-in

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Clipping of -ine.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (biochemistry) Used, as a modification of -ine, to form the names of a variety of types of compound; examples include proteins (globulin), carbohydrates (dextrin), dyes (alizarin) and others (vanillin).
    1. a neutral chemical compound
      albumin, casein, chitin, pepsin, saponin
    2. an enzyme
      renin, pancreatin
    3. an antibiotic
      penicillin, streptomycin
    4. a pharmaceutical product
      cobalamin, niacin, vitamin
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From the particle in, modelled after sit-in. Compare -off.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Attached to a word (usually a verb) to denote a protest, demonstration or other type of gathering characterized by the activity denoted by the base word.
Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Clipping of -ing.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (proscribed, dialect) Alternative form of -ing.

Anagrams[edit]


Azerbaijani[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ın -in -un -ün
postvocalic -n

-in

  1. Reflexive suffix.
    örtmək (to cover) + ‎-ün → ‎örtünmək (to cover oneself)
    gizləmək (to hide) + ‎-n → ‎gizlənmək (to hide oneself)
  2. Suffix creating other types of verbs from other verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

Verbs with monosyllabic vowel-ending stems generally take a y before the suffixes -il, -in, or -iş:

demək (to say) + ‎-in → ‎deyinmək (to say to oneself, to mutter)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ın -in -un -ün
postvocalic -n

-in

  1. Suffix creating nouns from verbs.
Declension[edit]
    Declension of -in
singular plural
nominative -in
-inlər
definite accusative -ini
-inləri
dative -inə
-inlərə
locative -ində
-inlərdə
ablative -indən
-inlərdən
definite genitive -inin
-inlərin
    Possessive forms of -in
nominative
singular plural
mənim (my) -inim -inlərim
sənin (your) -inin -inlərin
onun (his/her/its) -ini -inləri
bizim (our) -inimiz -inlərimiz
sizin (your) -ininiz -inləriniz
onların (their) -ini or -inləri -inləri
accusative
singular plural
mənim (my) -inimi -inlərimi
sənin (your) -inini -inlərini
onun (his/her/its) -inini -inlərini
bizim (our) -inimizi -inlərimizi
sizin (your) -ininizi -inlərinizi
onların (their) -inini or -inlərini -inlərini
dative
singular plural
mənim (my) -inimə -inlərimə
sənin (your) -ininə -inlərinə
onun (his/her/its) -ininə -inlərinə
bizim (our) -inimizə -inlərimizə
sizin (your) -ininizə -inlərinizə
onların (their) -ininə or -inlərinə -inlərinə
locative
singular plural
mənim (my) -inimdə -inlərimdə
sənin (your) -inində -inlərində
onun (his/her/its) -inində -inlərində
bizim (our) -inimizdə -inlərimizdə
sizin (your) -ininizdə -inlərinizdə
onların (their) -inində or -inlərində -inlərində
ablative
singular plural
mənim (my) -inimdən -inlərimdən
sənin (your) -inindən -inlərindən
onun (his/her/its) -inindən -inlərindən
bizim (our) -inimizdən -inlərimizdən
sizin (your) -ininizdən -inlərinizdən
onların (their) -inindən or -inlərindən -inlərindən
genitive
singular plural
mənim (my) -inimin -inlərimin
sənin (your) -ininin -inlərinin
onun (his/her/its) -ininin -inlərinin
bizim (our) -inimizin -inlərimizin
sizin (your) -ininizin -inlərinizin
onların (their) -ininin or -inlərinin -inlərinin
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal
except after L
-ıl -il -ul -ül
after L -ın -in -un -ün
postvocalic -n

-in

  1. Form of -il ([passive suffix]) after the vowels E / Ə / İ with the consonant L.
Derived terms[edit]

See -il.


Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. of
    Synonym: -en

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-inъ.

Suffix[edit]

-in f

  1. Suffix deriving possessive adjectives from nouns of feminine gender, usually from proper and common personal nouns, sometimes also from nouns referring to animals.
    matčin bratrmother's brother
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -īnus, from Ancient Greek -ινος (-inos).

