-in

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (biochemistry) Used, as a modification of -ine, to form the names of a variety of types of compound; examples include proteins (globulin), carbohydrates (dextrin), dyes (alizarin) and others (vanillin).
    1. a neutral chemical compound
      albumin, casein, chitin, pepsin, saponin
    2. an enzyme
      renin, pancreatin
    3. an antibiotic
      penicillin, streptomycin
    4. a pharmaceutical product
      cobalamin, niacin, vitamin

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

Clipping of -ing.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (proscribed, dialect or eye dialect) Alternative form of -ing

Anagrams[edit]


Azerbaijani[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ın -in -un -ün
postvocalic -n

-in

  1. Reflexive suffix.
    örtmək (to cover) + ‎-ün → ‎örtünmək (to cover oneself)
    gizlənmək (to hide) + ‎-n → ‎gizlənmək (to hide oneself)
  2. Suffix creating other types of verbs from other verbs.
Suffixation notes[edit]

Verbs with monosyllabic vowel-ending stems generally take a y before the suffixes -il, -in, or -iş:

demək (to say) + ‎-in → ‎deyinmək (to say to oneself, to mutter)
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ın -in -un -ün
postvocalic -n

-in

  1. Suffix creating nouns from verbs.
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal
except after L
-ıl -il -ul -ül
after L -ın -in -un -ün
postvocalic -n

-in

  1. Form of -il ([passive suffix]) after the vowels E / Ə / İ with the consonant L.
Derived terms[edit]

See -il.


Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. of
    Synonym: -en

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-inъ.

Suffix[edit]

-in f

  1. Suffix deriving possessive adjectives from nouns of feminine gender, usually from proper and common personal nouns, sometimes also from nouns referring to animals.
    matčin bratrmother's brother
Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Further reading[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -īnus, from Ancient Greek -ινος (-inos).

Suffix[edit]

-in m inan

  1. (chemistry) -ine (suffix used to form names of chemical substances)
    adeninadenine
    olomoucinolomoucine
Declension[edit]

Dutch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch -inne, from Old Dutch *-inna, from Proto-Germanic *-inī.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɪn/
  • (file)

Suffix[edit]

-in f (plural -innen, diminutive -innetje)

  1. Forms nouns for the female counterpart of something.
    Synonyms: -e, -egge, -es, -ster

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]

  • Afrikaans: -in

Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.

Etymology 2[edit]

From the plural infix + Proto-Finnic *-n (instructive suffix); the instructive singular only exists for a few nouns in modern Finnish (such as jalan from jalka).

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Instructive case suffix.
    kaksin käsinwith two hands
    paljain silminwith bare eyes
    pitkin askelinwith long steps
    hyvissä ajoinin good time
Usage notes[edit]

No distinction is made between singular and plural, the -i- is always present and it is always considered to be grammatically in plural. The suffix is added to the weak grade stem.

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (poetic) A variant for the first-person singular possessive suffix -ni.
    rakkaani = rakkain

Etymology 4[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-den (genitive plural suffix for some nouns).

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (rare) Forms the genitive plural.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Suffixed to the nominative singular but the final -i changes to -e-.
  • Note, however, that the more common suffix for the genitive plural is -en added to the plural stem ending with i or j. A link consonant d is also sometimes present.
  • Nowadays this suffix is rare and usually gives an archaic tone. Certain proper nouns, however, retain this, e.g. Yhdysvaltain, from Yhdysvallat ("United States", singular stem Yhdysvalta-), where also the more modern form Yhdysvaltojen is possible.
See also[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in (related to Karelian -in). The oblique stem -impA, -immA is influenced by the oblique stem -mpA, -mmA of comparatives.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms superlative adjectives.
    heikko (weak) + ‎-in → ‎heikoin (weakest)
    matala (low, shallow) + ‎-in → ‎matalin (lowest, shallowest)
    ruma (ugly) + ‎-in → ‎rumin (ugliest)
    suuri (large, big) + ‎-in → ‎suurin (largest, biggest)
Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 36/sisin, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -in -immat
genitive -imman -impien
-inten
partitive -inta -impia
illative -impaan -impiin
singular plural
nominative -in -immat
accusative nom. -in -immat
gen. -imman
genitive -imman -impien
-inten
-impainrare
partitive -inta -impia
inessive -immassa -immissa
elative -immasta -immista
illative -impaan -impiin
adessive -immalla -immilla
ablative -immalta -immilta
allative -immalle -immille
essive -impana -impina
translative -immaksi -immiksi
instructive -immin
abessive -immatta -immitta
comitative -impine
Possessive forms of -in (type sisin)
possessor singular plural
1st person -impani -impamme
2nd person -impasi -impanne
3rd person -impansa
Only used with substantive adjectives, -inen adjectives used for comparisons of equality or agent participles.

