-s

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Contents

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -s, -es, from Old English -as, nominative-accusative plural ending of masculine a-stem (i.e. strong) declension nouns, from Proto-Germanic *-ōs, *‑ōz, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural endings). The spread of this ending in later Middle English was once argued to have been the result of Anglo-Norman influence; however, -as was already the most common Old English plural marker (used in approximately 40% of Old English nouns), and was initially more common in the North of England where French influence was weakest, only later gradually spreading south. Cognate with Scots -s (plural ending), Saterland Frisian -s (plural ending), West Frisian -s (plural ending), Dutch -s (plural ending), Low German -s (plural ending), Danish -er (plural ending), Swedish -r, -ar, -or (plural ending), Icelandic -ar (plural ending), Gothic -𐍉𐍃 (-ōs, nominative plural ending of a-stem masculine nouns) (note that German -er has a different origin).

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form regular plurals of nouns.
    one computerfive computers
  2. Used to form many pluralia tantum (nouns that are almost or entirely without singular forms).
    shorts, sunglasses
  3. Used to form a word referring to a specific decade in the Gregorian calendar. Appended to the first year of the decade.
    1970s, 1890s
Usage notes[edit]
  • (regular plurals): In semi-formal or formal contexts, where the plurality of a noun depends on some unknown aspect of the sentence, the s may be parenthesised: "The winner(s) will be invited to a prize ceremony."
  • (decade): Decades formed with -s are usually pronounced as if they were written as two separate numbers. For example, 1970s is read as nineteen-seventies, as if it were written as 19 70s, not as *nineteen-hundred seventies or *one thousand nine hundred and seventies.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

The translations below are a guide only. See individual words for precise translations.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English -(e)s (third person singular ending of verbs), from Northumbrian Old English -es, -as (third person singular ending). Replaced historical Old English third person singular ending -(e)þ, -aþ (-eth). The falling together of the second and third person singular verb forms in English is believed to be due to Scandinavian influence, where the employment of the same verbal endings for both 2nd and 3rd singular indicative follows a similar pattern to that seen in Old Norse (e.g. þú masar, hann masar; þú þekkir, hann þekkir; etc.). See -est.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the third-person singular indicative present tense of verbs.
    to eathe eats

Usage notes[edit]

  • In Standard English, the -s suffix is only used to mark the third person singular present of verbs; however, in some varieties of English particularly US Southern and AAVE, the -s can be extended to other persons/numbers as well, as in: I eats me spinach; I hates the Yankee nation and everything they do; They likes it here; etc.
See also[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

see Category:English third-person singular forms

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English -es, from Old English -es (masc-neut genitive ending of most nouns). More at -'s.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. used in the formation of certain English adverbs.
    backwards; downwards; homewards; inwards; outwards; sidewards; skywards; towards; upwards; betides; besides; betimes; sometimes;
    always; sideways; crossways; anyways; unawares; needs; eftsoons; anyhows; whiles; athwartships; amidships; upstairs; downstairs;
    eastwards; westwards; southwards; northwards; leewards; forwards; shorewards; landwards; seawards; sternwards; larboards;
    starboards; ofttimes; evenings; otherwhiles;
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

By dropping the apostrophe in 's.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (usually nonstandard) Alternative form of 's
Usage notes[edit]
  • In most cases where -s is found as a possessive case marker, it is a simple misspelling of -'s.
  • However, personal pronouns' possessive forms use -s (e.g. theirs, not their's).
  • Furthermore, in British English, bare -s is used in some business names that derive from possessive family names, e.g. Barclays and Harrods (originally Barclay's, Harrod’s), but compare Sainsbury’s; see Wikipedia's article on possessives in business names. In speech, /s/ is sometimes added to business names which have neither -s nor -'s in writing, resulting in s-forms, which see.

Etymology 5[edit]

Shortened form of -sy.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Diminutive suffix
    Babs; moms; pops; homes; toots
Derived terms[edit]



Danish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the genitive case of nouns.
    Danmarks dronning — the Queen of Denmark
    Københavns snefald — snowfall in Copenhagen

Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Unknown. Not present in Old Dutch, which used -a from Proto-Germanic *-ōz as the plural ending. Possibly spread from Middle Low German -s, -es, from Old Saxon -os, -as, from Proto-Germanic *-ōs. Further etymology is unknown, but cognate with Old English -as.

Suffix[edit]

-s pl

  1. Used to form regular plurals of nouns that end in certain suffixes or syllables, such as -el, -er, -en, -em, -eur, -aar, -aard, diminutive -je, etc.
    bodem - bodems
  2. Used to form irregular plurals of many other nouns, chiefly of foreign origin.
    telefoon - telefoons
Usage notes[edit]
  • Nouns ending in unstressed -e generally have a plural in -s and one in -n (ziekte > ziektes, ziekten). Individual words, however, allow just one of the two ways.
  • Most words of Latin origin ending in -um are pluralized either with the suffix -s (museum > museums) or by replacing -um with -a (> musea). The latter tends to be preferred in formal style.

Etymology 2[edit]

From the genitive case of masculine and neuter nouns and adjectives, Middle Dutch -s, -es, from Old Dutch -es, -is, from Proto-Germanic *-as, *-is.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (obsolete, except in fixed expressions) Used to form the genitive case of (strong) masculine and neuter nouns.
    tijd - de tand des tijds
  2. Used to form the genitive case of proper nouns and some pronouns.
    Pieter - Pieters jas
    iemand - iemands jas
  3. Used to form the partitive form of the adjective
    lief - iets liefs
  4. Used to form adverbs
    stad - steeds
Derived terms[edit]


The adverbial/adjectival -s combines with other suffixes like :

Etymology 3[edit]

From earlier -sch, from Middle Dutch -sch, from Old Dutch -isc, from Proto-Germanic *-iskaz (from which also -isch via German), from Proto-Indo-European *-iskos.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form adjectives of characteristic from nouns.
    winter (winter) + ‎-s → ‎winters (wintery)
    spel (game) + ‎-s → ‎speels (playful)
  2. Used to form adjectives or language names from names of nations or countries.
    Engeland (England) + ‎-s → ‎Engels (English)
    Finland (Finland) + ‎-s → ‎Fins (Finnish)

Estonian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix[edit]

-s (genitive -sa, partitive -sat)

  1. creates adjectives from nouns
    au "honour" → aus "honest"
    ilu "beauty" → ilus "beautiful"
    lõbu "pleasure" → lõbus "fun"

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-nci.

Suffix[edit]

-s (genitive -nda, partitive -ndat)

  1. forms ordinal numbers from cardinal numbers
    kolm "three" → kolmas "third"
    kuus "six" → kuues "sixth"

Inflection[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-nci.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Forms ordinal numbers from cardinal numbers, or ordinal pronouns.
    mones
Usage notes[edit]

Added to the genitive singular (weak grade) stem.

Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony:

Inflection of -s (Kotus type 45/kahdeksas, nt-nn gradation)
nominative -s -nnet
genitive -nnen -nsien
partitive -tta -nsia
illative -nteen -nsiin
singular plural
nominative -s -nnet
accusative nom. -s -nnet
gen. -nnen
genitive -nnen -nsien
partitive -tta -nsia
inessive -nnessa -nsissa
elative -nnesta -nsista
illative -nteen -nsiin
adessive -nnella -nsilla
ablative -nnelta -nsilta
allative -nnelle -nsille
essive -ntena -nsina
translative -nneksi -nsiksi
instructive -nsin
abessive -nnetta -nsitta
comitative -nsineen

Front vowel harmony:

