normal

English

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English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology

From Latin normālis (made according to a carpenter's square; later: according to a rule), from nōrma (carpenter's square), of uncertain origin;[1][2][3][4] doublet of normale. The earliest use of the word in English was to mean "perpendicular; forming a right angle" like something normālis (made according to a carpenter's square),[1][5] but by Late Latin normālis had also come to mean "according to a rule", from which modern English senses of the word derive:[5] in the 1800s, as people began to quantitatively study things like height and weight and blood pressure, the usual or most common values came to be referred to as "normal", and by extension values regarded as healthy or desirable came to be called "normal" regardless of their usuality.[6]

Pronunciation

normal (comparative normaler or more normal, superlative normalest or most normal)

1. According to norms or rules or to a regular pattern.
Organize the data into third normal form.
• 2007, Steven Wilson, "Normal", Porcupine Tree, Nil Recurring.
Prescription drugs, they help me through the day
And that restraining order keeps me well at bay
And what's normal now, anyway?
• 2014, Michael Rush, Politics & Society, Routledge, →ISBN, page 210:
In other words, although the legal processes were observed, it was not a normal transfer of power within each of the ruling communist parties. [] Demonstrations of the sort that brought about the collapse of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe were not normal, and where attempts had previously been made to hold them, they were invariably suppressed by force.
1. Adhering to or being what is considered natural or regular in a particular field or context:
1. (number theory, of a real number) In whose representation in a given base b ≥ 2, for every positive integer n, the bn possible strings of n digits follow a uniform distribution.
A number whose individual digits in a given base representation follow a uniform distribution is said to be simply normal.
A number that is normal for every base b ≥ 2 is said to be absolutely normal.
2. (algebra, of a subgroup) With cosets which form a group.
3. (algebra, of a field extension of a field K) Which is the splitting field of a family of polynomials in K.
4. (probability theory, statistics, of a distribution) Which has a very specific bell curve shape; that is or has the qualities of a normal distribution.
5. (probability theory, statistics, of a random variable, etc.) Which has a normal distribution; which is associated with a random variable that has a normal distribution.
6. (complex analysis, of a family of continuous functions) Which is pre-compact.
7. (set theory, of a function from the ordinals to the ordinals) Which is strictly monotonically increasing and continuous with respect to the order topology.
8. (linear algebra, of a matrix) Which commutes with its conjugate transpose.
9. (functional analysis, of a Hilbert space operator) Which commutes with its adjoint.
10. Being (as a morphism) or containing (as a category) only normal epimorphism(s) or monomorphism(s), that is, those which are the kernel or cokernel of some morphism, respectively.
11. (topology, of a topology or topological space) In which disjoint closed sets can be separated by disjoint neighborhoods.
12. () Integrally closed: equal its own integral closure in its field of fractions.
13. () Such that all of its localizations at prime ideals are integrally closed domains.
14. () Such that the local ring at every point is an integrally closed domain.
2. Usual, healthy; not sick or ill or unlike oneself.
John is feeling normal again.
1. (fandom slang, sarcastic, with “about”) Fervently interested in a subject; obsessed.
I wrote a 30-page analysis of the show’s villain because I’m very normal about them.
3. (education, of a school) Teaching teachers how to teach; teaching teachers the norms of education.
My grandmother attended Mankato State Normal School; my grandfather attended Illinois State Normal University.
• 1928, Western Montana College, Western Montana College of Education, Catalogue of the Montana State Normal College, page 10:
PURPOSE AND SCOPE[:] The State Normal College prepares teachers for the public schools of Montana. It accomplishes its work through professional courses, directed observation of expert teaching, and  []
4. Of, relating to, or being a solution containing one equivalent weight of solute per litre of solution.
5. Describing a straight chain isomer of an aliphatic hydrocarbon, or an aliphatic compound in which a substituent is in the 1- position of such a hydrocarbon.
6. (physics, of a mode in an oscillating system) In which all parts of an object vibrate at the same frequency (see normal mode).
7. (rail transport, of points) In the default position, set for the most frequently used route.
8. (geometry) Perpendicular to a tangent of a curve or tangent plane of a surface.
The interior normal vector of an ideal perfect sphere will always point toward the center, and the exterior normal vector directly away, and both will always be co-linear with the ray whose' tip ends at the point of intersection, which is the intersection of all three sets of points.

Usage notes

• When used to describe a group of people, normal can be understood as meaning that those not part of the group are strange or freakish. Its usage can therefore be understood as offensive to those it excludes.

Noun

normal (countable and uncountable, plural normals)

1. (geometry) A line or vector that is perpendicular to another line, surface, or plane.
2. A person who is healthy, normal, as opposed to one who is morbid.
• 2014, Ahmet Celik, Edibe Saricicek, Vahap Saricicek, Elif Sahin, Gokhan Ozdemir, Metin Kilinc, Ayten Oguz, Relation between the new anthropometric obesity parameters and inflammatory markers in healthy adult men[1], SCIRJ:
Subjects were grouped as Group 1 and Group 2 according to VAI, and normals, overweights and obeses according to BMI.
3. () A person who is normal, who fits into mainstream society, as opposed to those who live alternative lifestyles.
4. The usual state.
His workload is now back to normal.
Heavy workload is the new normal.
• 1930, Norman Lindsay, Redheap, Sydney, N.S.W.: Ure Smith, published 1965, →OCLC, page 269:
Still, there was a hitch somewhere in the gathering that threw it out of normal.

References

1. normal”, in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, 1996–present.
2. ^ normal”, in Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.
3. ^ Douglas Harper (2001–2024) “normal”, in Online Etymology Dictionary.
4. ^ normal”, in The Century Dictionary [], New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911, →OCLC.
5. The Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories (1991, →ISBN), age 321
6. ^ Brent Davis, Dennis Sumara, Complexity and Education (2014, →ISBN)

Asturian

normal (epicene, plural normales)

1. normal

Catalan

Etymology

Borrowed from French normal.

