-in

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Clipping of -ine.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (biochemistry) Used, as a modification of -ine, to form the names of a variety of types of compound; examples include proteins (globulin), carbohydrates (dextrin), dyes (alizarin) and others (vanillin).
    1. a neutral chemical compound
      albumin, casein, chitin, pepsin, saponin
    2. an enzyme
      renin, pancreatin
    3. an antibiotic
      penicillin, streptomycin
    4. a pharmaceutical product
      cobalamin, niacin, vitamin
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From the particle in, modelled after sit-in. Compare -off.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Attached to a word (usually a verb) to denote a protest, demonstration or other type of gathering characterized by the activity denoted by the base word.
Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Harder, K. B. (1968), “Coinages of the Type of “Sit-In.””, in American Speech, volume 43, issue 1, →DOI, pages 58–64

Etymology 3[edit]

Clipping of -ing.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (proscribed, dialect) Alternative form of -ing.

Etymology 4[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Alternative form of -en
    elf + ‎-in → ‎elfin

Anagrams[edit]

Azerbaijani[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ın -in -un -ün
postvocalic -n

-in

  1. Reflexive suffix.
    örtmək (to cover) + ‎-ün → ‎örtünmək (to cover oneself)
    gizləmək (to hide) + ‎-n → ‎gizlənmək (to hide oneself)
  2. Suffix creating other types of verbs from other verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

Verbs with monosyllabic vowel-ending stems generally take a y before the suffixes -il, -in, or -iş:

demək (to say) + ‎-in → ‎deyinmək (to say to oneself, to mutter)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ın -in -un -ün
postvocalic -n

-in

  1. Suffix creating nouns from verbs.
Declension[edit]
    Declension of -in
singular plural
nominative -in
-inlər
definite accusative -ini
-inləri
dative -inə
-inlərə
locative -ində
-inlərdə
ablative -indən
-inlərdən
definite genitive -inin
-inlərin
    Possessive forms of -in
nominative
singular plural
mənim (my) -inim -inlərim
sənin (your) -inin -inlərin
onun (his/her/its) -ini -inləri
bizim (our) -inimiz -inlərimiz
sizin (your) -ininiz -inləriniz
onların (their) -ini or -inləri -inləri
accusative
singular plural
mənim (my) -inimi -inlərimi
sənin (your) -inini -inlərini
onun (his/her/its) -inini -inlərini
bizim (our) -inimizi -inlərimizi
sizin (your) -ininizi -inlərinizi
onların (their) -inini or -inlərini -inlərini
dative
singular plural
mənim (my) -inimə -inlərimə
sənin (your) -ininə -inlərinə
onun (his/her/its) -ininə -inlərinə
bizim (our) -inimizə -inlərimizə
sizin (your) -ininizə -inlərinizə
onların (their) -ininə or -inlərinə -inlərinə
locative
singular plural
mənim (my) -inimdə -inlərimdə
sənin (your) -inində -inlərində
onun (his/her/its) -inində -inlərində
bizim (our) -inimizdə -inlərimizdə
sizin (your) -ininizdə -inlərinizdə
onların (their) -inində or -inlərində -inlərində
ablative
singular plural
mənim (my) -inimdən -inlərimdən
sənin (your) -inindən -inlərindən
onun (his/her/its) -inindən -inlərindən
bizim (our) -inimizdən -inlərimizdən
sizin (your) -ininizdən -inlərinizdən
onların (their) -inindən or -inlərindən -inlərindən
genitive
singular plural
mənim (my) -inimin -inlərimin
sənin (your) -ininin -inlərinin
onun (his/her/its) -ininin -inlərinin
bizim (our) -inimizin -inlərimizin
sizin (your) -ininizin -inlərinizin
onların (their) -ininin or -inlərinin -inlərinin
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal
except after L
-ıl -il -ul -ül
after L -ın -in -un -ün
postvocalic -n

-in

  1. Form of -il ([passive suffix]) after the vowels E / Ə / İ with the consonant L.
Derived terms[edit]

See -il.

Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. of
    Synonym: -en

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-inъ.

Suffix[edit]

-in (adjective-forming suffix)

  1. suffix deriving possessive adjectives from nouns of feminine gender, usually from proper and common personal nouns, sometimes also from nouns referring to animals
    matčin bratrmother's brother
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Latin -īnus, from Ancient Greek -ινος (-inos).

