-u

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Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Suffixed definite article attached on nouns ending with k, g (IPA(key): [k], [ɡ]). From the ending Proto-Indo-European *-osyo. cognate to Messapic -aihi.[1][2][3]

Related to Albanian -i (of the, etc.), Albanian i (of, the, to).

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

-u m

  1. masculine singular nominative and accusative suffixed definite article: the
    flok (hair) + ‎-u → ‎floku (the hair)
    treg (market) + ‎-u → ‎tregu (the market)
    plak (old man) + ‎-u → ‎plaku (the old man)
    zog (bird) + ‎-u → ‎zogu (the bird)
    (note: -u shifts towards -i among some Gheg dialects; zogi instead of zogu)

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matzinger 2015, pp. 62–66
  2. ^ Ismajli 2015, pp. 65–68.
  3. ^ Matzinger, Joachim (2017). "The Lexicon of Albanian". In Klein, Jared; Joseph, Brian; Fritz, Matthias (eds.). Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics. 3. Walter de Gruyter.

Chuukese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. out, outwards; used to modify verb direction

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Etymology unclear. Perhaps from the Greek -ou imperative (pronounced [u]) of deponent verbs such as dekhou “receive!”, or from the Hebrew imperative -û. It may instead—or also—be connected to the vowel of the Esperanto conditional suffix -us, minus the s of the indicative inflections.

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. volitive inflection of verbs, indicating that an action or state is desired, requested, ordered, or aimed for.
    Donu ĝin al mi.
    Give it to me. (expresses a request or command)
    Ni faru tion.
    Let's do that. (expresses a desire or aim)
    Mi iru dormi.
    I ought to go to sleep. (expresses desirability of the action)
    Via infano sukcesu en la vivo.
    May your child be successful in life. (wish or desire)
    Mi volas, ke vi helpu min.
    I want you to help me. (desire)
    Ŝi petas, ke mi silentu.
    She asks that I be silent. (request)

Etymology 2[edit]

Apparently connected to the u at the end of unu (one, a certain).

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. -one. (Ending of the individual correlatives.)
    kiu (what individual, who)
    tiu (that individual, that one)
    ĉiu (all individuals, everyone)
    iu (some individual, someone)
    neniu (no individual, nobody)
    (unofficial) aliu (another individual, someone else)

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Uralic *-w (as applied to stems ending in -e). Cognate with Finnish -u.

Suffix[edit]

-u (genitive -u, partitive -u)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs or prefixes
    jagama "to divide" → jagu "a part, a share"
    kaduma "to disappear" → kadu "loss, losing"
    sise- "inside" → sisu "content"
    pesema "to wash" → pesu "wash, washing"

Derived terms[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-u, from Proto-Uralic *-w (as applied to stems ending in -e). Cognate with Estonian -u.

Suffix[edit]

-u (front vowel harmony variant -y)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs. Most common with e- and i-stem verbs.
    hyppiä (to be jumping) + ‎-u → ‎hyppy (jump)
    itkeä (to cry) + ‎-u → ‎itku (cry(ing))
    pestä (to wash) + ‎-u → ‎pesu (wash(ing))
    potkia (to kick) + ‎-u → ‎potku (kick)
    urheilla (to practice sport) + ‎-u → ‎urheilu (sport)
  2. Derives a number of nouns from other nouns.
    silmä (eye) + ‎-u → ‎silmu (bud)
    sisä- (inside) + ‎-u → ‎sisu (determination, perseverance)

Usage notes[edit]

The front-harmonic variant -y is only used when the first vowel of the word is one of the harmonic front vowels y, ä, ö; words beginning with neutral front vowels e, i take the back-harmonic variant.

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -u (Kotus type 1/valo, no gradation)
nominative -u -ut
genitive -un -ujen
partitive -ua -uja
illative -uun -uihin
singular plural
nominative -u -ut
accusative nom. -u -ut
gen. -un
genitive -un -ujen
partitive -ua -uja
inessive -ussa -uissa
elative -usta -uista
illative -uun -uihin
adessive -ulla -uilla
ablative -ulta -uilta
allative -ulle -uille
essive -una -uina
translative -uksi -uiksi
instructive -uin
abessive -utta -uitta
comitative -uineen
Possessive forms of -u (type valo)
possessor singular plural
1st person -uni -umme
2nd person -usi -unne
3rd person -unsa
Inflection of -u (Kotus type 2/palvelu, no gradation)
nominative -u -ut
genitive -un -ujen
-uiden
-uitten
partitive -ua -uja
-uita
illative -uun -uihin
singular plural
nominative -u -ut
accusative nom. -u -ut
gen. -un
genitive -un -ujen
-uiden
-uitten
partitive -ua -uja
-uita
inessive -ussa -uissa
elative -usta -uista
illative -uun -uihin
adessive -ulla -uilla
ablative -ulta -uilta
allative -ulle -uille
essive -una -uina
translative -uksi -uiksi
instructive -uin
abessive -utta -uitta
comitative -uineen
Possessive forms of -u (type palvelu)
possessor singular plural
1st person -uni -umme
2nd person -usi -unne
3rd person -unsa

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -ūtus.[1] Cognate to Italian -uto (as in barbuto) and Spanish -udo (as in barbudo).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Forming adjectives having the sense of ‘having quality of, being provided with’ (the root word).
    barbe (beard) + ‎-u → ‎barbu (bearded)
    ventre (belly) + ‎-u → ‎ventru (pot-bellied, rounded)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ -u, -ue; in: Jacqueline Picoche, Jean-Claude Rolland, Dictionnaire étymologique du français, Paris 2009, Dictionnaires Le Robert

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-u

  1. Romanization of -𐌿

Greenlandic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-u (n-v?, truncative?, uses -j- as interfix?)

