-s

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English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -s, -es, from Old English -as, nominative-accusative plural ending of masculine a-stem (i.e. strong) declension nouns, from Proto-Germanic *-ōs, *‑ōz, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural endings). The spread of this ending in later Middle English was once argued to have been the result of Anglo-Norman influence; however, -as was already the most common Old English plural marker (used in approximately 40% of Old English nouns), and was initially more common in the North of England where French influence was weakest, only later gradually spreading south. Cognate with Scots -s (plural ending), Saterland Frisian -s (plural ending), West Frisian -s (plural ending), Dutch -s (plural ending), Low German -s (plural ending), Danish -er (plural ending), Swedish -r, -ar, -or (plural ending), Icelandic -ar (plural ending), Gothic -𐍉𐍃 (-ōs, nominative plural ending of a-stem masculine nouns) (note that German -er has a different origin).

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form regular plurals of nouns.
    one computerfive computers
  2. Used to form many pluralia tantum (nouns that are almost or entirely without singular forms).
    shorts, sunglasses
  3. Used to form a word referring to a specific decade in the Gregorian calendar. Appended to the first year of the decade.
    1970s, 1890s
Usage notes[edit]
  • (regular plurals): In semi-formal or formal contexts, where the plurality of a noun depends on some unknown aspect of the sentence, the s may be parenthesised: "The winner(s) will be invited to a prize ceremony."
  • (decade): Decades formed with -s are usually pronounced as if they were written as two separate numbers. For example, 1970s is read as nineteen-seventies, as if it were written as 19 70s, not as *nineteen-hundred seventies or *one thousand nine hundred and seventies. A notable exception to this arose after the end of the 2000s, when the (relatively uniform) pronunciation of the years in that decade as two-thousand (and) _____ was continued for the following decade for some speakers. The pronunciation of the 2010s as twenty-tens largely took over starting in 2010, but it has not completely stamped out the previous two-thousand (and) _____ pronunciation which, again, was uniform in the prior decade. It remains to be seen if this will continue into the 2020s. Of note is that, some speakers, when speaking retroactively about the 2000s, now apply the 2010s' common pronunciation to the 2000s as well. In other words, they would pronounce 2001 as twenty-oh-one instead of two-thousand (and) one.
Translations[edit]

The translations below are a guide only. See individual words for precise translations.

See also[edit]
other plural-forming suffixes

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English -(e)s (third person singular ending of verbs), from Northumbrian Old English -es, -as (third person singular ending). Gradually replaced historical Old English third person singular ending -(e)þ, -aþ (see -eth) during the Middle English and Early Modern English periods. Usually regarded as identical to the Old English second person singular indicative ending -es, -est (modern archaic English -est, as in thou singest), used in place of the third person singular, due to influence from North Germanic. In Old Norse, the second and third person singular indicative forms were identical (e.g. þú masar, hann masar; þú þekkir, hann þekkir; etc.), and speakers of Old Norse who switched to speaking English are believed to have confounded the endings due to analogy with Old Norse. See -est.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the third-person singular indicative present tense of verbs.
    to eathe eats

Usage notes[edit]

  • In Standard English, the -s suffix is only used to mark the third person singular present of verbs; however, in some varieties of English, particularly northern English, Scottish, US Southern and AAVE, the -s can be extended to other persons/numbers as well, as in: I eats me spinach; I hates the Yankees; they likes it here; etc.
See also[edit]
other verb endings

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English -es, from Old English -es, the masculine and neuter genitive singular ending of strong nouns. More at -'s.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used in the formation of certain English adverbs.
    forward + ‎-s → ‎forwards
    downward + ‎-s → ‎downwards
    alway + ‎-s → ‎always
    sometime + ‎-s → ‎sometimes
    betime + ‎-s → ‎betimes
    while + ‎-s → ‎whiles
    betide + ‎-s → ‎betides
    toward + ‎-s → ‎towards
    beside + ‎-s → ‎besides
    evening + ‎-s → ‎evenings
    unaware + ‎-s → ‎unawares
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

A variant spelling of -'s, partly an archaism, partly by dropping the apostrophe.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -'s (on pronouns; now nonstandard)