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 36/sisin, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -in -immät
genitive -immän -impien
-inten
partitive -intä -impiä
illative -impään -impiin
singular plural
nominative -in -immät
accusative nom. -in -immät
gen. -immän
genitive -immän -impien
-inten
-impäinrare
partitive -intä -impiä
inessive -immässä -immissä
elative -immästä -immistä
illative -impään -impiin
adessive -immällä -immillä
ablative -immältä -immiltä
allative -immälle -immille
essive -impänä -impinä
translative -immäksi -immiksi
instructive -immin
abessive -immättä -immittä
comitative -impine
Possessive forms of -in (type sisin)
possessor singular plural
1st person -impäni -impämme
2nd person -impäsi -impänne
3rd person -impänsä
Only used with substantive adjectives, -inen adjectives used for comparisons of equality or agent participles.
See also[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in (instrumental suffix).

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms inanimate instrumental nouns from verbs.
    avata (to open) + ‎-in → ‎avain (key)
    keittää (to cook, boil) + ‎-in → ‎keitin (appliance for cooking/boiling)
    puhella (to chat, chatter) + ‎-in → ‎puhelin (telephone)

Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 33/kytkin, no gradation)
nominative -in -imet
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -inta -imia
illative -imeen -imiin
singular plural
nominative -in -imet
accusative nom. -in -imet
gen. -imen
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -inta -imia
inessive -imessa -imissa
elative -imesta -imista
illative -imeen -imiin
adessive -imella -imilla
ablative -imelta -imilta
allative -imelle -imille
essive -imena -imina
translative -imeksi -imiksi
instructive -imin
abessive -imetta -imitta
comitative -imineen
Possessive forms of -in (type kytkin)
possessor singular plural
1st person -imeni -imemme
2nd person -imesi -imenne
3rd person -imensa

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 33/kytkin, no gradation)
nominative -in -imet
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -intä -imiä
illative -imeen -imiin
singular plural
nominative -in -imet
accusative nom. -in -imet
gen. -imen
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -intä -imiä
inessive -imessä -imissä
elative -imestä -imistä
illative -imeen -imiin
adessive -imellä -imillä
ablative -imeltä -imiltä
allative -imelle -imille
essive -imenä -iminä
translative -imeksi -imiksi
instructive -imin
abessive -imettä -imittä
comitative -imineen
Possessive forms of -in (type kytkin)
possessor singular plural
1st person -imeni -imemme
2nd person -imesi -imenne
3rd person -imensä

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -īnus, from Proto-Indo-European *-iHnos.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. adjectival suffix
    enfant (child) + ‎-in → ‎enfantin (childish)
  2. nominal suffix
    crotte (animal dropping) + ‎-in → ‎crottin (manure)

Derived terms[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle High German -inne, -in, from Old High German -inna, from Proto-Germanic *-inī.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɪn/, [ɪn]
  • For speakers who realise -en as [ən], the distinction between both may at times be weak. However, most speakers have a syllabic nasal in -en and hence keep a very clear distinction.