  1. be
    ilinniartitsisoq (teacher) -> ilinniartitsisiuuvugut (we are teachers) .
    Ukiuuvoq.
    It is winter.
    • 1998 May 7, "Tasiilami efterskoleqalernissaa Jakob Sivertsen-ip sulissutigaa", Atuagagdliutit / Grønlandsposten
      Inatsisartunut ilaasortaq Jakob Sivertsen Atassummeersoq ilungersornertuujuvoq.
      MP Jakob Sivertsen, of Atassut, is diligent.
    • 1992, "Meeqqakka", Atuagagdliutit/Grønlandsposten
      Ernerput anguteqatiminoortartunngorsimavoq (19-inik ukioqarluni paasineqarpoq), niviarsiararlu nukarleq arnaqatiminoortartunngorsimalluni. Akulleq pissusissamisoortuuvoq.
      Our son has become gay (it was discovered when he was 19 years old), and the youngest girl has become a lesbian. The middle [child] is as she should be [i.e. heterosexual].

Usage notes[edit]

May become additive after a strong q base.

References[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to a noun or a proper noun to form a diminutive.
    apa (father)apu (dad)

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Common vowel found in pronouns in Romance languages: French tu, Italian tu and Spanish , also in French vous and as an o in Italian voi and Spanish vos, etc. (Compare tu and vu)

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. suffix used to form pronouns indicating a person
    omna (all, every) + ‎-u → ‎omnu (everyone)

Usage notes[edit]

As it is used to form pronouns, you cannot use it to create nouns. Instead, to form an agent from an adjective like felica (happy), you just make it a noun: felico (a happy person).

Derived terms[edit]


Latin[edit]

Suffix[edit]

  1. ablative/locative singular of -us for fourth-declension nouns.

Maltese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -h (after a vowel)

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic ـهُ(-hu).

Suffix[edit]

-u m

  1. (used after a consonant) him, it
    qatel (he killed) + ‎-u → ‎qatlu (he killed him)

Related terms[edit]


Maori[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Used in contractions with particles of possession to mean you

See also[edit]


Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ō. Cognate with Finnish -o.

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Forms result or action nouns from verbs.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.
Inflection[edit]
Even u-stem, no gradation
Nominative -u
Genitive -u
-ọ
Singular Plural
Nominative -u -ut
Accusative -u -ūid
Genitive -u
-ọ
-ūid
Illative -ui -ūide
Locative -us -ūin
Comitative -ūin -ūiguin
Essive -un
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -on -ome -omet
2nd person -ot -ode -odet
3rd person -us -uska -uset
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Form of the suffix -i used with verbs in -ut.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.
Inflection[edit]
Even u-stem, no gradation
Nominative -u
Genitive -u
-ọ
Singular Plural
Nominative -u -ut
Accusative -u -ūid
Genitive -u
-ọ
-ūid
Illative -ui -ūide
Locative -us -ūin
Comitative -ūin -ūiguin
Essive -un
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -on -ome -omet
2nd person -ot -ode -odet
3rd person -us -uska -uset
Derived terms[edit]

Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From suppletive fusion of Old English feminine ending -u, -o and Proto-Germanic *-į̄ (feminine abstract ending). Akin to Gothic feminine abstracts in -𐌴𐌹 (-ei) (compare 𐌼𐌹𐌺𐌹𐌻𐌴𐌹 (mikilei, greatness); 𐌳𐌹𐌿𐍀𐌴𐌹 (diupei, depth)).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. ending used to form abstract nouns from adjectives (compare Modern English -ness), often causing i-mutation, and remaining even when preceded by a long syllable
    eald (old) + ‎-u → ‎ieldu (age)
    hāliġ (holy, sacred; pious) + ‎-u → ‎hāligu (holiness)
    hāl (sound, healthy, intact) + ‎-u → ‎hǣlu (wholeness, health)
    hāt (hot) + ‎-u → ‎hǣtu (heat, warmth)
    mennisc (human, natural, humane) + ‎-u → ‎menniscu (humanity)
    miċel (big, large; great) + ‎-u → ‎miċelu (greatness, size)

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

In later Old English, -u became -o and the declension altered to reflect the following paradigm


Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. suffixed used to form adjectives (oblique masculine singular) from nouns

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle French: -u
    • French: -u

Phalura[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Masculine singular agreement suffix

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[1], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Masculine nominative/singular agreement suffix

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[2], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /u/
  • Rhymes: -u
  • Syllabification: u

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. (sometimes archaic) forms the masculine dative singular, now used to create adverbs, always used in conjunction with po
    polski + ‎-u → ‎po polsku
  2. forms the inanimate masculine genitive singular after soft or historically soft stems
    kowal + ‎-u → ‎kowalu
  3. (rare) forms the masculine dative singular in certain words
    chłopiec + ‎-u → ‎chłopcu
  4. forms the masculine locative singular
    kowal + ‎-u → ‎kowalu
  5. forms the masculine vocative singular
    kowal + ‎-u → ‎kowalu
  6. forms the feminine vocative singular after -ś and -ź
    mamusia + ‎-u → ‎mamusiu
  7. forms the neuter dative singular in soft and velar stems
    pole + ‎-u → ‎polu
    stoisko + ‎-u → ‎stoisku
  8. forms the neuter locative singular in soft and velar stems
    pole + ‎-u → ‎polu
    stoisko + ‎-u → ‎stoisku

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • -u in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • -u in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Alternative form of
    duy- (to feel) + ‎-u → ‎duyu (sense)

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Welsh -u, from Proto-Brythonic *-oβ̃.

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Forms verbnouns from verb stems.
    Synonyms: -a, -ed, -eg, -i, -o, -io

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is mostly used where the vowel in the last syllable is a, ae, e, or y.[1]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, § 202 iii