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (on pronouns) Possessive marker, indicating that an object belongs to the word bearing the marker.
  2. (on nouns, now nonstandard) Alternative form of -'s
Usage notes[edit]
  • In most cases where -s is found nowadays as a possessive case marker, it is a simple misspelling of -'s. However, possessive determiners derived from personal pronouns use -s (e.g. its, not it's). The same is true of pronouns derived from possessive determiners (e.g. theirs, not their's). The possessive form of who takes -se (whose, not who's).
  • Bare -s is used in some business names that derive from possessive family names, e.g. Barclays and Harrods, but compare Sainsbury’s; compare Wikipedia's article on possessives in business names. In speech, /z/ (or /s/) is sometimes added to business names which have neither -s nor -'s in writing, resulting in s-forms, which see.

Etymology 5[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Hypocoristic suffix
    Babs; moms; pops; homes; toots
Derived terms[edit]

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse -s, originally the genitive singular ending of a-stem nouns.

Particle[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form genitive/possessive phrases, attached to the last word in a noun phrase.
    Danmarks dronningthe Queen of Denmark
    Københavns snefaldsnowfall in Copenhagen

Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Unknown. Not present in Old Dutch, which used -a from Proto-Germanic *-ōz as the plural ending. Possibly spread from Middle Low German -s, -es, from Old Saxon -os, -as, from Proto-Germanic *-ōs. Further etymology is unknown, but cognate with Old English -as.

Suffix[edit]

-s pl

  1. Used to form regular plurals of nouns that end in certain suffixes or syllables, such as -el, -er, -en, -em, -eur, -aar, -aard, diminutive -je, etc.
    bodem + ‎-s → ‎bodems
  2. Used to form irregular plurals of many other nouns, chiefly of foreign origin.
    telefoon + ‎-s → ‎telefoons
Usage notes[edit]
  • Nouns ending in unstressed -e generally have a plural in -s and one in -n (ziekte > ziektes, ziekten). Individual words, however, allow just one of the two ways.
  • Most words of Latin origin ending in -um are pluralized with the suffix -s (museum > museums) or by replacing -um with -a (> musea). The latter tends to be preferred in formal style.

Etymology 2[edit]

From the genitive case of masculine and neuter nouns and adjectives, Middle Dutch -s, -es, from Old Dutch -es, -is, from Proto-Germanic *-as, *-is.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (archaic, except in fixed expressions) Used to form the genitive case of (strong) masculine and neuter nouns.
    tijd → de tand des tijds
  2. Used to form the genitive case of proper nouns and some pronouns.
    Pieter → Pieters jas
    iemand → iemands jas
  3. Used to form the partitive form of the adjective
    lief → iets liefs
  4. Used to form adverbs
    stad → steeds
Derived terms[edit]


The adverbial/adjectival -s combines with other suffixes like :

Etymology 3[edit]

From earlier -sch, from Middle Dutch -sch, from Old Dutch -isc, from Proto-Germanic *-iskaz (from which also -isch via German), from Proto-Indo-European *-iskos.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form adjectives of characteristic from nouns.
    winter (winter) + ‎-s → ‎winters (wintery)
    spel (game) + ‎-s → ‎speels (playful)
  2. Used to form adjectives or language names from names of nations or countries.
    Engeland (England) + ‎-s → ‎Engels (English)
    Finland (Finland) + ‎-s → ‎Fins (Finnish)

Estonian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-s (genitive -sa, partitive -sat)

  1. creates adjectives from nouns
    au (honour) + ‎-s → ‎aus (honest)
    ilu (beauty) + ‎-s → ‎ilus (beautiful)
    lõbu (pleasure) + ‎-s → ‎lõbus (fun)

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-nci.

Suffix[edit]

-s (genitive -nda, partitive -ndat)

  1. forms ordinal numbers from cardinal numbers
    kolm (three) + ‎-s → ‎kolmas (third)
    kuus (six) + ‎-s → ‎kuues (sixth)

Inflection[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-nci, from Proto-Uralic *-mte.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Forms ordinal numbers from cardinal numbers, or ordinal pronouns.
    moni + ‎-s → ‎mones
Usage notes[edit]

Added to the genitive singular (weak grade) stem.

Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony:

Inflection of -s (Kotus type 45/kahdeksas, nt-nn gradation)
nominative -s -nnet
genitive -nnen -nsien
partitive -tta -nsia
illative -nteen -nsiin
singular plural
nominative -s -nnet
accusative nom. -s -nnet
gen. -nnen
genitive -nnen -nsien
partitive -tta -nsia
inessive -nnessa -nsissa
elative -nnesta -nsista
illative -nteen -nsiin
adessive -nnella -nsilla
ablative -nnelta -nsilta
allative -nnelle -nsille
essive -ntena -nsina
translative -nneksi -nsiksi
instructive -nsin
abessive -nnetta -nsitta
comitative -nsineen
Possessive forms of -s (type kahdeksas)
possessor singular plural
1st person -nteni -ntemme
2nd person -ntesi -ntenne
3rd person -ntensa

Front vowel harmony:

Inflection of -s (Kotus type 45/kahdeksas, nt-nn gradation)
nominative -s -nnet
genitive -nnen -nsien
partitive -ttä -nsiä
illative -nteen -nsiin
singular plural
nominative -s -nnet
accusative nom. -s -nnet
gen. -nnen
genitive -nnen -nsien
partitive -ttä -nsiä
inessive -nnessä -nsissä
elative -nnestä -nsistä
illative -nteen -nsiin
adessive -nnellä -nsillä
ablative -nneltä -nsiltä
allative -nnelle -nsille
essive -ntenä -nsinä
translative -nneksi -nsiksi
instructive -nsin
abessive -nnettä -nsittä
comitative -nsineen
Possessive forms of -s (type kahdeksas)
possessor singular plural
1st person -nteni -ntemme
2nd person -ntesi -ntenne
3rd person -ntensä
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

Contracted from the second-person singular pronoun sa, (sinä in modern standard language), but no longer tied to being used in second-person.

Clitic[edit]

-s (somewhat informal or familiar)

  1. When appended to a second-person singular or plural imperative, gives the command or request slightly rude or impatient tone—often with different verbs and different independent particles adjacent, the tone is different.
    Kuules nyt! (addressing one person)
    Now do listen! (with nyt, quite an established expression of frustration, speaker very impatient)
    Kuulkaas nyt! (addressing many persons or formally one person)
    Now do listen! (same tone as above)
    Tees nämä tehtävät. (addressing one person, tone less impatient)
    Go do these tasks.
  2. When appended to the particle -pa/-pä that is appended to a second-person imperative, gives the command or request a slightly more persuasive or inspiring tone.
    Laitapas lautaset pöytään.Hey, go put the plates on the table.
  3. Mainly in informal contexts: a particle appended to an interrogative suffix -ko/-kö of the verb conjugated (also - with the negation verb) in order to bring the conversation partner or a person outside the conversation, talked about, emotionally closer to the speaker, or to create familiarity into the conversation; also to express that closeness or familiarity—sometimes very difficult to translate well into English, in some cases corresponds to tag questions.
    Jaksatkos sinä?May you make it maybe?
    Eis Saara opiskele oikeustieteitä?Saara studies law, nuh?
  4. (colloquial) appended to the shortened impersonal indicative present form (-n omitted) to soften the command or request or to make it more persuasive.
    Tehdääs tämä huomenna.Let's go do this tomorrow.
Usage notes[edit]
  • When attached to imperative forms, the gemination is ignored, unless another clitic is also used before -s, like with -pas. Thus laitas /lɑi̯tɑs/, but laitapas /lɑi̯tɑpːɑs/.
  • When directly attached to forms ending in -n (chiefly passive forms), the -n is usually dropped.
Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From apocope of the final vowel of -ssa, -ssä.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (case suffix, colloquial or dialectal) Alternative form of -ssa (inessive)

Etymology 4[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-s, from earlier *-ks. Possibly related to Moksha -кс (-ks, nominalizing suffix).