Inflection of -s (Kotus type 45/kahdeksas, nt-nn gradation)
nominative -s -nnet
genitive -nnen -nsien
partitive -ttä -nsiä
illative -nteen -nsiin
singular plural
nominative -s -nnet
accusative nom. -s -nnet
gen. -nnen
genitive -nnen -nsien
partitive -ttä -nsiä
inessive -nnessä -nsissä
elative -nnestä -nsistä
illative -nteen -nsiin
adessive -nnellä -nsillä
ablative -nneltä -nsiltä
allative -nnelle -nsille
essive -ntenä -nsinä
translative -nneksi -nsiksi
instructive -nsin
abessive -nnettä -nsittä
comitative -nsineen

Etymology 2[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Particle[edit]

-s

  1. (enclitic) When appended to a second-person singular or plural imperative, gives the command or request slightly rude or impatient tone—often with different verbs and different independent particles adjacent, the tone is different:
    • Kuules nyt! (addressing one person)
      • Now do listen! (with nyt, quite an established expression of frustration, speaker very impatient)
    • Kuulkaas nyt! (addressing many persons or formally one person)
      • Now do listen! (same tone as above)
    • Tees nämä tehtävät. (addressing one person, tone less impatient)
      • Go do these tasks.
  2. (enclitic) When appended to the particle -pa/-pä that is appended to a second-person imperative, gives the command or request a slightly more persuasive or inspiring tone:
    • Laitapas lautaset pöytään.
      • Hey, go put the plates on the table.
  3. (enclitic) Mainly in informal contexts: a particle appended to an interrogative suffix -ko/-kö of the verb conjugated (also - with the negation verb) in order to bring the conversation partner or a person outside the conversation, talked about, emotionally closer to the speaker, or to create familiarity into the conversation; also to express that closeness or familiarity—sometimes very difficult to translate well into English, in some cases corresponds the tag questions:
  4. (enclitic, colloquial) appended to the shortened impersonal indicative present form (-n omitted) to soften the command or request or to make it more persuasive:
    • Tehdääs tämä huomenna.
      • Let's go do this tomorrow.

See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From apocope of the final vowel of -ssa, -ssä.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (case suffix, colloquial or dialectal) Alternative form of -ssa

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle French -s, from Old French -s, from Latin -s (accusative).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Silent except in liaison environments, when it is pronounced IPA(key): /z‿/

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the regular plural of nouns.
    hommes

See also[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle High German -es, from Old High German [Term?].

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -es
  • -ens (proper nouns ending with a sibilant consonant; dated)
  • -' (proper nouns ending with a sibilant consonant)
  • -'s (common nouns; now proscribed)
  • -'s (proper nouns; correct in certain cases, but often seen as a misspelling)

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the genitive singular of most masculine nouns, neuter nouns, and proper nouns of all genders.
Usage notes[edit]
  • No simple rule can be given as to whether -s or -es should be used to form the genitive singular. Sometimes only one form is possible; often one is preferable; in other cases both are equally acceptable.

Etymology 2[edit]

Probably derived from the genitive -s (etymology 1), but developed into a noun-forming suffix in German Low German and Central German dialects.

Suffix[edit]

-s m

  1. used to form nouns from verb stems
    klackenKlacks
    schnappenSchnaps

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Middle Low German [Term?]. Reinforced by the fact that French and English also use -s as a plural suffix.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -'s (now proscribed)
  • -ens (family names ending with a sibilant consonant)

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the plurals of some nouns.
  2. Used to form the plurals of personal names, particularly family names.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The plural ending -s is most typical of loanwords (as in Schals, Parfüms, Videos). It is also used colloquially in a certain number of native words (as in Jungs, Mädels, Fräuleins). Moreover, it is the most productive plural marker in contemporary German, typically used to pluralise initialisms (LKWs), neologisms (Honks), and words that do not otherwise have a common plural form (Streits).

