Appendix:Portuguese pronunciation

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This page is a guide for reading and adding Portuguese IPA pronunciations. Unless noted otherwise, the information here refers only to Standard European Portuguese and Standard Brazilian Portuguese.

Phonemes[edit]

The transcriptions in the second column are non-canonical and should be replaced by those in the first one.

canonical
transcription
other broad
transcriptions
orthographical
representation
narrow
transcriptions
notes
/a/ a, á, à [a], [ä]
/ɐ/ /ə/, /ɜ/, /ʌ/ a, â [ə], [ɜ], [ɐ]
/ɐ̃/ /ə̃/, /ɜ̃/ ã, â, am, an, âm, ân [ə̃], [ɜ̃], [ɐ̃]
[ə̃ⁿ], [ɜ̃ⁿ], [ɐ̃ⁿ]
[əə̯̃], [ɜə̯̃], [ɐə̯̃]
[əə̯̃ⁿ], [ɜə̯̃ⁿ], [ɐə̯̃ⁿ]
/ɛ/ e, é [ɛ]
/e/ e, ê [e]
/ẽ/ em, en, ên, êm, ém [ẽ], [ẽⁿ], [eə̯̃], [eə̯̃ⁿ] the /j̃/ that follows /ẽ/ in some cases needs to be transcribed separately
/ɨ/ /ɯ/, /ə/ e, i [ɯ̽] European Portuguese
/i/ /ɪ/ i, e [i], [ɪ]
/ɔ/ o, ó [ɔ]
/o/ o, ô [o]
/õ/ õ, om, on, ôm, ôn [õ], [õⁿ], [oə̯̃]
[oə̯̃ⁿ], [õʊ̯̃], [õw̃]
/u/ /ʊ/ o, u, ú [u], [ʊ] should not be used for /w/
/ũ/ um, un, úm, úm [ũ], [ũⁿ], [uw̃]
/m/ m [m]
/n/ n [n̪]
/ɲ/ /j̃/ nh [ɲ], [j̃], [ɲ̟]
/p/ p [p]
/b/ b [b], [β] [β] allophone appears only in European Portuguese
/t/ t [t̪]
/d/ d [d̪], [ð] [ð] allophone appears only in European Portuguese
/k/ c, qu, k [k]
/ɡ/ /g/ invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ g, gu [g] invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ, [ɣ] [ɣ] allophone appears only in European Portuguese
/t͡ʃ/ /tʃ/ t, tch [t͡ʃʷ], [t͡ɕʷ] Brazilian Portuguese; usually considered an allophone of /t/
/d͡ʒ/ /dʒ/ d, dj [d͡ʒʷ], [d͡ʑʷ] Brazilian Portuguese; usually considered an allophone of /d/
/f/ f [f]
/v/ v [v]
/s/ s, ss, ç, z, x [s]
/z/ s, z, x [z]
/ʃ/ x, ch, s [ʃʷ], [ɕʷ]
/ʒ/ j, g, s [ʒʷ], [ʑʷ]
/ʁ/ /r/, /h/, /x/, /χ/, /ř/ r, rr [ʁ], [ʀ], [r], [h]
[ɹ], [ɻ], [ɾ], [χ]
/ɾ/ /r/ r [ɾ]
/l/ l [l], [ɫ]
/ʎ/ lh [ʎ], [ʎ̟]
/w/ /u/, /ʊ/, /u̯/, /ʊ̯/, /ʷ/ u, l, o, ü [w], [u̯], [ʊ̯]
/w̃/ /w/, /u/, /ʊ/, /u̯/, /ʊ̯/
/ũ/, /ʊ̃/, /ũ̯/, /ʊ̯̃/
o [w̃], [ũ̯], [ʊ̯̃] usually considered an allophone of /w/ following a nasal vowel
/j/ /i/, /i̯/, /ɪ̯/, /ɪ/, /ʲ/ i [j], [i̯], [ɪ̯]
/j̃/ /j/, /i/, /i̯/, /ɪ̯/, /ɪ/
/ĩ/, /ĩ̯/, /ɪ̯̃/, /ɪ̃/
e, i, ∅ [j̃], [ĩ̯], [ɪ̯̃] usually considered an allophone of /j/ following a nasal vowel