Suffix[edit]

-in m inan (noun-forming suffix)

  1. (chemistry) -ine (suffix used to form names of chemical substances)
    adeninadenine
    olomoucinolomoucine
Declension[edit]

Dutch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch -inne, from Old Dutch *-inna, from Proto-Germanic *-inī.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɪn/
  • (file)

Suffix[edit]

-in f (plural -innen, diminutive -innetje)

  1. Forms nouns for the female counterpart of something.
    Synonyms: -e, -egge, -es, -ster

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Afrikaans: -in

Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in (instrumental suffix), probably from Proto-Uralic *-ma.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms inanimate instrumental nouns from verbs.
    avata (to open) + ‎-in → ‎avain (key)
    keittää (to cook, boil) + ‎-in → ‎keitin (appliance for cooking/boiling)
    puhella (to chat, chatter) + ‎-in → ‎puhelin (telephone)
    elää (to live) + ‎-in → ‎eläin (animal)
  2. Forms some diminutive nouns.
Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 33/kytkin, no gradation)
nominative -in -imet
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -inta -imia
illative -imeen -imiin
singular plural
nominative -in -imet
accusative nom. -in -imet
gen. -imen
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -inta -imia
inessive -imessa -imissa
elative -imesta -imista
illative -imeen -imiin
adessive -imella -imilla
ablative -imelta -imilta
allative -imelle -imille
essive -imena -imina
translative -imeksi -imiksi
abessive -imetta -imitta
instructive -imin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of -in (Kotus type 33/kytkin, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -imeni -imeni
accusative nom. -imeni -imeni
gen. -imeni
genitive -imeni -imieni
-inteni
partitive -intani -imiani
inessive -imessani -imissani
elative -imestani -imistani
illative -imeeni -imiini
adessive -imellani -imillani
ablative -imeltani -imiltani
allative -imelleni -imilleni
essive -imenani -iminani
translative -imekseni -imikseni
abessive -imettani -imittani
instructive
comitative -imineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -imesi -imesi
accusative nom. -imesi -imesi
gen. -imesi
genitive -imesi -imiesi
-intesi
partitive -intasi -imiasi
inessive -imessasi -imissasi
elative -imestasi -imistasi
illative -imeesi -imiisi
adessive -imellasi -imillasi
ablative -imeltasi -imiltasi
allative -imellesi -imillesi
essive -imenasi -iminasi
translative -imeksesi -imiksesi
abessive -imettasi -imittasi
instructive
comitative -iminesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -imemme -imemme
accusative nom. -imemme -imemme
gen. -imemme
genitive -imemme -imiemme
-intemme
partitive -intamme -imiamme
inessive -imessamme -imissamme
elative -imestamme -imistamme
illative -imeemme -imiimme
adessive -imellamme -imillamme
ablative -imeltamme -imiltamme
allative -imellemme -imillemme
essive -imenamme -iminamme
translative -imeksemme -imiksemme
abessive -imettamme -imittamme
instructive
comitative -iminemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -imenne -imenne
accusative nom. -imenne -imenne
gen. -imenne
genitive -imenne -imienne
-intenne
partitive -intanne -imianne
inessive -imessanne -imissanne
elative -imestanne -imistanne
illative -imeenne -imiinne
adessive -imellanne -imillanne
ablative -imeltanne -imiltanne
allative -imellenne -imillenne
essive -imenanne -iminanne
translative -imeksenne -imiksenne
abessive -imettanne -imittanne
instructive
comitative -iminenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -imensa -imensa
accusative nom. -imensa -imensa
gen. -imensa
genitive -imensa -imiensa
-intensa
partitive -intaan
-intansa
-imiaan
-imiansa
inessive -imessaan
-imessansa
-imissaan
-imissansa
elative -imestaan
-imestansa
-imistaan
-imistansa
illative -imeensa -imiinsa
adessive -imellaan
-imellansa
-imillaan
-imillansa
ablative -imeltaan
-imeltansa
-imiltaan
-imiltansa
allative -imelleen
-imellensa
-imilleen
-imillensa
essive -imenaan
-imenansa
-iminaan
-iminansa
translative -imekseen
-imeksensa
-imikseen
-imiksensa
abessive -imettaan
-imettansa
-imittaan
-imittansa
instructive
comitative -imineen
-iminensa