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Forms some nouns.
    jalka (foot) + ‎-s → ‎jalas (runner, skid)
    liha (meat) + ‎-s → ‎lihas (muscle)
  2. Forms fractional numbers from ordinal numbers.
    kolmas + ‎-s → ‎kolmannes
Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony:

Inflection of -s (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative -s -kset
genitive -ksen -sten
-ksien
partitive -sta -ksia
illative -kseen -ksiin
singular plural
nominative -s -kset
accusative nom. -s -kset
gen. -ksen
genitive -ksen -sten
-ksien
partitive -sta -ksia
inessive -ksessa -ksissa
elative -ksesta -ksista
illative -kseen -ksiin
adessive -ksella -ksilla
ablative -kselta -ksilta
allative -kselle -ksille
essive -ksena -ksina
translative -kseksi -ksiksi
instructive -ksin
abessive -ksetta -ksitta
comitative -ksineen
Possessive forms of -s (type vastaus)
possessor singular plural
1st person -kseni -ksemme
2nd person -ksesi -ksenne
3rd person -ksensa

Front vowel harmony:

Inflection of -s (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative -s -kset
genitive -ksen -sten
-ksien
partitive -stä -ksiä
illative -kseen -ksiin
singular plural
nominative -s -kset
accusative nom. -s -kset
gen. -ksen
genitive -ksen -sten
-ksien
partitive -stä -ksiä
inessive -ksessä -ksissä
elative -ksestä -ksistä
illative -kseen -ksiin
adessive -ksellä -ksillä
ablative -kseltä -ksiltä
allative -kselle -ksille
essive -ksenä -ksinä
translative -kseksi -ksiksi
instructive -ksin
abessive -ksettä -ksittä
comitative -ksineen
Possessive forms of -s (type vastaus)
possessor singular plural
1st person -kseni -ksemme
2nd person -ksesi -ksenne
3rd person -ksensä

Some derived suffixes (such as -ias, -las) use different declension.

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 5[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-s, from Proto-Finno-Permic *-s.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. A form of the lative case. In adverbial use only.
    ala- (below, down, lower) + ‎-s → ‎alas (down)
Derived terms[edit]

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle French -s, from Old French -s, from Latin -s (accusative).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Silent except in liaison environments, when it is pronounced IPA(key): /z‿/

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the regular plurals of most nouns and adjectives.
    homme + ‎-s → ‎hommes
    bon + ‎-s → ‎bons
  2. Used to form the irregular plurals of a few nouns and adjectives in -au, -eu (which regularly add -x) and in -al (which regularly make -aux).
    landau + ‎-s → ‎landaus
    bleu + ‎-s → ‎bleus
    carnaval + ‎-s → ‎carnavals

See also[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle High German -es, from Old High German [Term?].

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -es
  • -ens (proper nouns ending with a sibilant consonant; dated)
  • -' (proper nouns ending with a sibilant consonant)
  • -'s (common nouns; now proscribed)
  • -'s (proper nouns; correct in certain cases, but often seen as a misspelling)

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the genitive singular of most masculine nouns, neuter nouns, and proper nouns of all genders.
Usage notes[edit]

The formation of the strong genitive singular (in -s, -es, or no ending) may be of some difficulty both for learners and native speakers.

Only one form is possible in some nouns:

  • Nouns in unstressed -as, -es,- is, -os, -us remain unchanged (except those in -nis, which make -nisses).
  • Other nouns in -s, -ß, -x, -z take -es.
  • Nouns ending in a vowel or in unstressed -el, -em, -en, -er, -or, -um take -s. (Only those in a diphthong or in -h allow -es, alternatively.)
  • Nouns forming their plural in -s take the same ending also in the genitive singular. (Apparent exceptions will generally have an alternative plural in -e.)

Otherwise, both forms are usually correct, but certain tendencies can be observed:

  • The es-form is strongly preferred in a number of frequently used monosyllables, to the degree that the s-form may even sound odd. No hard rule can be given to identify these nouns; they include e.g. Land, Mann, Weg, etc.
  • The es-form is also preferred, for euphonic reasons, in words ending in certain clusters like -pf, -sch, -st.
  • Most other monosyllables have no clear preference.
  • The s-form is usually preferred in polysyllables, regardless of their being simple or compound and regardless also of stress patterns.

Note, finally, that there is a fairly strong tendency for proper nouns (used with the article) and for newer or less common loanwords to remain unchanged in the genitive singular.

Etymology 2[edit]

Probably derived from the genitive -s (etymology 1), but developed into a noun-forming suffix in German Low German and Central German dialects.

