of the sort that brought about the collapse of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe were not normal, and where attempts had previously been made to hold them, they were invariably suppressed by force.
    1. (mathematics) Adhering to or being what is considered natural or regular in a particular field or context:
      1. (number theory, of a real number) In whose representation in a given base b ≥ 2, for every positive integer n, the bn possible strings of n digits follow a uniform distribution.
        A number whose individual digits in a given base representation follow a uniform distribution is said to be simply normal.
        A number that is normal for every base b ≥ 2 is said to be absolutely normal.
      2. (algebra, of a subgroup) With cosets which form a group.
      3. (algebra, of a field extension of a field K) Which is the splitting field of a family of polynomials in K.
      4. (probability theory, statistics, of a distribution) Which has a very specific bell curve shape; that is or has the qualities of a normal distribution.
      5. (probability theory, statistics, of a random variable, etc.) Which has a normal distribution; which is associated with random variable that has a normal distribution.
      6. (complex analysis, of a family of continuous functions) Which is pre-compact.
      7. (set theory, of a function from the ordinals to the ordinals) Which is strictly monotonically increasing and continuous with respect to the order topology.
      8. (linear algebra, of a matrix) Which commutes with its conjugate transpose.
      9. (functional analysis, of a Hilbert space operator) Which commutes with its adjoint.
      10. (category theory) Being (as a morphism) or containing (as a category) only normal epimorphism(s) or monomorphism(s), that is, those which are the kernel or cokernel of some morphism, respectively.
      11. (topology, of a topology) In which disjoint closed sets can be separated by disjoint neighborhoods.
  2. Usual, healthy; not sick or ill or unlike oneself.
    John is feeling normal again.
  3. (education, of a school) teaching teachers how to teach (to certain norms)
    My grandmother attended Mankato State Normal School.
  4. (chemistry) Of, relating to, or being a solution containing one equivalent weight of solute per litre of solution.
  5. (organic chemistry) Describing a straight chain isomer of an aliphatic hydrocarbon, or an aliphatic compound in which a substituent is in the 1- position of such a hydrocarbon.
  6. (physics, of a mode in an oscillating system) In which all parts of an object vibrate at the same frequency (see normal mode).
  7. (rail transport, of points) In the default position, set for the most frequently used route.
  8. (geometry) Perpendicular to a tangent of a curve or derivative of a surface.
    The interior normal vector of an ideal perfect sphere will always point toward the center, and the exterior normal vector directly away, and both will always be co-linear with the ray whose' tip ends at the point of intersection, which is the intersection of all three sets of points.

Usage notes[edit]

  • When used to describe a group of people, normal can be understood as meaning that those not part of the group are strange or freakish. Its usage can therefore be understood as offensive.

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

normal (countable and uncountable, plural normals)

  1. (geometry) A line or vector that is perpendicular to another line, surface, or plane.
  2. (slang, countable) A person who is normal, who fits into mainstream society, as opposed to those who live alternative lifestyles.
  3. (uncountable) The usual state.
    • 1930, Norman Lindsay, Redheap, Sydney: Ure Smith, published 1965, page 269:
      Still, there was a hitch somewhere in the gathering that threw it out of normal.
    His workload is now back to normal.
    Heavy workload is the new normal.

Synonyms[edit]

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 normal” in Merriam–Webster Online Dictionary.
  2. ^ normal” in Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.
  3. ^ normal” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–2020.
  4. ^ normal in The Century Dictionary, The Century Co., New York, 1911
  5. 5.0 5.1 The Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories (1991, →ISBN), age 321
  6. ^ Brent Davis, Dennis Sumara, Complexity and Education (2014, →ISBN)

Anagrams[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French normal.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

normal (masculine and feminine plural normals)

  1. normal
    Antonym: anormal

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin normālis. Synchronically analysable as norme +‎ -al.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

normal (feminine singular normale, masculine plural normaux, feminine plural normales)

  1. normal (according to norms, usual, pertaining to a school to teach teachers how to teach)
  2. okay, alright.
    Antonym: anormal

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

normal (comparative normaler, superlative am normalsten)

  1. normal

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Hunsrik[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

normal

  1. normal

Declension[edit]

Declension of normal
masculine feminine neuter plural
Weak inflection nominative normal normal normal normale
accusative normale normal normal normale
dative normale normale normale normale
Strong inflection nominative normaler normale normales normale
accusative normale normale normales normale
dative normalem normaler normalem normale

Further reading[edit]


Interlingua[edit]

Adjective[edit]

normal (comparative plus normal, superlative le plus normal)

  1. normal
    Antonym: anormal

Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowing from English normal.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈn̪ˠɔɾˠ(ə)mˠəlˠ/

Noun[edit]

normal m (genitive singular normail, nominative plural normail)

  1. (geometry, statistics, chemistry) normal

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Ladin[edit]

Adjective[edit]

normal m (feminine singular normala, masculine plural normai, feminine plural normales)

  1. normal

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin normālis.

Adjective[edit]

normal (neuter singular normalt, definite singular and plural normale)

  1. normal, ordinary
    Antonym: unormal

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin normālis.

Adjective[edit]

normal (neuter singular normalt, definite singular and plural normale)

  1. normal, ordinary
    Antonym: unormal

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin normālis.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

normal m or f (plural normais, comparable)

  1. normal, standard, regular

Related terms[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French normal, Latin normālis.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

normal m or n (feminine singular normală, masculine plural normali, feminine and neuter plural normale)

  1. normal

Adverb[edit]

normal

  1. normally


Spanish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /norˈmal/
  • Hyphenation: nor‧mal

Adjective[edit]

normal (plural normales)

  1. normal, standard, regular
    Synonyms: regular, común
    Antonyms: anormal, raro, poco común
  2. (geometry) perpendicular
    Synonym: perpendicular
    Antonyms: oblicuo, paralelo

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

normal f (plural normales)

  1. (education) a school for becoming a teacher

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin nōrmālis, from nōrma + -ālis, equivalent to norm +‎ -al.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

normal (comparative normalare, superlative normalast)

  1. normal
    Antonyms: abnorm, onaturlig, onormal, sjuklig

Declension[edit]

Inflection of normal
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular normal normalare normalast
Neuter singular normalt normalare normalast
Plural normala normalare normalast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 normale normalare normalaste
All normala normalare normalaste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.

Related terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

normal c

  1. (geometry) a normal (a line which is perpendicular to another line or to a surface)
    Antonym: tangent

Declension[edit]

Declension of normal 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative normal normalen normaler normalerna
Genitive normals normalens normalers normalernas

References[edit]