Suffix[edit]

-in f (genitive -in, plural -innen)

  1. creates the female form for many nouns for living beings; umlaut usually occurs in monosyllables, but rarely in polysyllables
    Autor (author) + ‎-in → ‎Autorin (female author)
    Gott (god) + ‎-in → ‎Göttin (female god, goddess)
    Hund (dog) + ‎-in → ‎Hündin (female dog, she-dog, bitch)
    Katze (cat) + ‎-in → ‎Kätzin (female cat, she-cat)
    Sänger (singer) + ‎-in → ‎Sängerin (female singer)
    Pastor (pastor) + ‎-in → ‎Pastorin (female pastor)
    1. (dated) names the wife of a person
      Pastor (pastor) + ‎-in → ‎Pastorin (wife of a pastor)
    2. (dated) creates female personal names (for wives and daughters)
      Schwarz (proper noun)Schwarzin (a female person with the name Schwarz, that is the wife or daughter of someone named Schwarz)
    • 1743,
      Grosses vollständiges Universal Lexicon aller Wissenschaften und Künste, Welche bishero durch menschlichen Verstand und Witz erfunden und verbessert worden […] Fünf und Dreyßigster Band Schle-Schwa
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
      , Leipzig & Hallle, p.2007:
    Schwartzin, (Sibylle) […] war eine Tochter Christian Schwartzens, […] gebohren 1621 […] und starb 1638 den 13 Jul.
    Schwart (Sibylle (given name)) […] was a daughter of Christian Schwartz, […] born in 1621 […] and died on July 13th 1638.

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in n (genitive -ins, plural -ine)

  1. (chemistry) -yne; -ine

Derived terms[edit]



Ido[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. See -in-.

Irish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in f

  1. (biochemistry) -in

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-in

  1. Rōmaji transcription of いん

Luxembourgish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German -inne, -in, -īn. Compare German -in.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. used to form the female versions of agent nouns

Derived terms[edit]



Maltese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic ين(-īn), oblique case form of ون(-ūn), masculine personal plural suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. a common plural suffix
    1. used in most nouns and adjectives derived with the native suffix -i
      baħri (sailor)baħrin (sailors)
      Malti (Maltese)Maltin
    2. used in participles and some other native adjectives
      maqtugħ (cut, cut-off)maqtugħin
      ħelu (sweet)ħelwin

See also[edit]


Marshallese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (phonetic) IPA(key): [ʲ‿inʲ, ˠ‿inʲ, ˠ‿ɯnʲ, ʷ‿inʲ, ʷ‿unʲ]
  • (phonemic) IPA(key): /-inʲ/
  • Bender phonemes: {-in}

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. of
  2. from
  3. for

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is combined with nouns to create construct forms.

References[edit]


Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch *-īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. -en; creates adjectives for the material of which something is made.

Alternative forms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]


Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jnē, originally the essive case of a possessive adjective in *-j-.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. The ending of the comitative singular case.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jnē, originally the plural essive form.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. The ending of the locative plural case.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.


Old High German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix[edit]

-īn

  1. used to create adjectives from nouns
    stein (stone) + ‎-īn → ‎steinīn (made of stone)
    gold (gold) + ‎-īn → ‎guldīn (golden)

Descendants[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. inflection of -inn (adjective suffix):
    1. positive degree strong feminine nominative singular
    2. positive degree strong neuter nominative/accusative plural
  2. inflection of -inn (participle suffix):
    1. strong feminine nominative singular
    2. strong neuter nominative/accusative plural
  3. inflection of -inn (definite article suffix):
    1. feminine nominative singular
    2. neuter nominative/accusative plural

Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Adjective in -ī/-inī/-i, meaning possessing what is denoted by the base.

Usage notes[edit]

Independent vowels and vowel bearers are shown in the list of alternative forms to accord with basic grammar rules. These are converted to dependent vowels when the suffix is used.

Derived terms[edit]

Words using this suffix are listed in their own category. Note that normally only the Latin script forms are listed, as etymology sections are normally restricted to the Latin script form.



Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (Internet slang) Nonstandard form of -inho.

Related terms[edit]


Tagalog[edit]

Grammar[edit]

Verbs that use the -in suffix are in object trigger mode, meaning we focus more on the object rather than the subject of the sentences. These sentences are written in the Passive voice.

Let's consider the word "kain" which is a root word to refer to the act of eating. If we use the actor focus infix -um-, kumain means to eat. However if the object focus suffix -in is used, kainin, actually means to be eaten.