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 33/kytkin, no gradation)
nominative -in -imet
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -intä -imiä
illative -imeen -imiin
singular plural
nominative -in -imet
accusative nom. -in -imet
gen. -imen
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -intä -imiä
inessive -imessä -imissä
elative -imestä -imistä
illative -imeen -imiin
adessive -imellä -imillä
ablative -imeltä -imiltä
allative -imelle -imille
essive -imenä -iminä
translative -imeksi -imiksi
abessive -imettä -imittä
instructive -imin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of -in (Kotus type 33/kytkin, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -imeni -imeni
accusative nom. -imeni -imeni
gen. -imeni
genitive -imeni -imieni
-inteni
partitive -intäni -imiäni
inessive -imessäni -imissäni
elative -imestäni -imistäni
illative -imeeni -imiini
adessive -imelläni -imilläni
ablative -imeltäni -imiltäni
allative -imelleni -imilleni
essive -imenäni -iminäni
translative -imekseni -imikseni
abessive -imettäni -imittäni
instructive
comitative -imineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -imesi -imesi
accusative nom. -imesi -imesi
gen. -imesi
genitive -imesi -imiesi
-intesi
partitive -intäsi -imiäsi
inessive -imessäsi -imissäsi
elative -imestäsi -imistäsi
illative -imeesi -imiisi
adessive -imelläsi -imilläsi
ablative -imeltäsi -imiltäsi
allative -imellesi -imillesi
essive -imenäsi -iminäsi
translative -imeksesi -imiksesi
abessive -imettäsi -imittäsi
instructive
comitative -iminesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -imemme -imemme
accusative nom. -imemme -imemme
gen. -imemme
genitive -imemme -imiemme
-intemme
partitive -intämme -imiämme
inessive -imessämme -imissämme
elative -imestämme -imistämme
illative -imeemme -imiimme
adessive -imellämme -imillämme
ablative -imeltämme -imiltämme
allative -imellemme -imillemme
essive -imenämme -iminämme
translative -imeksemme -imiksemme
abessive -imettämme -imittämme
instructive
comitative -iminemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -imenne -imenne
accusative nom. -imenne -imenne
gen. -imenne
genitive -imenne -imienne
-intenne
partitive -intänne -imiänne
inessive -imessänne -imissänne
elative -imestänne -imistänne
illative -imeenne -imiinne
adessive -imellänne -imillänne
ablative -imeltänne -imiltänne
allative -imellenne -imillenne
essive -imenänne -iminänne
translative -imeksenne -imiksenne
abessive -imettänne -imittänne
instructive
comitative -iminenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -imensä -imensä
accusative nom. -imensä -imensä
gen. -imensä
genitive -imensä -imiensä
-intensä
partitive -intään
-intänsä
-imiään
-imiänsä
inessive -imessään
-imessänsä
-imissään
-imissänsä
elative -imestään
-imestänsä
-imistään
-imistänsä
illative -imeensä -imiinsä
adessive -imellään
-imellänsä
-imillään
-imillänsä
ablative -imeltään
-imeltänsä
-imiltään
-imiltänsä
allative -imelleen
-imellensä
-imilleen
-imillensä
essive -imenään
-imenänsä
-iminään
-iminänsä
translative -imekseen
-imeksensä
-imikseen
-imiksensä
abessive -imettään
-imettänsä
-imittään
-imittänsä
instructive
comitative -imineen
-iminensä
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in (superlative suffix) (related to Karelian -in), probably from Proto-Uralic *-ma. The oblique stem -impA, -immA is influenced by the oblique stem -mpA, -mmA of comparatives.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms superlative adjectives.
    heikko (weak) + ‎-in → ‎heikoin (weakest)
    matala (low, shallow) + ‎-in → ‎matalin (lowest, shallowest)
    ruma (ugly) + ‎-in → ‎rumin (ugliest)
    suuri (large, big) + ‎-in → ‎suurin (largest, biggest)
Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 36*H/sisin, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -in -immat
genitive -imman -impien
-inten
partitive -inta -impia
illative -impaan -impiin
singular plural
nominative -in -immat
accusative nom. -in -immat
gen. -imman
genitive -imman -impien
-inten
-impainrare
partitive -inta -impia
inessive -immassa -immissa
elative -immasta -immista
illative -impaan -impiin
adessive -immalla -immilla
ablative -immalta -immilta
allative -immalle -immille
essive -impana -impina
translative -immaksi -immiksi
abessive -immatta -immitta
instructive -immin
comitative -impine
Possessive forms of -in (Kotus type 36*H/sisin, mp-mm gradation)
Rare. Only used with substantive adjectives.
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -impani -impani
accusative nom. -impani -impani
gen. -impani
genitive -impani -impieni
-inteni
-impainirare
partitive -intani -impiani
inessive -immassani -immissani
elative -immastani -immistani
illative -impaani -impiini
adessive -immallani -immillani
ablative -immaltani -immiltani
allative -immalleni -immilleni
essive -impanani -impinani
translative -immakseni -immikseni
abessive -immattani -immittani
instructive
comitative -impineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -impasi -impasi
accusative nom. -impasi -impasi
gen. -impasi
genitive -impasi -impiesi
-intesi
-impaisirare
partitive -intasi -impiasi
inessive -immassasi -immissasi
elative -immastasi -immistasi
illative -impaasi -impiisi
adessive -immallasi -immillasi
ablative -immaltasi -immiltasi
allative -immallesi -immillesi
essive -impanasi -impinasi
translative -immaksesi -immiksesi
abessive -immattasi -immittasi
instructive
comitative -impinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -impamme -impamme
accusative nom. -impamme -impamme
gen. -impamme
genitive -impamme -impiemme
-intemme
-impaimmerare
partitive -intamme -impiamme
inessive -immassamme -immissamme
elative -immastamme -immistamme
illative -impaamme -impiimme
adessive -immallamme -immillamme
ablative -immaltamme -immiltamme
allative -immallemme -immillemme
essive -impanamme -impinamme
translative -immaksemme -immiksemme
abessive -immattamme -immittamme
instructive
comitative -impinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -impanne -impanne
accusative nom. -impanne -impanne
gen. -impanne
genitive -impanne -impienne
-intenne
-impainnerare
partitive -intanne -impianne
inessive -immassanne -immissanne
elative -immastanne -immistanne
illative -impaanne -impiinne
adessive -immallanne -immillanne
ablative -immaltanne -immiltanne
allative -immallenne -immillenne
essive -impananne -impinanne
translative -immaksenne -immiksenne
abessive -immattanne -immittanne
instructive
comitative -impinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -impansa -impansa
accusative nom. -impansa -impansa
gen. -impansa
genitive -impansa -impiensa
-intensa
-impainsarare
partitive -intaan
-intansa
-impiaan
-impiansa
inessive -immassaan
-immassansa
-immissaan
-immissansa
elative -immastaan
-immastansa
-immistaan
-immistansa
illative -impaansa -impiinsa
adessive -immallaan
-immallansa
-immillaan
-immillansa
ablative -immaltaan
-immaltansa
-immiltaan
-immiltansa
allative -immalleen
-immallensa
-immilleen
-immillensa
essive -impanaan
-impanansa
-impinaan
-impinansa
translative -immakseen
-immaksensa
-immikseen
-immiksensa
abessive -immattaan
-immattansa
-immittaan
-immittansa
instructive
comitative -impineen
-impinensa