Suffix[edit]

-in m inan

  1. (chemistry) -ine (suffix used to form names of chemical substances)
    adeninadenine
    olomoucinolomoucine
Declension[edit]

Dutch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch -inne, from Old Dutch *-inna, from Proto-Germanic *-inī.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɪn/
  • (file)

Suffix[edit]

-in f (plural -innen, diminutive -innetje)

  1. Forms nouns for the female counterpart of something.
    Synonyms: -e, -egge, -es, -ster

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Afrikaans: -in

Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From the plural infix + Proto-Finnic *-n (instructive suffix), probably from Proto-Uralic *-n. The instructive singular only exists for a few nouns in modern Finnish (such as jalan from jalka).

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Instructive case suffix.
    kaksin käsinwith two hands
    paljain silminwith bare eyes
    pitkin askelinwith long steps
    hyvissä ajoinin good time
Usage notes[edit]

No distinction is made between singular and plural, the -i- is always present and it is always considered to be grammatically in plural. The suffix is added to the weak grade stem.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in (related to Karelian -in), probably from Proto-Uralic *-ma. The oblique stem -impA, -immA is influenced by the oblique stem -mpA, -mmA of comparatives.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms superlative adjectives.
    heikko (weak) + ‎-in → ‎heikoin (weakest)
    matala (low, shallow) + ‎-in → ‎matalin (lowest, shallowest)
    ruma (ugly) + ‎-in → ‎rumin (ugliest)
    suuri (large, big) + ‎-in → ‎suurin (largest, biggest)
Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 36/sisin, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -in -immat
genitive -imman -impien
-inten
partitive -inta -impia
illative -impaan -impiin
singular plural
nominative -in -immat
accusative nom. -in -immat
gen. -imman
genitive -imman -impien
-inten
-impainrare
partitive -inta -impia
inessive -immassa -immissa
elative -immasta -immista
illative -impaan -impiin
adessive -immalla -immilla
ablative -immalta -immilta
allative -immalle -immille
essive -impana -impina
translative -immaksi -immiksi
instructive -immin
abessive -immatta -immitta
comitative -impine
Possessive forms of -in (type sisin)
Rare. Only used with substantive adjectives.
possessor singular plural
1st person -impani -impamme
2nd person -impasi -impanne
3rd person -impansa

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 36/sisin, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -in -immät
genitive -immän -impien
-inten
partitive -intä -impiä
illative -impään -impiin
singular plural
nominative -in -immät
accusative nom. -in -immät
gen. -immän
genitive -immän -impien
-inten
-impäinrare
partitive -intä -impiä
inessive -immässä -immissä
elative -immästä -immistä
illative -impään -impiin
adessive -immällä -immillä
ablative -immältä -immiltä
allative -immälle -immille
essive -impänä -impinä
translative -immäksi -immiksi
instructive -immin
abessive -immättä -immittä
comitative -impine
Possessive forms of -in (type sisin)
Rare. Only used with substantive adjectives.
possessor singular plural
1st person -impäni -impämme
2nd person -impäsi -impänne
3rd person -impänsä
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in (instrumental suffix), probably from Proto-Uralic *-ma.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms inanimate instrumental nouns from verbs.
    avata (to open) + ‎-in → ‎avain (key)
    keittää (to cook, boil) + ‎-in → ‎keitin (appliance for cooking/boiling)
    puhella (to chat, chatter) + ‎-in → ‎puhelin (telephone)
Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 33/kytkin, no gradation)
nominative -in -imet
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -inta -imia
illative -imeen -imiin
singular plural
nominative -in -imet
accusative nom. -in -imet
gen. -imen
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -inta -imia
inessive -imessa -imissa
elative -imesta -imista
illative -imeen -imiin
adessive -imella -imilla
ablative -imelta -imilta
allative -imelle -imille
essive -imena -imina
translative -imeksi -imiksi
instructive -imin
abessive -imetta -imitta
comitative -imineen
Possessive forms of -in (type kytkin)
possessor singular plural
1st person -imeni -imemme
2nd person -imesi -imenne
3rd person -imensa

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 33/kytkin, no gradation)
nominative -in -imet
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -intä -imiä
illative -imeen -imiin
singular plural
nominative -in -imet
accusative nom. -in -imet
gen. -imen
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -intä -imiä
inessive -imessä -imissä
elative -imestä -imistä
illative -imeen -imiin
adessive -imellä -imillä
ablative -imeltä -imiltä
allative -imelle -imille
essive -imenä -iminä
translative -imeksi -imiksi
instructive -imin
abessive -imettä -imittä
comitative -imineen
Possessive forms of -in (type kytkin)
possessor singular plural
1st person -imeni -imemme
2nd person -imesi -imenne
3rd person -imensä
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Probably by metathesis.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (poetic) A variant for the first-person singular possessive suffix -ni.
    rakkaani = rakkain
    syödäkseni = syödäksein
Usage notes[edit]

The use of this suffix is restricted to cases where it is not preceded by a labial vowel (o, u, y, ö), the vowel i, a long vowel (it is shortened if necessary) or a diphthong (since it itself forms a diphthong). It is not used if the resulting word would be monosyllabic.

