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- 3 Romanian
- -il (attached to stems containing 'i', 'e' or 'ə')
- -ıl (attached to stems containing 'a' or 'ı')
- -ül (attached to stems containing 'ü' and 'ö')
- Suffix appended to transitive verbs to derive verbs with passive or reflexive meaning. Applies only to verb stems containing 'u', or 'o'
- (verb-forming suffix) Appended to a word to form an intransitive verb with a passive meaning.
- csoportos (“collective”) + -ul → csoportosul (“to form a group”)
- azonos (“identical”) + -ul → azonosul (“to identify; to associate oneself with some group”)
- von (“to pull”) + -ul → vonul (“to go along, to stalk, to march, literally to pull oneself”)
- alak (“shape”) + -ul → alakul (“to take shape”)
- (case suffix) Appended to an adjective to form an adverb (the modal sense of the essive-modal case).
- (case suffix) as, with the intention of (the essive sense of the the essive-modal case)
- (verb-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
a, á, o, ó, u, ú
e, é, i, í
ö, ő, ü, ű
|-ot / -at||-et||-öt|
|Note for all endings:|
Stem-final -a/-e changes to -á-/-é-, respectively, except -ként.
alma - almában, but almaként
zene - zenében, but zeneként
- (case suffix) Harmonic variants:
- -l (for masculine and neuter nouns ending in a vowel other than -e or -i)
- -le (for masculine and neuter nouns ending in -e)
Variant of -l with the original u (lost in most modern Romanian nouns) reappearing at the end of the noun it is attached to as a link to the definite article to make pronunciation smoother. For example, in its evolution from Latin, the word foc probably passed through a phase in early Romanian where it was *focu, but the u only appears now as a part of the definite form, focul (with the definite article suffix -l), corresponding to Vulgar Latin *focu illu. The grammatical rule was generalized and also came to apply to nouns of non-Latin origin after they became part of Romanian (e.g. război → războiul). Compare Aromanian -lu.
- variant of
- the (definite article)
This form of the definite article is used for both masculine and neuter singular nouns in the nominative and accusative cases which do not end in a vowel, except for -i (which is somewhat uncommon in Romanian):
- bărbatul (the man), from bărbat, masc.
- visul (the dream), from vis, neut.
- copilul (the child), from copil, masc.
- arcul (the bow), from arc, neut.
- războiul (the war), from război, neut.
- tramvaiul (the tram), from tramvai, neut.
- cotoiul (the tomcat), from cotoi, masc.
The suffix is also used with masculine and neuter singular adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies:
- deșteptul om, from omul deștept (both meaning, "the smart man")
- viteazul soldat, from soldatul viteaz (both meaning, "the brave soldier")
In informal speech, the final -l is sometimes not fully pronounced.