Issues[edit]

Alternative pronunciations[edit]

context standard treatment example
in European Portuguese, /ɐj/ alternates with /ej/ each case is listed individually queijo/ˈkɐj.ʒu/, /ˈkej.ʒu/
unstressed /i/, /u/ sometimes become /j/, /w/ when followed by another vowel, especially in relaxed, less formal pronunciation each case is listed individually águia/ˈa.ɡi.ɐ/, /ˈa.ɡjɐ/
in extra-careful Brazilian pronunciation, word-final vowel reduction is sometimes undone; usually /ɐ/ becomes /a/, more rarely /u/ becomes /o/ and /i/ becomes /e/ not indicated casa/ˈka.zɐ/, not /ˈka.za/
/lj/, /nj/ become /ʎ/, /ɲ/ in careless pronunciation only indicated when it is relatively common família/fa.ˈmi.li.ɐ/, /fa.ˈmi.ljɐ/, /fa.ˈmi.ʎɐ/
mid-word /o/ and /e/ sometimes become /u/ and /i/ in Brazilian Portuguese, often due to vowel harmony each case is listed individually dormir/doʁ.ˈmi(ʁ)/, /duʁ.ˈmi(ʁ)/
for some Brazilian speakers, a vowel becomes slightly nasalised preceding a nasal consonant not indicated dono/ˈdo.nu/, not /ˈdõ.nu/
semivowels between vowels are geminated not indicated caia/ˈkaj.ɐ/, not /ˈkaj.jɐ/
/k/ and /ɡ/ followed by /w/ may be pronounced as a rounded consonant not indicated quando/ˈkwɐ̃.du/, not /ˈkʷɐ̃.du/
/e/, /i/ invalid IPA characters (//) is sometimes dropped from words with the sequence esc- each case is listed individually escudo/iʃ.ˈku.du/, not /ˈʃku.du/

Dropped and intrusive phonemes[edit]

context standard treatment example
in less formal Brazilian pronunciations, /j/ is dropped from /ej/ before certain consonants parentheses manteiga/mɐ̃.ˈte(j).ɡɐ/
in less formal pronunciations, /j/ is dropped before /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ parentheses caixa/ˈka(j).ʃɐ/
in European Portuguese, /j/ is added before /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ parentheses seja/ˈsɐ(j).ʒɐ/
in less formal Brazilian pronunciations, final /ʁ/ is dropped from certain verb forms parentheses fazer/fa.ˈze(ʁ)/
in less formal Brazilian pronunciations, /j/ is added before stressed, word-final /s/ that is not a desinence parentheses francês/fɾɐ̃.ˈse(j)s/
in careless pronunciation, /j/ after a palatal is dropped not indicated régio/ˈʁɛ.ʒi.u/, /ˈʁɛ.ʒju/
/w/ may or may not be maintained in the diphthong /ow/ parentheses sou/ˈso(w)/

Stress[edit]

  • Monosyllabic words should include a stress mark if they are stressed in sentences (si/ˈsi/ but se/si/).
  • Secondary stress marks are optional, but recommended.

Sandhi[edit]

Sandhi should not be noted in pronunciations of individual words, as it is entirely predictable.

Notes[edit]

  • Due to the recentness of this page’s creation, not every entry conforms to its guidelines. Users are encouraged to correct nonstandard IPA transcriptions, tag them with {{attention|pt|nonstandard pronunciation}}, or inform another user about them.
  • Some symbols are used in broad transcriptions even though they are usually considered allophones of another phoneme. The reasons for this are: they are traditionally used in broad transcriptions by other resources; preventing users from sounding foreign when not using that allophone sounds incorrect; in exceptional instances they are a distinct phoneme.