Etymology 5[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-den (genitive plural suffix for some nouns), from the nominative plural ending *-t + genitive ending *-n (with an epenthetic *-e-).

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (rare) Forms the genitive plural.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Suffixed to the nominative singular but the final -i changes to -e-.
  • Note, however, that the more common suffix for the genitive plural is -en added to the plural stem ending with i or j. A link consonant d is also sometimes present.
  • Nowadays this suffix is rare and usually gives an archaic tone. Certain proper nouns, however, retain this, e.g. Yhdysvaltain, from Yhdysvallat ("United States", singular stem Yhdysvalta-), where also the more modern form Yhdysvaltojen is possible.
See also[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -īnus, from Proto-Indo-European *-iHnos.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in (feminine -ine, masculine plural -ins, feminine plural -ines)

  1. forms adjectives indicating a quality; -ish, -ic
    enfant (child) + ‎-in → ‎enfantin (childish)

Noun[edit]

-in m (plural -ins, feminine -ine)

  1. forms nouns with a diminutive or pejorative quality
    plaisant (pleasant) + ‎-in → ‎plaisantin (joker, wiseass)
    ours (bear) + ‎-in → ‎oursin (urchin)
    crotte (animal dropping) + ‎-in → ‎crottin (manure)

Derived terms[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle High German -inne, -in, from Old High German -inna, -in, from Proto-West Germanic *-ini, from Proto-Germanic *-inī.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɪn/, [ɪn]
  • (file)
  • For speakers who realise -en as [ən], the distinction between both may at times be weak. However, most speakers have a syllabic nasal in -en and hence keep a very clear distinction.

Suffix[edit]

-in f (genitive -in, plural -innen)

  1. creates the female form for many nouns for living beings; umlaut usually occurs in monosyllables, but rarely in polysyllables
    Arbeitgeber (employer) + ‎-in → ‎Arbeitgeberin (employer (female person or sexless company))
    Autor (author) + ‎-in → ‎Autorin (author (female person, i.e. a female author or authoress, or sexless company, abstract thing))
    Gott (god) + ‎-in → ‎Göttin (female god, goddess)
    Hund (dog) + ‎-in → ‎Hündin (female dog, she-dog, bitch)
    Katze f (cat) + ‎-in → ‎Kätzin (female cat, she-cat)
    Sänger (singer) + ‎-in → ‎Sängerin (female singer)
    Pastor (pastor) + ‎-in → ‎Pastorin (female pastor)
    1. (dated) names the wife of a person
      Pastor (pastor) + ‎-in → ‎Pastorin (wife of a pastor)
    2. (dated) creates female personal names (for wives and daughters)
      Schwarz (proper noun)Schwarzin (a female person with the name Schwarz, that is the wife or daughter of someone named Schwarz)
      • 1743, Grosses vollständiges Universal Lexicon aller Wissenschaften und Künste, Welche bishero durch menschlichen Verstand und Witz erfunden und verbessert worden […] Fünf und Dreyßigster Band Schle-Schwa, Leipzig & Hallle, p. 2007:
        Schwartzin, (Sibylle) […] war eine Tochter Christian Schwartzens, […] gebohren 1621 […] und starb 1638 den 13 Jul.
        Schwartz (Sibylle [given name]) […] was a daughter of Christian Schwartz, […] born in 1621 […] and died on 13th July 1638.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -inus, from Ancient Greek -ινος (-inos).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in n (genitive -ins, plural -ine)

  1. (chemistry) -yne; -ine

Derived terms[edit]


Ido[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. See -in-.

Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Betawi -in, from Balinese -in.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (informal, slang) Used to indicate transitive imperative verbs
    Beliin dong.(please add an English translation of this usage example)

Synonyms[edit]


Ingrian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-inen. Cognates include Finnish -inen, -nen and Estonian -ne.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms adjectives indicating the material of which something is made; -en
    puu (wood) + ‎-in → ‎puin (wooden)
  2. Forms diminutive nouns; -ie
    lintu (bird) + ‎-in → ‎lintuin (birdie)
Declension[edit]
(back-vocalic)
Declension of -in (type 1/kärpäin, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -in -iset
genitive -isen -isiin
partitive -ista, -ist -isia
illative -isee -isii
inessive -isees -isiis
elative -isest -isist
allative -iselle -isille
adessive -iseel -isiil
ablative -iselt -isilt
translative -iseks -isiks
essive -isenna, -iseen -isinna, -isiin
exessive1) -isent -isint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.
(front-vocalic)
Declension of -in (type 1/kärpäin, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -in -iset
genitive -isen -isiin
partitive -istä, -ist -isiä
illative -isee -isii
inessive -isees -isiis
elative -isest -isist
allative -iselle -isille
adessive -iseel -isiil
ablative -iselt -isilt
translative -iseks -isiks
essive -isennä, -iseen -isinnä, -isiin
exessive1) -isent -isint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. first-person singular present indicative of -issa

Irish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in f

  1. (biochemistry) -in

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-in

  1. Rōmaji transcription of いん

Livvi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in. Cognates include Finnish -in and Estonian -i.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms inanimate instrumental nouns from verbs.
    avata (to open) + ‎-in → ‎avain (key)

Derived terms[edit]


Luxembourgish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German -inne, -in, -īn. Compare German -in.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. used to form the female versions of agent nouns

Derived terms[edit]


Maltese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic ين(-īn), oblique case form of ون(-ūn), masculine personal plural suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. a common plural suffix
    1. used in most nouns and adjectives derived with the native suffix -i
      baħri (sailor)baħrin (sailors)
      Malti (Maltese)Maltin
    2. used in participles and some other native adjectives
      maqtugħ (cut, cut-off)maqtugħin
      ħelu (sweet)ħelwin

See also[edit]


Marshallese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (phonetic) IPA(key): [ʲ‿inʲ, ˠ‿inʲ, ˠ‿ɯnʲ, ʷ‿inʲ, ʷ‿unʲ]
  • (phonemic) IPA(key): /-inʲ/
  • Bender phonemes: {-in}

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. of
  2. from
  3. for

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is combined with nouns to create construct forms.

References[edit]


Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch *-īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. -en; creates adjectives for the material of which something is made.

Alternative forms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jnē, originally the essive case of a possessive adjective in *-j-.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. The ending of the comitative singular case.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jnē, originally the plural essive form.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. The ending of the locative plural case.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Ojibwe[edit]

Final[edit]

-in

  1. act on by hand (often with a sense of holding an object)

Derived terms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. A suffix denoting the first-person singular to second-person singular form of a transitive animate verb (vta)

See also[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. A local inverse them sign denoting that the second-person prefix gi- is the theme (object) of a transitive animate verb (vta) while the first-person agent (subject) is denoted by the verbal suffixes.

References[edit]


Old High German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix[edit]

-īn

  1. used to create adjectives from nouns
    stein (stone) + ‎-īn → ‎steinīn (made of stone)
    gold (gold) + ‎-īn → ‎guldīn (golden)

Descendants[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. inflection of -inn (adjective suffix):
    1. positive degree strong feminine nominative singular
    2. positive degree strong neuter nominative/accusative plural
  2. inflection of -inn (participle suffix):
    1. strong feminine nominative singular
    2. strong neuter nominative/accusative plural
  3. inflection of -inn (definite article suffix):
    1. feminine nominative singular
    2. neuter nominative/accusative plural

Old Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-inъ.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms adjectives.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Adjective in -ī/-inī/-i, meaning possessing what is denoted by the base.

Usage notes[edit]

Independent vowels and vowel bearers are shown in the list of alternative forms to accord with basic grammar rules. These are converted to dependent vowels when the suffix is used.

Derived terms[edit]

Words using this suffix are listed in their own category. Note that normally only the Latin script forms are listed, as etymology sections are normally restricted to the Latin script form.


Polish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-in m inan

  1. (chemistry) -ite
    arsen + ‎-in → ‎arsenin
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish -in, from Proto-Slavic *-inъ.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Alternative form of -iny.

Further reading[edit]

  • -in in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • -in in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Pronunciation spelling of -inho.

Related terms[edit]


Scots[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing, -ung, from Proto-West Germanic *-ingu, *-ungu.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Used to form present participles of verbs.
  2. Used to form nouns from verbs.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms diminutives or to form collectives.

