-in

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English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page as described here.
Particularly: “from -ing, etc.”

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (proscribed, dialect or eye dialect) Alternative form of -ing
  2. (biochemistry) Used, as a modification of -ine, to form the names of a variety of types of compound; examples include proteins (globulin), carbohydrates (dextrin), dyes (alizarin) and others (vanillin).

Derived terms[edit]


Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. of

Synonyms[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in f (plural -innen, diminutive -innetje)

  1. a suffix indicating the female counterpart of the stem

Derived terms[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Instructive case suffix.
    kaksin käsin = with two hands
    paljain silmin = with bare eyes
    pitkin askelin = with long steps
    hyvissä ajoin = in good time
Usage notes[edit]

No distinction is made between singular and plural, the -i- is always present. The suffix is added by replacing the inessive plural ending -ssa/-ssä with -n.

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (poetic) A variant for the first-person singular possessive suffix -ni.
    rakkaani = rakkain

Etymology 4[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (rare) Forms the genitive plural.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Suffixed to the nominative singular but the final -i changes to -e-.
  • Note, however, that the more common suffix for the genitive plural is -en added to the plural stem ending with i or j. A link consonant d is also also sometimes present.
  • Nowadays This suffix is rare and usually gives archaic tone. Certain names, however, retain this, e.g. Yhdysvaltain, from Yhdysvallat (singular stem Yhdysvalta-), where also the more modern form Yhdysvaltojen is possible.
See also[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms superlative adjectives.
    heikko (weak) → heikoin (weakest)
    matala (low, shallow) → matalin (lowest, shallowest)
    ruma (ugly) → rumin (ugliest)
    suuri (large, big) → suurin (largest, biggest)
Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 36/sisin, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -in -immat
genitive -imman -impien
-inten
partitive -inta -impia
illative -impaan -impiin
singular plural
nominative -in -immat
accusative nom.? -in -immat
gen. -imman
genitive -imman -impien
-inten
-impainrare
partitive -inta -impia
inessive -immassa -immissa
elative -immasta -immista
illative -impaan -impiin
adessive -immalla -immilla
ablative -immalta -immilta
allative -immalleˣ -immilleˣ
essive -impana -impina
translative -immaksi -immiksi
instructive -immin
abessive -immatta -immitta
comitative -impine

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 36/sisin, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -in -immät
genitive -immän -impien
-inten
partitive -intä -impiä
illative -impään -impiin
singular plural
nominative -in -immät
accusative nom.? -in -immät
gen. -immän
genitive -immän -impien
-inten
-impäinrare
partitive -intä -impiä
inessive -immässä -immissä
elative -immästä -immistä
illative -impään -impiin
adessive -immällä -immillä
ablative -immältä -immiltä
allative -immälleˣ -immilleˣ
essive -impänä -impinä
translative -immäksi -immiksi
instructive -immin
abessive -immättä -immittä
comitative -impine
See also[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms inanimate instrumental nouns from verbs.
    avata (to open) → avain (key)
    keittää (to cook, boil) → keitin (appliance for cooking/boiling)
    puhella (to chat, chatter) → puhelin (telephone)

Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 33/kytkin, no gradation)
nominative -in -imet
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -inta -imia
illative -imeen -imiin
singular plural
nominative -in -imet
accusative nom.? -in -imet
gen. -imen
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -inta -imia
inessive -imessa -imissa
elative -imesta -imista
illative -imeen -imiin
adessive -imella -imilla
ablative -imelta -imilta
allative -imelleˣ -imilleˣ
essive -imena -imina
translative -imeksi -imiksi
instructive -imin
abessive -imetta -imitta
comitative -imineen

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 33/kytkin, no gradation)
nominative -in -imet
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -intä -imiä
illative -imeen -imiin
singular plural
nominative -in -imet
accusative nom.? -in -imet
gen. -imen
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -intä -imiä
inessive -imessä -imissä
elative -imestä -imistä
illative -imeen -imiin
adessive -imellä -imillä
ablative -imeltä -imiltä
allative -imelleˣ -imilleˣ
essive -imenä -iminä
translative -imeksi -imiksi
instructive -imin
abessive -imettä -imittä
comitative -imineen

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -inus

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. adjectival suffix
    enfantin, from enfant
  2. nominal suffix
    crottin, from crotte

Derived terms[edit]

  • feminin form: -ine

German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in (plural -innen)

  1. creates the female form of animals or persons or occupations; umlaut takes place on some occasions
    Autor ("author") → Autorin ("female author")
    Gott ("(a) god") → Göttin ("female god (goddess)")
    Hund ("dog") → Hündin ("female dog (bitch)")
    Katze (f; "cat") → Kätzin ("female cat")
    Sänger ("singer") → Sängerin ("female singer")
  2. names the wife of a person
    Pastor ("pastor") → Pastorin ("wife of a pastor")

Derived terms[edit]


Ido[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. See -in-.

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-in

  1. rōmaji reading of いん

Luxembourgish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with German -in.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. used to form the female versions of agent nouns

Derived terms[edit]


Middle Dutch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch *-īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. -en; creates adjectives for the material of which something is made.

Derived terms[edit]

Category Middle Dutch words suffixed with -in not found

Descendants[edit]


Old High German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix[edit]

-īn

  1. used to create adjectives from nouns
    steinīn (made of stone) from stein (stone)
    guldīn (golden) from gold (gold)

Descendants[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Second-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession in words ending in a consonant.
    ev - evin
    house - your house
    ofis - ofisin
    office - your office
  2. Genitive case suffix for the nouns which end in a consonant
    öğretmen - öğretmenin
    teacher - teacher's/of the teacher

Usage notes[edit]

  • If the noun ends in a vowel, it becomes "-n" (for the possession suffix)
    kedi - kedin
  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into "-ün", "-ın" and "-un" according to the last vowel of the word. (possession suffix)
    yüz - yüzün (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
    saç - saçın (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol - yolun (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ".
    sebep - sebebin
    köpek - köpeğin
    çekiç - çekicin
    senet - senedin
  • It may cause the last vowel of the word dropped.
    beyin - beynin
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it's used with an auxiliary consonant; "n". (for the genitive case suffix)
    peri - perinin
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it's appended to a proper noun.
    Canberk - Canberk'in