-ir

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Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs.

Suffix[edit]

-ir

  1. A verb ending for infinitives.

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish -ir, Italian -ire, Romanian -i and , etc.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Suffix[edit]

-ir

  1. (non-productive) forms the infinitives of many verbs

Usage notes[edit]

  • Most verbs with infinitives in -ir are marked by the once-inchoative infix -iss- in many parts of their conjugation, as well as in various derived words; two such verbs are choisir (to choose) and pourrir (to rot). A fair number of these have English counterparts in -ish; some such examples are finir (to finish), nourrir (to feed, to nourish), accomplir (to accomplish), and polir (to polish).
  • Many verbs with infinitives in -ir have an inchoative meaning. Examples include blanchir (to whiten, to bleach, to make whiter, to become pale), durcir (to harden, to make more rigid, to become stronger), grandir (to become bigger, to magnify, to make bigger), rougir (to redden, to blush, to become redder, to make redder), and vieillir (to age, to become older, to make older).
  • A sizable group of verbs have infinitives in -ir but do not use the infix -iss-, and are otherwise fairly regular; these include, among others, the common verbs sortir (to go out, to take out), partir (to leave), dormir (to sleep) (but these examples are also irregular, with sors instead of *sortis). An irregular -ir verb which is truly conjugated exactly as a regular -ir verb except only without the infix (although it is dated and has a regular alternative conjugation) is chauvir.
  • This suffix is spelled -ïr on a few verbs where the previous syllable ends in a vowel, such as haïr (to hate) and ouïr (to hear). Additionally, it is spelled -ire on the verb maudire (to curse), by analogy with the related but irregular verb dire (to say), and the verb bruire.
  • Not all verbs whose infinitives happen to end in these letters can truly be said to have this suffix; in particular, a fair number of irregular verbs have infinitives in the unrelated suffix -oir.

Conjugation[edit]

This is a regular verb of the second conjugation, like finir, choisir, and most other verbs with infinitives ending in -ir. One salient feature of this conjugation is the repeated appearance of the infix -iss-.

See also[edit]


Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Modeled after -ar and -is.

Suffix[edit]

-ir

  1. Used to denote the past infinitive of a verb.
    Me devas telefonir tu.
    I should have called you.

Related terms[edit]

  • -ar (present infinitive tense)
  • -or (future infinitive tense)

Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs.

Suffix[edit]

-ir

  1. used to form infinitives of second conjugation verbs

See also[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese -ir, from Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs. In some verbs, it is a reflex of Latin -ere of the third conjugation

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ir (first-person singular present indicative -o, past participle -ido)

  1. (non-productive) forms the infinitive of the third-conjugation verbs

Conjugation[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs.

Suffix[edit]

-ir (first-person singular present -o, first-person singular preterite , past participle -ido)

  1. A verb ending for infinitives.

See also[edit]

Conjugation[edit]

Below are the suffixes for the regular conjugation of -ir verb


Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ir

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the impersonal present indicative/future

Usage notes[edit]

-ir causes i-affection of internal vowels, for example, ‎canu (to sing) + ‎-ir → ‎cenir (is sung, one sings, will be sung, one will sing).

Derived terms[edit]

Category Welsh words suffixed with -ir not found