- (verb-forming suffix) Appended to a noun, an adjective or less frequently to an adverb to form a verb.
- (verb-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
- -l is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-. Final long vowels may shorten, e.g. ű → ü.
- -ol is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
- -al is added to other back vowel words ending in a consonant
- -el is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
- -öl is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
- -ál is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
- -ul (for masculine and neuter nouns that do not end in a vowel other than -i)
- -le (for masculine and neuter nouns that end in -e)
From Vulgar Latin *illu, from Latin ille. Originally followed the noun and became attached to it as an inflection, unlike the definite articles in the other major Romance languages, which go before the noun.
This form of the definite article is used for both masculine and neuter nouns in the nominative and accusative cases which end in a vowel other than -e or -i:
- tatăl (the father), from tată, masc.
- fiul (the son), from fiu masc.
- agrul (the field), from agru, neut.
- leul (the lion), from leu, masc.
The suffix is also used with masculine and neuter singular adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies.
- -a (feminine singular nominative and accusative)
- -i (masculine/neuter plural nominative and accusative)
- -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)