-in

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English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions.
Particularly: “from -ing, etc.”

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (proscribed, dialect or eye dialect) Alternative form of -ing
  2. (biochemistry) Used, as a modification of -ine, to form the names of a variety of types of compound; examples include proteins (globulin), carbohydrates (dextrin), dyes (alizarin) and others (vanillin).

Derived terms[edit]



Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. of

Synonyms[edit]


Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-inъ.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Suffix deriving possessive adjectives from nouns of feminine gender, usually from proper and common personal nouns, sometimes also from nouns referring to animals.
    matčin bratr‎ ― mother's brother

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


External links[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in f ‎(plural -innen, diminutive -innetje)

  1. Forms nouns for the female counterpart of something.

Derived terms[edit]


Related terms[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Instructive case suffix.
    kaksin käsin = with two hands
    paljain silmin = with bare eyes
    pitkin askelin = with long steps
    hyvissä ajoin = in good time
Usage notes[edit]

No distinction is made between singular and plural, the -i- is always present. The suffix is added by replacing the inessive plural ending -ssa/-ssä with -n.

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (poetic) A variant for the first-person singular possessive suffix -ni.
    rakkaani = rakkain

Etymology 4[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. (rare) Forms the genitive plural.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Suffixed to the nominative singular but the final -i changes to -e-.
  • Note, however, that the more common suffix for the genitive plural is -en added to the plural stem ending with i or j. A link consonant d is also also sometimes present.
  • Nowadays This suffix is rare and usually gives archaic tone. Certain names, however, retain this, e.g. Yhdysvaltain, from Yhdysvallat (singular stem Yhdysvalta-), where also the more modern form Yhdysvaltojen is possible.
See also[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms superlative adjectives.
    heikko ‎(weak) → heikoin ‎(weakest)
    matala ‎(low, shallow) → matalin ‎(lowest, shallowest)
    ruma ‎(ugly) → rumin ‎(ugliest)
    suuri ‎(large, big) → suurin ‎(largest, biggest)
Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 36/sisin, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -in -immat
genitive -imman -impien
-inten
partitive -inta -impia
illative -impaan -impiin
singular plural
nominative -in -immat
accusative nom. -in -immat
gen. -imman
genitive -imman -impien
-inten
-impainrare
partitive -inta -impia
inessive -immassa -immissa
elative -immasta -immista
illative -impaan -impiin
adessive -immalla -immilla
ablative -immalta -immilta
allative -immalle -immille
essive -impana -impina
translative -immaksi -immiksi
instructive -immin
abessive -immatta -immitta
comitative -impine

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 36/sisin, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -in -immät
genitive -immän -impien
-inten
partitive -intä -impiä
illative -impään -impiin
singular plural
nominative -in -immät
accusative nom. -in -immät
gen. -immän
genitive -immän -impien
-inten
-impäinrare
partitive -intä -impiä
inessive -immässä -immissä
elative -immästä -immistä
illative -impään -impiin
adessive -immällä -immillä
ablative -immältä -immiltä
allative -immälle -immille
essive -impänä -impinä
translative -immäksi -immiksi
instructive -immin
abessive -immättä -immittä
comitative -impine
See also[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Forms inanimate instrumental nouns from verbs.
    avata ‎(to open) → avain ‎(key)
    keittää ‎(to cook, boil) → keitin ‎(appliance for cooking/boiling)
    puhella ‎(to chat, chatter) → puhelin ‎(telephone)

Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 33/kytkin, no gradation)
nominative -in -imet
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -inta -imia
illative -imeen -imiin
singular plural
nominative -in -imet
accusative nom. -in -imet
gen. -imen
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -inta -imia
inessive -imessa -imissa
elative -imesta -imista
illative -imeen -imiin
adessive -imella -imilla
ablative -imelta -imilta
allative -imelle -imille
essive -imena -imina
translative -imeksi -imiksi
instructive -imin
abessive -imetta -imitta
comitative -imineen

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -in (Kotus type 33/kytkin, no gradation)
nominative -in -imet
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -intä -imiä
illative -imeen -imiin
singular plural
nominative -in -imet
accusative nom. -in -imet
gen. -imen
genitive -imen -imien
-inten
partitive -intä -imiä
inessive -imessä -imissä
elative -imestä -imistä
illative -imeen -imiin
adessive -imellä -imillä
ablative -imeltä -imiltä
allative -imelle -imille
essive -imenä -iminä
translative -imeksi -imiksi
instructive -imin
abessive -imettä -imittä
comitative -imineen

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -īnus, from Proto-Indo-European *-iHnos.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. adjectival suffix
    enfantin, from enfant
  2. nominal suffix
    crottin, from crotte

Derived terms[edit]

  • feminin form: -ine

German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

unclear

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in ‎(plural -innen)