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 36*H/sisin, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -in -immät
genitive -immän -impien
-inten
partitive -intä -impiä
illative -impään -impiin
singular plural
nominative -in -immät
accusative nom. -in -immät
gen. -immän
genitive -immän -impien
-inten
-impäinrare
partitive -intä -impiä
inessive -immässä -immissä
elative -immästä -immistä
illative -impään -impiin
adessive -immällä -immillä
ablative -immältä -immiltä
allative -immälle -immille
essive -impänä -impinä
translative -immäksi -immiksi
abessive -immättä -immittä
instructive -immin
comitative -impine
Possessive forms of -in (Kotus type 36*H/sisin, mp-mm gradation)
Rare. Only used with substantive adjectives.
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -impäni -impäni
accusative nom. -impäni -impäni
gen. -impäni
genitive -impäni -impieni
-inteni
-impäinirare
partitive -intäni -impiäni
inessive -immässäni -immissäni
elative -immästäni -immistäni
illative -impääni -impiini
adessive -immälläni -immilläni
ablative -immältäni -immiltäni
allative -immälleni -immilleni
essive -impänäni -impinäni
translative -immäkseni -immikseni
abessive -immättäni -immittäni
instructive
comitative -impineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -impäsi -impäsi
accusative nom. -impäsi -impäsi
gen. -impäsi
genitive -impäsi -impiesi
-intesi
-impäisirare
partitive -intäsi -impiäsi
inessive -immässäsi -immissäsi
elative -immästäsi -immistäsi
illative -impääsi -impiisi
adessive -immälläsi -immilläsi
ablative -immältäsi -immiltäsi
allative -immällesi -immillesi
essive -impänäsi -impinäsi
translative -immäksesi -immiksesi
abessive -immättäsi -immittäsi
instructive
comitative -impinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -impämme -impämme
accusative nom. -impämme -impämme
gen. -impämme
genitive -impämme -impiemme
-intemme
-impäimmerare
partitive -intämme -impiämme
inessive -immässämme -immissämme
elative -immästämme -immistämme
illative -impäämme -impiimme
adessive -immällämme -immillämme
ablative -immältämme -immiltämme
allative -immällemme -immillemme
essive -impänämme -impinämme
translative -immäksemme -immiksemme
abessive -immättämme -immittämme
instructive
comitative -impinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -impänne -impänne
accusative nom. -impänne -impänne
gen. -impänne
genitive -impänne -impienne
-intenne
-impäinnerare
partitive -intänne -impiänne
inessive -immässänne -immissänne
elative -immästänne -immistänne
illative -impäänne -impiinne
adessive -immällänne -immillänne
ablative -immältänne -immiltänne
allative -immällenne -immillenne
essive -impänänne -impinänne
translative -immäksenne -immiksenne
abessive -immättänne -immittänne
instructive
comitative -impinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -impänsä -impänsä
accusative nom. -impänsä -impänsä
gen. -impänsä
genitive -impänsä -impiensä
-intensä
-impäinsärare
partitive -intään
-intänsä
-impiään
-impiänsä
inessive -immässään
-immässänsä
-immissään
-immissänsä
elative -immästään
-immästänsä
-immistään
-immistänsä
illative -impäänsä -impiinsä
adessive -immällään
-immällänsä
-immillään
-immillänsä
ablative -immältään
-immältänsä
-immiltään
-immiltänsä
allative -immälleen
-immällensä
-immilleen
-immillensä
essive -impänään
-impänänsä
-impinään
-impinänsä
translative -immäkseen
-immäksensä
-immikseen
-immiksensä
abessive -immättään
-immättänsä
-immittään
-immittänsä
instructive
comitative -impineen
-impinensä
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

See -n.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Instructive plural suffix.
    kaksin käsinwith two hands
    paljain silminwith bare eyes
    pitkin askelinwith long steps
    hyvissä ajoinin good time
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Probably by metathesis.

Suffix[edit]

-in (poetic)

  1. A variant for the first-person singular possessive suffix -ni.
    rakkaani = rakkain
    syödäkseni = syödäksein
Usage notes[edit]

The use of this suffix is restricted to cases where it is not preceded by a labial vowel (o, u, y, ö), the vowel i, a long vowel (it is shortened if necessary) or a diphthong (since it itself forms a diphthong). It is not used if the resulting word would be monosyllabic.

Etymology 5[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-den (genitive plural suffix for some nouns), from the nominative plural ending *-t + genitive ending *-n (with an epenthetic *-e-).

Suffix[edit]

-in (rare)

  1. Forms the genitive plural.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Suffixed to the nominative singular but the final -i changes to -e-.
  • Note, however, that the more common suffix for the genitive plural is -en added to the plural stem ending with i or j. A link consonant d is also sometimes present.
  • Nowadays this suffix is rare and usually gives an archaic tone. Certain proper nouns, however, retain this, e.g. Yhdysvaltain, from Yhdysvallat ("United States", singular stem Yhdysvalta-), where also the more modern form Yhdysvaltojen is possible.
See also[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

See -Vn (illative suffix).

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.

Anagrams[edit]

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Latin -īnus, from Proto-Indo-European *-iHnos.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in (feminine -ine, masculine plural -ins, feminine plural -ines)

  1. forms adjectives indicating a quality; -ish, -ic
    enfant (child) + ‎-in → ‎enfantin (childish)

Suffix[edit]

-in m (plural -ins, feminine -ine)

  1. forms nouns with a diminutive or pejorative quality
    plaisant (pleasant) + ‎-in → ‎plaisantin (joker, wiseass)
    ours (bear) + ‎-in → ‎oursin (urchin)
    crotte (animal dropping) + ‎-in → ‎crottin (manure)

Derived terms[edit]

Fula[edit]

Affix[edit]

-in

  1. (Pulaar) makes verbs causative
    jangude (study, learn) + ‎-in → ‎janginde (teach)
    famude (to unserstand) + ‎-in → ‎faminde (to explain something to someone)

German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle High German -inne, -in, from Old High German -inna, -in, from Proto-West Germanic *-ini, from Proto-Germanic *-inī.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɪn/, [ɪn]
  • (file)
  • For speakers who realise -en as [ən], the distinction between both may at times be weak. However, most speakers have a syllabic nasal in -en and hence keep a very clear distinction.