"Kumain ako" means I ate

"Kumain ako ng mansanas" means I ate an apple. In this sentence the object "ng mansanas" can be omitted as we focus more on "who ate" rather than "what was eaten".

"Kinain ko ang mansanas" means The apple was eaten by me or simply I ate the apple. The doer of the action in this sentence can be omitted as we focus more on what was eaten rather than who ate. Therefore, it's possible to just say "Kinain ang mansanas" which means The apple was eaten.

In fact, in a formal context, one can say, "Ang mansanas ay kinain ko" which means The apple was eaten by me.

Aside from the -in suffix-verbs, the object of the sentence is also focused in -an suffix-verbs and i- prefix-verbs.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. object trigger: to perform the action of the verb to someone or something
    Lulutuin ko ang isda.I will cook the fish. (literally: The fish will be cooked by me.)
    (The fish is focused.)
  2. directional trigger: to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of
    Dinalaw namin ang lola ni Olivia.We visited the grandmother of Olivia. (literally: Olivia's grandmother was visited by us.)
    (The grandmother is focused.)
  3. actor trigger: to be affected or overtaken by a condition, feeling or phenomenon
    Binabaha ang bahay niya.His house gets flooded.
    (His house is focused.)
  4. object trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Iniisip ko minsan ang nakaraan ko.I sometimes think about my past. (literally: My past is sometimes thought about by me.)
    (My past is focused.)

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. prone to, susceptible to
    lagnat (fever) + ‎-in → ‎lagnatin (prone to fever)
    sakit (illness) + ‎-in → ‎sakitin (prone to illness)

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. an object of the action expressed by the root
    awit (singing, song) + ‎-in → ‎awitin (song)
    aral (lesson, studying) + ‎-in → ‎aralin (studies)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Normally, /h/ is inserted before -in when the root word end with a vowel that is not followed by a glottal stop. In some cases, phoneme change can occur and /h/ becomes /n/.
    sabi + ‎-hin → ‎sabihin
    talo + ‎-nin → ‎talunin
  • Sometimes, the final vowel of the root word disappears when the suffix is added.
    sunod + ‎-in → ‎sundin
    kamit + ‎-in → ‎kamtin

Derived terms[edit]



Turkish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Second-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession in words ending in a consonant.
    ev (house) + ‎-in → ‎evin (your house)
    ofis (office) + ‎-in → ‎ofisin (your office)
  2. Genitive case suffix for the nouns which end in a consonant
    öğretmen (teacher) + ‎-in → ‎öğretmenin (teacher's/of the teacher)

Usage notes[edit]

  • If the noun ends in a vowel, it becomes -n (for the possession suffix)
    kedi + ‎-n → ‎kedin
  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into -ün, -ın and -un according to the last vowel of the word. (possession suffix)
    yüz + ‎-ün → ‎yüzün (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
    saç + ‎-ın → ‎saçın (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol + ‎-un → ‎yolun (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ".
    sebep + ‎-in → ‎sebebin
    köpek + ‎-in → ‎köpeğin
    çekiç + ‎-in → ‎çekicin
    senet + ‎-in → ‎senedin
  • It may cause the last vowel of the word dropped.
    beyin + ‎-in → ‎beynin
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it's used with an auxiliary consonant; "n". (for the genitive case suffix)
    peri + ‎-nin → ‎perinin
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it's appended to a proper noun.
    Canberk + ‎-in → ‎Canberk'in

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Reflexive suffix
    giy- (to wear) + ‎-in → ‎giyin- (to dress oneself)

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *-in, from Proto-Celtic *-īnos, from Proto-Indo-European *-iHnos.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in f

  1. forms nouns characterised by root
    hesb (barren, sterile) + ‎-in → ‎hesbin (young ewe)
    crib (comb) + ‎-in → ‎cribin (rake)
  2. (obsolete) forms adjectives from nouns, usually nouns of material
    pridd (soil, earth) + ‎-in → ‎priddin (earthen)
    aur (gold) + ‎-in → ‎eurin (golden)
    lledr (leather) + ‎-in → ‎lledrin (leathern)
  3. forms adjectives from other adjectives
    garw (rough) + ‎-in → ‎gerwin (severe, harsh)

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950-), “-in”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies