-im

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Albanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

either a derivation of -më from Proto-Albanian *-mā, from Proto-Indo-European *-mn̥ or from Ancient Greek -ισμός (-ismós, diminutive suffix).

Article[edit]

-im m

  1. -ism, -ation, -ment; Suffixed to nouns or verbs to form masculine abstract nouns of practice (action or incidence), result, teaching (doctrine or philosophy), or status (state or condition) related to the thing or action
    ag (dawn) + ‎-im → ‎Agim (id)
    admiroj (admire) + ‎-im → ‎admirim (admiration)
    afër (close) + ‎-im → ‎afrim (approach)
    arsej (teach) + ‎-im → ‎arsim (education)
    *argë (amuse) + ‎-im → ‎argëtim (entertainment)

Related terms[edit]


Bislama[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English him, 'em

Suffix[edit]

-im

  1. Indicates a transitive verb

Usage notes[edit]

The suffix to be used is determined by vowel harmony. If the last vowel in the stem is i, then the suffix is -im. Otherwise, use -em or -um.


Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

-i (possessive plural) +‎ -m (first-person singular personal suffix)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-im

  1. (possessive suffix) my ... -s (first-person singular, multiple possessions)
    kapu (gate)a kapuim (my gates)
    palota (palace)a palotáim (my palaces)
    érme (coin)az érméim (my coins)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -im is added to words ending in a vowel except -i. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -aim is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -eim is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -jaim is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i
    -jeim is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i

Declension[edit]

For back vowel words:

Inflection (stem in -a-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative -im
accusative -imat
dative -imnak
instrumental -immal
causal-final -imért
translative -immá
terminative -imig
essive-formal -imként
essive-modal -imul
inessive -imban
superessive -imon
adessive -imnál
illative -imba
sublative -imra
allative -imhoz
elative -imból
delative -imról
ablative -imtól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-imé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-iméi

For front vowel words:

Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative -im
accusative -imet
dative -imnek
instrumental -immel
causal-final -imért
translative -immé
terminative -imig
essive-formal -imként
essive-modal -imül
inessive -imben
superessive -imen
adessive -imnél
illative -imbe
sublative -imre
allative -imhez
elative -imből
delative -imről
ablative -imtől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-imé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-iméi

See also[edit]


Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-im

  1. first-person singular present indicative and imperative ending of verbs

Usage notes[edit]

  • This form is attached to first-conjugation verbs with stems ending in either a slender consonant or a vowel;
  • Used in place of the pronoun :
    feic + ‎-im → ‎feicim (I see)
    súigh + ‎-im → ‎súim (I suck) (stem sú-)

Related terms[edit]


Phalura[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-im

  1. Feminine plural agreement suffix

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[1], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-im

  1. Feminine plural agreement suffix

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[2], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Pijin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English him, 'em.

Suffix[edit]

-im

  1. Indicates a transitive verb

Usage notes[edit]

The suffix to be used is determined by vowel harmony. If the last vowel in the stem is i, then the suffix is -im. Otherwise, use -em or -um.


Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-im m (plural -ins)

  1. (uncommon) forms diminutives
  2. Pronunciation spelling of -inho, representing especially Minas Gerais Portuguese.

Related terms[edit]


Tok Pisin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English him, 'em

Suffix[edit]

-im

  1. Indicates a transitive verb

Turkish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish م(-m, ım, -im, first-person singular possessive suffix), from Old Anatolian Turkish م(-m, um, -üm, first-person singular possessive suffix), from Proto-Turkic [Term?]. Cognate to Old Turkic 𐰢(m /-m, -ım, -im, -um, -üm/, first-person singular possessive suffix).

Suffix[edit]