Suffix[edit]

-in f (genitive -in, plural -innen)

  1. creates the female form for many nouns for living beings; umlaut usually occurs in monosyllables, but rarely in polysyllables
    Arbeitgeber (employer) + ‎-in → ‎Arbeitgeberin (employer (female person or sexless company))
    Autor (author) + ‎-in → ‎Autorin (author (female person, i.e. a female author or authoress, or sexless company, abstract thing))
    Gott (god) + ‎-in → ‎Göttin (female god, goddess)
    Hund (dog) + ‎-in → ‎Hündin (female dog, she-dog, bitch)
    Katze f (cat) + ‎-in → ‎Kätzin (female cat, she-cat)
    Sänger (singer) + ‎-in → ‎Sängerin (female singer)
    Pastor (pastor) + ‎-in → ‎Pastorin (female pastor)
    1. (dated) names the wife of a person
      Pastor (pastor) + ‎-in → ‎Pastorin (wife of a pastor)
    2. (dated) creates female personal names (for wives and daughters)
      Schwarz (proper noun)Schwarzin (a female person with the name Schwarz, that is the wife or daughter of someone named Schwarz)
      • 1743, Grosses vollständiges Universal Lexicon aller Wissenschaften und Künste, Welche bishero durch menschlichen Verstand und Witz erfunden und verbessert worden […] Fünf und Dreyßigster Band Schle-Schwa, Leipzig & Hallle, page 2007:
        Schwartzin, (Sibylle) […] war eine Tochter Christian Schwartzens, […] gebohren 1621 […] und starb 1638 den 13 Jul.
        Schwartz (Sibylle [given name]) […] was a daughter of Christian Schwartz, […] born in 1621 […] and died on 13th July 1638.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -īnus, from Ancient Greek -ινος (-inos).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in n (genitive -ins, plural -ine)

  1. (chemistry) -yne; -ine

Derived terms[edit]

Ido[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. See -in-.

Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Betawi -in, from Balinese -in.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (informal, slang) Used to indicate transitive imperative verbs
    Beliin dong. (literally, “please buy it.”)

Synonyms[edit]

Ingrian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-inën. Cognates include Finnish -inen, -nen and Estonian -ne.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms adjectives indicating the material of which something is made; -en
    puu (wood) + ‎-in → ‎puin (wooden)
  2. Forms diminutive nouns; -ie
    lintu (bird) + ‎-in → ‎lintuin (birdie)
Declension[edit]
(back-vocalic)
Declension of -in (type 1/kärpäin, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -in -iset
genitive -isen -isiin
partitive -ista, -ist -isia
illative -isee -isii
inessive -isees -isiis
elative -isest -isist
allative -iselle -isille
adessive -iseel -isiil
ablative -iselt -isilt
translative -iseks -isiks
essive -isenna, -iseen -isinna, -isiin
exessive1) -isent -isint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.
(front-vocalic)
Declension of -in (type 1/kärpäin, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -in -iset
genitive -isen -isiin
partitive -istä, -ist -isiä
illative -isee -isii
inessive -isees -isiis
elative -isest -isist
allative -iselle -isille
adessive -iseel -isiil
ablative -iselt -isilt
translative -iseks -isiks
essive -isennä, -iseen -isinnä, -isiin
exessive1) -isent -isint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. first-person singular present indicative of -issa

Etymology 3[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. inflection of -ia:
    1. first-person singular present indicative
    2. first-person singular past indicative

Irish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in f

  1. (biochemistry) -in

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-in

  1. Rōmaji transcription of いん

Livvi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in. Cognates include Finnish -in and Estonian -i.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms inanimate instrumental nouns from verbs.
    avata (to open) + ‎-in → ‎avain (key)

Declension[edit]

This suffix needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms[edit]

Luxembourgish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German -inne, -in, -īn. Compare German -in.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. used to form the female versions of agent nouns

Derived terms[edit]