Pronunciation

normal m or f (masculine and feminine plural normals)

1. normal
Antonym: anormal

French

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin nōrmālis. By surface analysis, norme +‎ -al.

Pronunciation

• IPA(key): /nɔʁ.mal/
•  Audio: (file)

normal (feminine normale, masculine plural normaux, feminine plural normales)

1. normal (according to norms, usual)
2. normal (relating to a school to teach teachers how to teach)
3. okay, alright
Antonym: anormal

German

Pronunciation

• IPA(key): /nɔrˈmaːl/, [nɔʁˈmaːl], [nɔɐ̯-], [nɔ-], [no-]
• Rhymes: -aːl
•  Audio: (file)

normal (strong nominative masculine singular normaler, comparative normaler, superlative am normalsten)

1. ordinary, normal
völlig normal.completely normal.

Derived terms

normal

1. (standard) ordinarily, normally, in a normal fashion
Er hat sich ganz normal benommen.
He behaved quite normally.
2. Alternative form of normalerweise: usually, normally, in general
Normal geh ich früh ins Bett.
I normally go to bed early.

Interjection

normal

1. sure, of course, obviously; usually implies that something is trivial
Du hast mit zwölf schon geraucht? ― Normal.
You already smoked at twelve? ― Sure.

• normal” in Duden online
• normal” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Hunsrik

Pronunciation

normal

1. normal

Declension

masculine feminine neuter plural
Weak inflection nominative normal normal normal normale
accusative normale normal normal normale
dative normale normale normale normale
Strong inflection nominative normaler normale normales normale
accusative normale normale normales normale
dative normalem normaler normalem normale

Indonesian

Etymology

Borrowed from Dutch normaal, ultimately derived from Latin nōrmālis.

Pronunciation

• IPA(key): /ˈnɔr.mal/
• Rhymes: -mal
• Hyphenation: nor‧mal

normal (comparative lebih normal, superlative paling normal or ternormal, equative senormal)

1. normal
1. acording to norms or rules or to a regular pattern
2. (usually of mental health) usual, healthy; not sick or ill

Interlingua

normal (comparative plus normal, superlative le plus normal)

1. normal
Antonym: anormal

Irish

Etymology

Borrowing from English normal.

Pronunciation

• IPA(key): /ˈn̪ˠɔɾˠ(ə)mˠəlˠ/

Noun

normal m (genitive singular normail, nominative plural normail)

1. normal

Derived terms

normal m (feminine singular normala, masculine plural normai, feminine plural normales)

1. normal

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

From Latin normālis.

normal (neuter singular normalt, definite singular and plural normale)

1. normal, ordinary
Antonym: unormal

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Latin normālis.

normal (neuter singular normalt, definite singular and plural normale)

1. normal, ordinary
Antonym: unormal

Portuguese

Pronunciation

normal m or f (plural normais)

1. normal, standard, regular
2. (geometry) normal (perpendicular to a tangent of a curve or derivative of a surface)

Romanian

Etymology

Borrowed from French normal, from Latin normālis. By surface analysis, normă +‎ -al.

Pronunciation

• IPA(key): /norˈmal/
•  Audio: (file)

normal m or n (feminine singular normală, masculine plural normali, feminine and neuter plural normale)

1. normal

normal

1. normally
2. of course, obviously
Synonyms: evident, logic
Normal că mi-e foame.
Of course I'm hungry.

Spanish

Etymology

From Latin nōrmālis.

Pronunciation

• IPA(key): /noɾˈmal/ [noɾˈmal]
•  Audio (Colombia): (file)
• Rhymes: -al
• Syllabification: nor‧mal

normal m or f (masculine and feminine plural normales)

1. normal, standard, regular, fine
Synonyms: regular, común
Antonyms: anormal, raro,
A mi me parece normal.
It seems fine to me.
2. (geometry) perpendicular
Synonym: perpendicular
Antonyms: oblicuo, paralelo

Noun

normal f (plural normales)

1. a school for becoming a teacher

Swedish

Etymology

From Latin nōrmālis, from nōrma + -ālis, equivalent to norm +‎ -al.

Pronunciation

•  Audio: (file)

normal (comparative normalare, superlative normalast)

1. normal
Antonyms: abnorm, onaturlig, onormal, sjuklig

Declension

Inflection of normal
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular normal normalare normalast
Neuter singular normalt normalare normalast
Plural normala normalare normalast
Masculine plural3 normale normalare normalast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 normale normalare normalaste
All normala normalare normalaste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.
3) Dated or archaic

Noun

normal c

1. (geometry) a normal (a line which is perpendicular to another line or to a surface)
Antonym: tangent

Declension

Declension of normal
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative normal normalen normaler normalerna
Genitive normals normalens normalers normalernas

Tagalog

Etymology

Each pronunciation has a different source:

Pronunciation

• IPA(key): /noɾˈmal/ [n̪oɾˈmal] (Spanish influence)
• IPA(key): /ˈnoɾmal/ [ˈn̪oɾ.mɐl] (English influence)
• Syllabification: nor‧mal

normál or normal (Baybayin spelling ᜈᜓᜇ᜔ᜋᜎ᜔)

1. normal
Synonyms: karaniwan, regular

• normal”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Turkish

Etymology

From French normal, from Latin nōrmālis.

normal

Noun

normal (definite accusative normali, uncountable)

1. normal (usual state)
2. standard

Declension

Inflection
Nominative normal
Definite accusative normali
Singular Plural
Nominative normal
Definite accusative normali
Dative normale
Locative normalde
Ablative normalden
Genitive normalin