-alis

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See also: alis, Alis, and -ális

Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *-li-, which later dissimilated into an early version of -āris (e.g., mīlitāris). Perhaps connected to *h₂el- (to grow) (cf. the sense of indolēs, from this root).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ālis (neuter -āle); third-declension two-termination suffix

  1. Suffixed to nouns or numerals creating adjectives of relationship.
    anima (breath) + ‎-ālis → ‎animālis (animate, living)
    crūra (legs) + ‎-ālis → ‎crūrālis (pertaining to the leg, crural)
    pedēs (feet) + ‎-ālis → ‎pedālis (pertaining to the foot)
    duo (two) + ‎-ālis → ‎duālis (dual)
    rēx (king, ruler) + ‎-ālis → ‎rēgālis (regal, royal)
    nātūra (nature) + ‎-ālis → ‎nātūrālis (natural)
  2. Suffixed to adjectives creating adjectives with an intensified meaning.
    aequus (equal in a given quality; even, level) + ‎-ālis → ‎aequālis (equal in every respect, identical in value; uniform, unvarying)
    aeternus (having finite but long duration as if pertaining to an aetas; lasting) + ‎-ālis → ‎aeternālis (having infinite duration; everlasting, infinite)
    līber (free, independent, unrestricted; open, unbiased) + ‎-ālis → ‎līberālis (advocating and promoting personal freedom; bountiful, generous)
    socius (associating, sharing, partaking) + ‎-ālis → ‎sociālis (companionable; allied, confederate)

Usage notes[edit]

The suffix -ālis is added (usually, but not exclusively) to a noun or numeral to form an adjective of relationship to that noun. When suffixed to an existing adjective, the effect is and to intensify the adjectival meaning, and often to narrow the semantic field. If the root word ends in -l or -lis, -āris is generally used instead. Sometimes both forms are found; e.g., līneālis and līneāris.

Declension[edit]

Third-declension two-termination adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masc./Fem. Neuter Masc./Fem. Neuter
Nominative -ālis -āle -ālēs -ālia
Genitive -ālis -ālium
Dative -ālī -ālibus
Accusative -ālem -āle -ālēs
-ālīs
-ālia
Ablative -ālī -ālibus
Vocative -ālis -āle -ālēs -ālia

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Aromanian: -alji, -alj
  • Catalan: -al, -alla
  • English: -al
  • French: -el, -aille
    • Danish: -el
    • Dutch: -eel
    • German: -ell
    • Norwegian Bokmål: -ell
    • Norwegian Nynorsk: -ell
    • Swedish: -ell
    • Turkish: -el (learned)
    • Yiddish: ־על (-el)
    (Please either change this template to {{desc}} or insert a ====Descendants==== section in -aille#French)
  • French: -al
    • Norwegian Bokmål: -al
    • Turkish: -al
  • Friulian: -âl, -ae
  • Galician: -al
  • German: -al
  • Interlingua: -al
  • Italian: -ale, -aglia(Please either change this template to {{desc}} or insert a ====Descendants==== section in -aglia#Italian)
  • Occitan: -al, -alha
  • Portuguese: -al, -alha
  • Romanian: -aie, -ai
  • Sicilian: -ali
  • Spanish: -al
  • Venetian: -al, -aja, -agia
  • Welsh: -ol