Maltese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabicين(-īn), oblique case form of ⁧ون(-ūn), masculine personal plural suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. a common plural suffix
    1. used in most nouns and adjectives derived with the native suffix -i
      baħri (sailor)baħrin (sailors)
      Malti (Maltese)Maltin
    2. used in participles and some other native adjectives
      maqtugħ (cut, cut-off)maqtugħin
      ħelu (sweet)ħelwin

See also[edit]

Marshallese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (phonetic) IPA(key): [ʲ‿inʲ, ˠ‿inʲ, ˠ‿ɯnʲ, ʷ‿inʲ, ʷ‿unʲ]
  • (phonemic) IPA(key): /-inʲ/
  • Bender phonemes: {-in}

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. of
  2. from
  3. for

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is combined with nouns to create construct forms.

References[edit]

Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch *-īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. -en; creates adjectives for the material of which something is made.

Alternative forms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Kautokeino) IPA(key): /ˈ-in/

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jnē, originally the essive case of a possessive adjective in *-j-.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. The ending of the comitative singular case.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jnē, originally the plural essive form.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. The ending of the locative plural case.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Ojibwe[edit]

Final[edit]

-in

  1. act on by hand (often with a sense of holding an object)

Derived terms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. A suffix denoting the first-person singular to second-person singular form of a transitive animate verb (vta)

See also[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. A local inverse them sign denoting that the second-person prefix gi- is the theme (object) of a transitive animate verb (vta) while the first-person agent (subject) is denoted by the verbal suffixes.

References[edit]

Old High German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix[edit]

-īn

  1. used to create adjectives from nouns
    stein (stone) + ‎-īn → ‎steinīn (made of stone)
    gold (gold) + ‎-īn → ‎guldīn (golden)

Descendants[edit]

Old Norse[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. inflection of -inn (adjective suffix):
    1. positive degree strong feminine nominative singular
    2. positive degree strong neuter nominative/accusative plural
  2. inflection of -inn (participle suffix):
    1. strong feminine nominative singular
    2. strong neuter nominative/accusative plural
  3. inflection of -inn (definite article suffix):
    1. feminine nominative singular
    2. neuter nominative/accusative plural

Old Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-inъ.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /i(ː)n/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /in/

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. forms adjectives.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Adjective in -ī/-inī/-i, meaning possessing what is denoted by the base.

Usage notes[edit]

Independent vowels and vowel bearers are shown in the list of alternative forms to accord with basic grammar rules. These are converted to dependent vowels when the suffix is used.

Derived terms[edit]

Words using this suffix are listed in their own category. Note that normally only the Latin script forms are listed, as etymology sections are normally restricted to the Latin script form.

Polish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-in m inan

  1. (chemistry) -ite
    arsen + ‎-in → ‎arsenin
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish -in, from Proto-Slavic *-inъ.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Alternative form of -iny

Further reading[edit]

  • -in in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Pronunciation spelling of -inho.

Related terms[edit]

Scots[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing, -ung, from Proto-West Germanic *-ingu, *-ungu.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Used to form present participles of verbs.
  2. Used to form nouns from verbs.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms diminutives or to form collectives.

References[edit]

Spanish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in m (noun-forming suffix, plural -ines)

  1. Alternative form of -ing

Tagalog[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Philippine *-ən, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-ən, from Proto-Austronesian *-ən.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (colloquial) IPA(key): /en/, [ɛn]

Suffix[edit]

-in (verb-forming suffix, Baybayin spelling ᜒᜈ᜔ or ᜁᜈ᜔)

  1. object trigger: to perform the action of the verb to someone or something
    Lulutuin ko ang isda.I will cook the fish (literally, “The fish will be cooked by me.”) (The fish is focused.)
  2. directional trigger: to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of
    Dinalaw namin ang lola ni Olivia.We visited the grandmother of Olivia. (literally, “Olivia's grandmother was visited by us.”) (The grandmother is focused.)
  3. actor trigger: to be affected or overtaken by a condition, feeling or phenomenon
    Binabaha ang bahay niya.His house gets flooded. (His house is focused.)
  4. object trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Iniisip ko minsan ang nakaraan ko.I sometimes think about my past. (literally, “My past is sometimes thought about by me.”) (My past is focused.)