  1. creates the female form of animals or persons or occupations; umlaut takes place on some occasions
    Autor ‎(author) + ‎-in → ‎Autorin ‎(female author)
    Gott ‎(god) + ‎-in → ‎Göttin ‎(female god (goddess))
    Hund ‎(dog) + ‎-in → ‎Hündin ‎(female dog, she-dog (bitch))
    Katze ‎(cat) + ‎-in → ‎Kätzin ‎(female cat, she-cat)
    Sänger ‎(singer) + ‎-in → ‎Sängerin ‎(female singer)
    Pastor ‎(pastor) + ‎-in → ‎Pastorin ‎(female pastor)
  2. (dated) names the wife of a person
    Pastor ‎(pastor) + ‎-in → ‎Pastorin ‎(wife of a pastor)
  3. (dated) creates female personal names (for wives and daughters)
    Schwarz (proper noun) → Schwarzin (a female person with the name Schwarz, that is the wife or daughter of someone named Schwarz)
    • 1743, Grosses vollständiges Universal Lexicon aller Wissenschaften und Künste, Welche bishero durch menschlichen Verstand und Witz erfunden und verbessert worden […] Fünf und Dreyßigster Band Schle-Schwa, Leipzig & Hallle, p.2007:
    Schwartzin, (Sibylle) […] war eine Tochter Christian Schwartzens, […] gebohren 1621 […] und starb 1638 den 13 Jul.

Derived terms[edit]



Ido[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. See -in-.

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-in

  1. rōmaji reading of いん

Luxembourgish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with German -in.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. used to form the female versions of agent nouns

Derived terms[edit]



Middle Dutch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch *-īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. -en; creates adjectives for the material of which something is made.

Derived terms[edit]

Category Middle Dutch words suffixed with -in not found


Descendants[edit]


Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jnē, originally the essive case of a possessive adjective in *-j-.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. The ending of the comitative singular case.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jnē, originally the plural essive form.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. The ending of the locative plural case.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.


Old High German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix[edit]

-īn

  1. used to create adjectives from nouns
    steinīn ‎(made of stone) from stein ‎(stone)
    guldīn ‎(golden) from gold ‎(gold)


Descendants[edit]


Tagalog[edit]

Verb Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. object trigger: to do something to a person or a thing
    Lulutuin ko ang isda.
    I will cook the fish. (The fish is focused.)
  2. directional trigger: to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of
    Dinalaw namin ang lola ni Olivia.
    We visited the grandmother of Olivia. (The grandmother is focused.)
  3. actor trigger: to be affected or overtaken by a condition, feeling or phenomenon
    Binabaha ang bahay niya.
    His house is flooding. (His house is focused.)
  4. object trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Iniisip-isip ko minsan ang nakaraan ko.
    I sometimes think about my past a bit. (My past is focused.)

Adjective Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. prone to, susceptible to
    lagnat (fever) + -in = lagnatin (prone to fever)
    sakit (illness) + -in = sakitin (prone to illness)

Noun Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. an object of the action expressed by the root
    awit (singing, song) + -in = awitin (song)
    aral (lesson, studying) + -in = aralin (studies)

Note on morphophonemics[edit]

  • Normally, /h/ is inserted before -in when the root word end with a vowel that is not followed by a glottal stop. In some cases, phoneme change can occur and /h/ becomes /n/.
    sabi + -in = sabihin
    talo + -in = talunin
  • Sometimes, the final vowel of the root word disappears when the suffix is added.
    sunod + -in = sundin
    kamit + -in = kamtin

Derived terms[edit]



Turkish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. Second-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession in words ending in a consonant.
    ev - evin
    house - your house
    ofis - ofisin
    office - your office
  2. Genitive case suffix for the nouns which end in a consonant
    öğretmen - öğretmenin
    teacher - teacher's/of the teacher

Usage notes[edit]

  • If the noun ends in a vowel, it becomes "-n" (for the possession suffix)
    kedi - kedin
  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into "-ün", "-ın" and "-un" according to the last vowel of the word. (possession suffix)
    yüz - yüzün (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
    saç - saçın (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol - yolun (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ".
    sebep - sebebin
    köpek - köpeğin
    çekiç - çekicin
    senet - senedin
  • It may cause the last vowel of the word dropped.
    beyin - beynin
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it's used with an auxiliary consonant; "n". (for the genitive case suffix)
    peri - perinin
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it's appended to a proper noun.
    Canberk - Canberk'in

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *-in, from Proto-Celtic *-īnos, from Proto-Indo-European *-iHnos.

Suffix[edit]

-in

  1. forms adjectives from nouns, usually nouns of material
  2. forms adjectives from other adjectives

Derived terms[edit]

Category Welsh words suffixed with -in not found


References[edit]