-im

  1. First-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession in words ending in a consonant.
    ev (house)evim (my house)
    ofis (office)ofisim (my office)
Usage notes[edit]
  • Turkish has word-final stress. Usually, when the possessive suffix -im is the last syllable of a word, it takes the stress. See also the first usage note of Etymology 2. However, when suffixed to a word with anomalous stress, the same syllable is stressed as before; for example, İzmir /ˈiz.miɾ/ + -imİzmir’im /ˈiz.mi.ɾim/ (“my Izmir”).
  • If the noun ends in a vowel, the vowel of the possessive suffix is elided, becoming -m:
    kedi (cat) + -imkedim (“my cat”).
  • The suffix obeys vowel harmony and is used for words whose last vowel is e or i, and a small number of loan words; for example, saat (watch) + -imsaatim (“my watch”). It may change into -ım, -um and -üm according to the last vowel of the word it is suffixed to. Examples:
    kız (girl) + -imkızım (”my girl”) (used when the last vowel is “a” or “ı”);
    yol (road) + -imyolum (”my road”) (used when the last vowel is “o” or “u”);
    yüz (face) + -imyüzüm (”my face”) (used when `the last vowel is “ö” or “ü”).
  • When a stem ends in a voiced consonant, it may become devoiced in syllable-final position. If a word ends in a thus devoiced “p”, “ç”, “t” or “k”, suffixing it with -im changes it back into a voiced “b”, “c”, “d” or “ğ”:
    sebep (reason) + -imsebebim (”my reason”);
    çekiç (hammer) + -imçekicim (”my hammer”);
    senet (bill) + -imsenedim (”my bill");
    çiçek (flower) + -imçiçeğim (”my flower”).
  • In many words that are originally monosyllables ending in two consonants, an epenthic “i” is inserted between these consonants. When suffixed with -im, the epenthic “i” is dropped:
    beyin (brain) + -imbeynim (”my brain”).
Related terms[edit]
  • -miz, -imiz (first-person plural possessive suffix)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish م(-ım, -im, first-person singular suffix), from Old Anatolian Turkish [script needed] (-ven, first-person singular suffix), ultimately from Proto-Turkic *-bẹn (see ben (I)). Cognate with Old Turkic 𐰢𐰤(mn² /-men/, first person singular suffix), Karakhanid مَنْ(men, I, first person singular postposition), Old Uyghur [script needed] (-men, first person singular suffix).

The suffix ultimately merged with the first-person singular possessive suffix (see Etymology 1 above) following the road *-bẹn → *-vẹn → *-ẹn → *-ẹm → -im. 11th-century Karakhanid scholar of Turkic languages Kashgari already hints that the Oghuz use *-en dropping /m/ as opposed to the Karakhanid using "-men" Compare Turkmen -in, -än (first-person singular suffix), Azerbaijani -əm (first-person singular suffix). For a similar case of loss of initial /b/ at the suffix level, compare -iz (first-person plural suffix), from Common Turkic *biz (see biz (we)).

Suffix[edit]

-im

  1. Conjugation of the verb "to be" for first-person singular, simple present tense.
    güzel (beautiful)güzelim (I am beautiful)
  2. Personal suffix for "ben" ("I" - first person singular)
    gel- (come) + -ecek (future tense marker) + -im (personal suffix)geleceğim (I will come)
    sev- (love) + -(e)r (present tense marker) + -im (personal suffix)severim (I like, enjoy)
Usage notes[edit]
  • In Turkish, as a word final stress language, when this suffix is at the end of a word it does not take the stress due to not being originally a suffix; therefore a differentiation is realized where the possessive suffix carries the stress. See also the first usage note on Etymology 1.
    bel (waist) + -im (first person suffix for "to be")bélim (I am (the) waist), as opposed to bel (waist) + -im (first-person possessive suffix)belím (my waist)
    gel- (come) + -(i)r (present tense marker) + -im (personal suffix)gelírim (I come), as opposed to gelir (income) + -im (first-person possessive suffix)gelirím (my income)
    gel- (come) + -ecek (future tense marker) + -im (personal suffix)gelecéğim (I will come), as opposed to gelecek (future) + -im (first-person possessive suffix)geleceğím (my future) or also alternatively gelecek (future) + -im (first person suffix for "to be")gelecéğim (I am (the) future)
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it's used with an auxiliary consonant; "y" (for the verb to be).
    terli (sweaty)terliyim (I am sweaty)
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it's appended to a proper noun.
    ZaferZafer'im (I am Zafer)
  • It's always -um in present continuous tense. And in other tenses, the personal suffix may also be -ım, -um, -üm according to the last vowel of the word.
    ver- (give) + -iyor (present continuous tense marker) + -um (personal suffix)veriyorum (I am giving)
    üzül- (be sad) + -(ü)r (present tense marker) + -üm (personal suffix)üzülürüm (I become sad)
    kal- (stay) + -(ı)r (present tense marker) + -ım (personal suffix)kalırım (I stay)
    bul- (find) + -(u)r (present tense marker) + -um (personal suffix)bulurum (I find)
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-im

  1. attached to a verb stem, forming a noun that represents an instance of, or a result of performing, the action implied by the verb
    de- (to say)deyim (saying)
    dil- (to cut into slices)dilim (slice)
    giy- (to wear)giyim (clothing)
    seç- (to choose)seçim (choice, election)
    yut- (to swallow)yudum (gulp) or yutum (swallowing)
Usage notes[edit]
  • When the verb stem ends in a vowel, the buffer consonant y is inserted. As the last example shows, this suffix obeys the usual vowel harmony. Words formed with this suffix take word-final stress.

Uzbek[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-im (-им) (Cyrillic)

  1. First-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as "mening" (my) placed before a noun.
    Bu kitobim.
    This is my book.

Volapük[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Ultimately from Ancient Greek -ισμός (-ismós).

Suffix[edit]

-im

  1. -ism

Derived terms[edit]