Suffix[edit]

-in (adjective-forming suffix, Baybayin spelling ᜒᜈ᜔ or ᜁᜈ᜔)

  1. prone to, susceptible to
    lagnat (fever) + ‎-in → ‎lagnatin (prone to fever)
    sakit (illness) + ‎-in → ‎sakitin (prone to illness)

Suffix[edit]

-in (noun-forming suffix, Baybayin spelling ᜒᜈ᜔ or ᜁᜈ᜔)

  1. an object of the action expressed by the root
    awit (singing, song) + ‎-in → ‎awitin (song)
    aral (lesson, studying) + ‎-in → ‎aralin (studies)
  2. (Quezon) nature and origin suffix
    Quezon (province) + ‎-in → ‎Quezonin (a native of Quezon)
    Sampaloc (municipality) + ‎-in → ‎Sampalukin (a native of Sampaloc, Quezon)
    bayan (town center or poblacion) + ‎-in → ‎bayanin (a local from the town center)
    linang (farm or remote area) + ‎-in → ‎linangin (a local from the farm)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Normally, /h/ is inserted before -in when the root word ends with a vowel that is not followed by a glottal stop. In some cases, phoneme change can occur and /h/ becomes /n/ or /r/.
    sabi + ‎-hin → ‎sabihin
    talo + ‎-nin → ‎talunin
    sala + ‎-rin → ‎salarin
  • Sometimes, the final vowel of the root word disappears when the suffix is added.
    sunod + ‎-in → ‎sundin
    kamit + ‎-in → ‎kamtin

Derived terms[edit]

Turkish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Turkic *-niŋ.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Genitive case suffix for the nouns which end in a consonant
    öğretmen (teacher) + ‎-in → ‎öğretmenin (teacher's/of the teacher)
Usage notes[edit]
  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into -ün, -ın and -un according to the last vowel of the word.
    yüz + ‎-ün → ‎yüzün (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
    saç + ‎-ın → ‎saçın (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol + ‎-un → ‎yolun (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ" (see below).
    sebep + ‎-in → ‎sebebin
    köpek + ‎-in → ‎köpeğin
    çekiç + ‎-in → ‎çekicin
    senet + ‎-in → ‎senedin
  • It may cause the last vowel of the word dropped.
    beyin + ‎-in → ‎beynin
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it's used with an auxiliary consonant; "n".
    peri + ‎-nin → ‎perinin
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it's appended to a proper noun. It cannot cause consonant voicing (point 3).
    Canberk + ‎-in → ‎Canberk'in

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Turkic *-iŋ.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Second-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession in words ending in a consonant.
    ev (house) + ‎-in → ‎evin (your house)
    ofis (office) + ‎-in → ‎ofisin (your office)
Usage notes[edit]
  • If the noun ends in a vowel, it becomes -n
    kedi + ‎-n → ‎kedin
  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into -ün, -ın and -un according to the last vowel of the word.
    yüz + ‎-ün → ‎yüzün (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
    saç + ‎-ın → ‎saçın (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol + ‎-un → ‎yolun (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ".
    sebep + ‎-in → ‎sebebin
    köpek + ‎-in → ‎köpeğin
    çekiç + ‎-in → ‎çekicin
    senet + ‎-in → ‎senedin
  • It may cause the last vowel of the word dropped.
    beyin + ‎-in → ‎beynin
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it's appended to a proper noun.
    Canberk + ‎-in → ‎Canberk'in

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Reflexive suffix
    giy- (to wear) + ‎-in → ‎giyin- (to dress oneself)

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *-in, from Proto-Celtic *-īnos, from Proto-Indo-European *-iHnos.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in f

  1. forms nouns characterised by root
    hesb (barren, sterile) + ‎-in → ‎hesbin (young ewe)
    crib (comb) + ‎-in → ‎cribin (rake)
  2. (obsolete) forms adjectives from nouns, usually nouns of material
    pridd (soil, earth) + ‎-in → ‎priddin (earthen)
    aur (gold) + ‎-in → ‎eurin (golden)
    lledr (leather) + ‎-in → ‎lledrin (leathern)
  3. forms adjectives from other adjectives
    garw (rough) + ‎-in → ‎gerwin (severe, harsh)

Usage notes[edit]

-in causes i-affection of preceding vowels, e.g., ‎aur (gold) + ‎-in → ‎eurin (golden), ‎garw (rough) + ‎-in → ‎gerwin (severe, harsh).

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “-in”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Wolof[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. forms nouns of manner
    dox (to walk) + ‎-in → ‎doxin (gait, walk, stride)
    sol (to put on a garment of clothing) + ‎-in → ‎colin (a manner of dressing)