See also[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (adjective suffix) Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning "having something, a quality".
    (salt)s (salty)
  2. (noun suffix) Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun.
    hajó (ship)hajós (sailor)
  3. (number suffix) Added to an ordinal number to form a digit or figure.
    nulla (zero)nullás (the digit or figure 0)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (all senses) Harmonic variants:
    -s is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -os is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -as is added to other back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -es is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ös is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Manx[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. -self (emphatic)

Usage notes[edit]

See also[edit]


Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology 1[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Forms nouns indicating a material.
  2. Forms nouns from numbers, indicating a group.
    golbma (three) + ‎-s → ‎golmmas (group of three)
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable in the nominative singular and essive, and the strong grade in the other forms.

Inflection[edit]
Odd, no gradation
Nominative -s
Genitive -sa
Singular Plural
Nominative -s -sat
Accusative -sa -siid
Genitive -sa -siid
Illative -sii -siidda
Locative -sis -siin
Comitative -siin -siiguin
Essive -sin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -san -seamẹ -seamẹt
2nd person -sat -seattẹ -seattẹt
3rd person -sis -seaskkạ -seasẹt
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Forms adverbs of manner from adjectives.
    buorre (good) + ‎-s → ‎bures (well)
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ksë. Cognate with the Finnish translative ending -ksi.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Forms adverbs indicating direction or a span of time.
    davvi (north) + ‎-s → ‎davás (northwards)
    dálvi (winter) + ‎-s → ‎dálvvás (for the winter)
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 4[edit]

From a merger of two older case endings:

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. The ending of the locative singular case.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When possessive suffixes are attached, the suffix reverts to its earlier form -st- (for even-syllable stems) or -stti- (for odd-syllable stems).


Norwegian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the genitive case of nouns.
  2. Used to form the passive of verbs.

Usage notes[edit]

  • If the genitive noun already ends with a sibilant, only an apostrophe (-') is added. It is incorrect to use an apostrophe before the s.

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-isjō, *-usjō.

Suffix[edit]

-s f

  1. (often affects the value or quality of preceding consonants, may or may not cause i-mutation) Feminine noun suffix forming nouns from adjectives and verbs
    milts "mercy" (earlier milds), from milde "gentle, mild"
    liss "grace" (earlier liþs, līþs), from līþe "gentle, limber"
    cwiss (earlier cwiþs) "a saying", from cweþan "to say, speak"

Declension[edit]


Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -z (for most words that don't end in -e)

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. indicates a nominative singular of a masculine noun or adjective
  2. indicates an oblique plural of a masculine noun or adjective
  3. indicates a nominative plural of a feminine noun or adjective
  4. indicates an oblique plural of a feminine noun or adjective

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle French: -s
    • French: -s

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -es (after consonants)

Suffix[edit]

-s m pl, f pl

  1. used to form the regular plural nouns and adjectives which end in vowels
    • 2007, Lya Wyler (translator), J. K. Rowling (English author), Harry Potter e as Relíquias da Morte (Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows), Rocco, page 308:
      Você notou os cabelos dela, são negros e brilhantes e macios...
      Did you notice her hair, it's dark and bright and soft...

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (Brazil, slang, rare) used to form slangier forms of certain words
    foi mal (sorry) + ‎-s → ‎foi mals (soz)
    grande coisa (big deal) + ‎-s → ‎grandes coisa (biggie)
    valeu (thank you) + ‎-s → ‎valeus (thanks)

Quechua[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Evidential suffix, second-hand information. Indicates that the speaker has not directly experienced the information at hand; hearsay
    Qusqumantas kanki.
    (They say that) you are from Cusco.
    Inisqa qayna ñañantas watukusqan.
    Inez visited her sister yesterday (so I heard).

See also[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the regular plural of nouns which end in vowels.
    amigo (friend)amigos (friends)
    cocina (kitchen)cocinas (kitchens)

Related terms[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the genitive case of nouns.
  2. Used to inflect verbs for the passive voice.