Suffix[edit]

-s m

  1. used to form nouns from verb stems
    klacken + ‎-s → ‎Klacks
    schnappen + ‎-s → ‎Schnaps

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Middle Low German [Term?]. Reinforced by the fact that French and English also use -s as a plural suffix.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -'s (now proscribed)
  • -ens (family names ending with a sibilant consonant)

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the plurals of some nouns.
  2. Used to form the plurals of personal names, particularly family names.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The plural ending -s is most typical of loanwords (as in Schals, Parfüms, Videos), though there is a tendency for naturalised loanwords to switch to -e or -en (compare Generäle, Lifte, Pizzen with older Generals, Lifts, Pizzas). Conversely, -s is also used in a certain number of native words (as in Fräuleins, Mädels, Uhus). Moreover, it is the most productive plural marker in contemporary German, typically used to pluralise initialisms (LKWs), neologisms (Honks), and words that do not otherwise have a common plural form (Streits).

See also[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ʃ]
  • (file)

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (adjective-forming suffix) Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning "having something, a quality"; sometimes referred to as ornative.
    (salt) + ‎-s → ‎s (salty)
  2. (noun-forming suffix) Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun.
    hajó (ship) + ‎-s → ‎hajós (sailor)
  3. (number-forming suffix) Added to an ordinal number to form a digit or figure, cf. the relevant template.
    nulla (zero) + ‎-s → ‎nullás (the digit or figure 0)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (all senses) Harmonic variants:
    -s is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -os is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -as is added to other back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -es is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ös is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Kashubian[edit]

Particle[edit]

-s

  1. Appended to relative/interrogative pronouns to form indefinite pronouns

Derived terms[edit]


Lushootseed[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. his, hers, theirs

Manx[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. -self (emphatic)

Usage notes[edit]

See also[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Adverbial genitive ending, developed into the -ce at the end of some words

Descendants[edit]

  • English: hence, thence, whence

Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-s.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Forms nouns indicating a material.
  2. Forms nouns from numbers, indicating a group.
    golbma (three) + ‎-s → ‎golmmas (group of three)
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable in the nominative singular and essive, and the strong grade in the other forms.

Inflection[edit]
Odd, no gradation
Nominative -s
Genitive -sa
Singular Plural
Nominative -s -sat
Accusative -sa -siid
Genitive -sa -siid
Illative -sii -siidda
Locative -sis -siin
Comitative -siin -siiguin
Essive -sin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -san -seamẹ -seamẹt
2nd person -sat -seattẹ -seattẹt
3rd person -sis -seaskkạ -seasẹt
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Forms adverbs of manner from adjectives.
    buorre (good) + ‎-s → ‎būres (well)
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ksë. Cognate with the Finnish translative ending -ksi.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Forms adverbs indicating direction or a span of time.
    davvi (north) + ‎-s → ‎davás (northwards)
    dálvi (winter) + ‎-s → ‎dálvvás (for the winter)
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 4[edit]

From a merger of two older case endings:

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. The ending of the locative singular case.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When possessive suffixes are attached, the suffix reverts to its earlier form -st- (for even-syllable stems) or -stti- (for odd-syllable stems).


Norwegian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse -sk, a grammaticalisation of Proto-Germanic *sek (reflexive pronoun).

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the passive voice of verbs.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse -s, originally the genitive singular ending of a-stem nouns.

Particle[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form genitive/possessive phrases, attached to the last word in a noun phrase.
Usage notes[edit]

If the last word already ends with a sibilant, only an apostrophe (-') is added. It is incorrect to use an apostrophe before the s.


Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-isjō, *-usjō.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (often affects the value or quality of preceding consonants, may or may not cause i-mutation) Feminine noun suffix forming nouns from adjectives and verbs
    milde (gentle, mild) + ‎-s → ‎milts (mercy) (earlier milds)
    līþe (gentle, limber) + ‎-s → ‎liss (grace) (earlier liþs)
    cweþan (to say, speak) + ‎-s → ‎cwiss (a saying) (earlier cwiþs)

Declension[edit]


Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -z (for most words that do not end in -e)

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. indicates a nominative singular of a masculine noun or adjective
  2. indicates an oblique plural of a masculine noun or adjective
  3. indicates a (nominative or oblique) plural of a feminine noun or adjective

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle French: -s
    • French: -s

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -es (after certain consonants and nasal vowels)

Suffix[edit]

-s m or f pl

  1. used to form the regular plural nouns and adjectives which end in vowels
Usage notes[edit]

-s vs. -es vs. non-use:

  • After l ([ɫ] [l], [w]), -s is used and the l is replaced with i ([j]): pastelpastéis, capitalcapitais,
  • After s:
  • after m, -s is used and the m becomes n; this is an orthographic process, since in both cases the final consonant marks vowel nasalisation: domdons
  • after n, either, but -es is more common in dialects where it is produced as /n/ rather than vowel nasalisation: hífenhifens or hífenes
  • after r and z, -es is used
  • after vowels and semivowels, -s is used
    • the plural of words ending in -ão can be -ões (by far the most common), -ãos (usually masculines with a feminine in ) or -ães (only a handful of words)
  • loanwords usually follow the same rules: mousemouses, óperaóperas
    • in recent English loanwords ending in r, and occasionally in loans from other languages, -s is used: playerplayers
    • unadapted loanwords ending in unusual consonants usually take -s or no morpheme: ankhankhs, floodfloods, spamspam or spams
    • rarely, and often alongside a regular form, the plural from the original language is used: campuscampi (also campus), mafiosomafiosi (more commonly mafiosos), golgols (very rarely goles or gois)
    • after x, Hellenisms and Latinisms are usually unchanged (following the rule for words ending in s), but sometimes have -es and the x becomes c (/s/), especially in Brazilian Portuguese: tóraxtórax, clímaxclímax or clímaces
  • more often than not, surnames do not take an extra morpheme in the plural; when they do, they are usually Portuguese surnames with recognisable Portuguese morphemes: o Ferreiraos Ferreira or os Ferreiras
  • names of peoples that do not contain Portuguese endings usually do not take the plural morpheme: polacopolacos; ashantiashanti or ashantis (less common)

In informal varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, a noun phrase may take a single plural marker, usually in the article. For example, “the big houses” may be as casa grande where standard Portuguese requires as casas grandes. This usage is very widespread, however, it is proscribed and generally regarded as unacceptable in formal contexts and in serious writing.

In some words that end in O and have a stressed /o/ in the penult, the stressed vowel becomes /ɔ/ in the plural. See Category:Portuguese nouns with metaphonic plurals.

Colloquial Brazilian Portuguese allows /j/ to be added before /s/ is words stressed in their final syllables. This is blocked by morpheme boundaries, such that nós (we) may be pronounced /nɔjs/, but nós (knots) can only be pronounced as /nɔs/. Vocês (and colloquial forms and ocê) is an exception to this rule, and can be pronounced /voˈsejs/. Note that this process is usually avoided in formal speech.

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (Brazil, slang) used to form slangier forms of certain words
    foi mal (sorry) + ‎-s → ‎foi mals (soz)
    grande coisa (big deal) + ‎-s → ‎grandes coisa (biggie)
    valeu (thank you) + ‎-s → ‎valeus (thanks)

Quechua[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Evidential suffix, second-hand information. Indicates that the speaker has not directly experienced the information at hand; hearsay
    Qusqumantas kanki.(They say that) you are from Cusco.
    Inisqa qayna ñañantas watukusqan.Inez visited her sister yesterday (so I heard).

See also[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the regular plural of nouns which end in vowels.
    amigo (friend) + ‎-s → ‎amigos (friends)
    cocina (kitchen) + ‎-s → ‎cocinas (kitchens)

Related terms[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse -s, originally the genitive singular ending of a-stem nouns.

Clitic[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form possessive phrases, attached to the last word in a noun phrase.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse -sk, a grammaticalisation of Proto-Germanic *sek (reflexive pronoun).

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the passive voice of verbs.

Etymology 3[edit]

Mostly from English -s.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (chiefly colloquial, often proscribed) Used to form the plural form of some words, mostly loanwords
    partner + ‎-s → ‎partners
    fan + ‎-s → ‎fans
See also[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Originally from Old Swedish -s, a genitive suffix. Many of the examples are later analogically derived from each other.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to derive some adverbs from nouns or adjectives
    söndag (Sunday) + ‎-s → ‎i söndags (last Sunday)
Alternative forms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
-s
-as
-se
-es

References[edit]

-s in Elof Hellquist, Svensk etymologisk ordbok (1st ed., 1922)