References[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Alternative form of -ing.

Tagalog[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Philippine *-ən, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-ən, from Proto-Austronesian *-ən.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Verb suffix
    1. object trigger: to perform the action of the verb to someone or something
      Lulutuin ko ang isda.I will cook the fish. (literally: The fish will be cooked by me.)
      (The fish is focused.)
    2. directional trigger: to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of
      Dinalaw namin ang lola ni Olivia.We visited the grandmother of Olivia. (literally: Olivia's grandmother was visited by us.)
      (The grandmother is focused.)
    3. actor trigger: to be affected or overtaken by a condition, feeling or phenomenon
      Binabaha ang bahay niya.His house gets flooded.
      (His house is focused.)
    4. object trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
      Iniisip ko minsan ang nakaraan ko.I sometimes think about my past. (literally: My past is sometimes thought about by me.)
      (My past is focused.)
  2. Adjective-forming suffix: prone to, susceptible to
    lagnat (fever) + ‎-in → ‎lagnatin (prone to fever)
    sakit (illness) + ‎-in → ‎sakitin (prone to illness)
  3. an object of the action expressed by the root
    awit (singing, song) + ‎-in → ‎awitin (song)
    aral (lesson, studying) + ‎-in → ‎aralin (studies)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Normally, /h/ is inserted before -in when the root word ends with a vowel that is not followed by a glottal stop. In some cases, phoneme change can occur and /h/ becomes /n/ or /r/.
    sabi + ‎-hin → ‎sabihin
    talo + ‎-nin → ‎talunin
    sala + ‎-rin → ‎salarin
  • Sometimes, the final vowel of the root word disappears when the suffix is added.
    sunod + ‎-in → ‎sundin
    kamit + ‎-in → ‎kamtin

Derived terms[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Turkic *-niŋ.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Genitive case suffix for the nouns which end in a consonant
    öğretmen (teacher) + ‎-in → ‎öğretmenin (teacher's/of the teacher)
Usage notes[edit]
  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into -ün, -ın and -un according to the last vowel of the word.
    yüz + ‎-ün → ‎yüzün (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
    saç + ‎-ın → ‎saçın (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol + ‎-un → ‎yolun (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ" (see below).
    sebep + ‎-in → ‎sebebin
    köpek + ‎-in → ‎köpeğin
    çekiç + ‎-in → ‎çekicin
    senet + ‎-in → ‎senedin
  • It may cause the last vowel of the word dropped.
    beyin + ‎-in → ‎beynin
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it's used with an auxiliary consonant; "n".
    peri + ‎-nin → ‎perinin
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it's appended to a proper noun. It cannot cause consonant voicing (point 3).
    Canberk + ‎-in → ‎Canberk'in

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Turkic *-iŋ.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Second-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession in words ending in a consonant.
    ev (house) + ‎-in → ‎evin (your house)
    ofis (office) + ‎-in → ‎ofisin (your office)
Usage notes[edit]
  • If the noun ends in a vowel, it becomes -n
    kedi + ‎-n → ‎kedin
  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into -ün, -ın and -un according to the last vowel of the word.
    yüz + ‎-ün → ‎yüzün (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
    saç + ‎-ın → ‎saçın (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol + ‎-un → ‎yolun (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ".
    sebep + ‎-in → ‎sebebin
    köpek + ‎-in → ‎köpeğin
    çekiç + ‎-in → ‎çekicin
    senet + ‎-in → ‎senedin
  • It may cause the last vowel of the word dropped.
    beyin + ‎-in → ‎beynin
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it's appended to a proper noun.
    Canberk + ‎-in → ‎Canberk'in

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Reflexive suffix
    giy- (to wear) + ‎-in → ‎giyin- (to dress oneself)

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *-in, from Proto-Celtic *-īnos, from Proto-Indo-European *-iHnos.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in f

  1. forms nouns characterised by root
    hesb (barren, sterile) + ‎-in → ‎hesbin (young ewe)
    crib (comb) + ‎-in → ‎cribin (rake)
  2. (obsolete) forms adjectives from nouns, usually nouns of material
    pridd (soil, earth) + ‎-in → ‎priddin (earthen)
    aur (gold) + ‎-in → ‎eurin (golden)
    lledr (leather) + ‎-in → ‎lledrin (leathern)
  3. forms adjectives from other adjectives
    garw (rough) + ‎-in → ‎gerwin (severe, harsh)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “-in”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies