-u

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Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. out, outwards; used to modify verb direction

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps from the Greek -ou imperative (pronounced [u]) of deponent verbs such as dekhou "receive!", or from the Hebrew imperative -û. It may instead—or also—be connected to the vowel of the Esperanto conditional suffix -us, minus the s of the indicative inflections.

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. do [it]! (jussive inflection of verbs.)
    Parolu!Speak!

Etymology 2[edit]

Apparently connected to the u at the end of unu (one, a certain).

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. -one. (Ending of the individual correlatives.)
    kiu (what individual, who)
    tiu (that individual, that one)
    ĉiu (all individuals, everyone)
    iu (some individual, someone)
    neniu (no individual, nobody)
    (unofficial) aliu (another individual, someone else)

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate to Finnish -u.

Suffix[edit]

-u (genitive -u, partitive -u)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs or prefixes
    jagama "to divide" → jagu "a part, a share"
    kaduma "to disappear" → kadu "loss, losing"
    sise- "inside" → sisu "content"
    pesema "to wash" → pesu "wash, washing"

Derived terms[edit]



Finnish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u (front vowel harmony variant -y)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs. Most common with e- and i-stem verbs.
    hyppiä (to be jumping) + ‎-u → ‎hyppy (jump)
    itkeä (to cry) + ‎-u → ‎itku (cry(ing))
    pestä (to wash) + ‎-u → ‎pesu (wash(ing))
    potkia (to kick) + ‎-u → ‎potku (kick)
    urheilla (to practice sport) + ‎-u → ‎urheilu (sport)
  2. Derives a number of nouns from other nouns.
    silmä (eye) + ‎-u → ‎silmu (bud)
    sisä- (inside) + ‎-u → ‎sisu (determination, perseverance)

Usage notes[edit]

The front-harmonic variant -y is only used when the first vowel of the word is one of the harmonic front vowels y, ä, ö; words beginning with neutral front vowels e, i take the back-harmonic variant.

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -u (Kotus type 1/valo, no gradation)
nominative -u -ut
genitive -un -ujen
partitive -ua -uja
illative -uun -uihin
singular plural
nominative -u -ut
accusative nom. -u -ut
gen. -un
genitive -un -ujen
partitive -ua -uja
inessive -ussa -uissa
elative -usta -uista
illative -uun -uihin
adessive -ulla -uilla
ablative -ulta -uilta
allative -ulle -uille
essive -una -uina
translative -uksi -uiksi
instructive -uin
abessive -utta -uitta
comitative -uineen
Inflection of -u (Kotus type 2/palvelu, no gradation)
nominative -u -ut
genitive -un -ujen
-uiden
-uitten
partitive -ua -uja
-uita
illative -uun -uihin
singular plural
nominative -u -ut
accusative nom. -u -ut
gen. -un
genitive -un -ujen
-uiden
-uitten
partitive -ua -uja
-uita
inessive -ussa -uissa
elative -usta -uista
illative -uun -uihin
adessive -ulla -uilla
ablative -ulta -uilta
allative -ulle -uille
essive -una -uina
translative -uksi -uiksi
instructive -uin
abessive -utta -uitta
comitative -uineen

See also[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -uto, the ablative of -utus. [1] Cognate to Italian -uto (as in barbuto) and Spanish -udo (as in barbudo).

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Forming adjectives having the sense of ‘having quality of, being provided with’ (the root word).
    barbe (beard) + ‎-u → ‎barbu (bearded)
    ventre (belly) + ‎-u → ‎ventru (pot-bellied, rounded)

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ -u, -ue; in: Jacqueline Picoche, Jean-Claude Rolland, Dictionnaire étymologique du français, Paris 2009, Dictionnaires Le Robert

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-u

  1. Romanization of -𐌿

Greenlandic[edit]

Affix[edit]

-u (n-v, truncative, uses -j- as interfix)

  1. be
    ilinniartitsisoq (teacher) -> ilinniartitsisiuuvugut (we are teachers) .
    Ukiuuvoq.
    It is winter.

Usage notes[edit]

May become additive after a strong q base.

References[edit]


Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Common vowel found in pronouns in Romantic languages: French tu, Italian tu and Spanish , also in French vous and as an o in Italian voi and Spanish vos, etc. (Compare tu and vu)

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. suffix used to form pronouns indicating a person
    omna (all, every) + ‎-u → ‎omnu (everyone)

Usage notes[edit]

As it is used to form pronouns, you cannot use it to create nouns. Instead, to form an agent from an adjective like felica (happy), you just make it a noun: felico (a happy person).

Derived terms[edit]



Maltese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic ـهُ (-hu).

Pronoun[edit]

-u m

  1. him, it

Usage notes[edit]

  • Affixed to the verb directly:
qatel (he killed) + ‎-u → ‎qatlu (he killed him)

Related terms[edit]


Maori[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Used in contractions with particles of possession to mean you

See also[edit]


Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ō. Cognate with Finnish -o.

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Forms result or action nouns from verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Inflection[edit]
Even, no gradation
Nominative -u
Genitive -u
-o
Singular Plural
Nominative -u -ut
Accusative -u -uid
Genitive -u
-o
-uid
Illative -ui -uide
Locative -us -uin
Comitative -uin -uiguin
Essive -un
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -on -ome -omet
2nd person -ot -ode -odet
3rd person -us -uska -uset
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Form of the suffix -i used with verbs in -ut.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Inflection[edit]
Even, no gradation
Nominative -u
Genitive -u
-o
Singular Plural
Nominative -u -ut
Accusative -u -uid
Genitive -u
-o
-uid
Illative -ui -uide
Locative -us -uin
Comitative -uin -uiguin
Essive -un
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -on -ome -omet
2nd person -ot -ode -odet
3rd person -us -uska -uset
Derived terms[edit]



Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From suppletive fusion of Old English feminine ending -u, -o and Proto-Germanic *-į̄ (feminine abstract ending). Akin to Gothic feminine abstracts in -𐌴𐌹 (-ei) (compare 𐌼𐌹𐌺𐌹𐌻𐌴𐌹 (mikilei, greatness); 𐌳𐌹𐌿𐍀𐌴𐌹 (diupei, depth)).

Suffix[edit]

-u f

  1. ending used to form abstract nouns from adjectives (compare Modern English -ness), often causing i-mutation, and remaining even when preceded by a long syllable
    eald (old) + ‎-u → ‎ieldu (age)
    hāliġ (holy, sacred; pious) + ‎-u → ‎hāligu (holiness)
    hāl (sound, healthy, intact) + ‎-u → ‎hǣlu (wholeness, health)
    hāt (hot) + ‎-u → ‎hǣtu (heat, warmth)
    mennisc (human, natural, humane) + ‎-u → ‎menniscu (humanity)
    miċel (big, large; great) + ‎-u → ‎miċelu (greatness, size)

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

In later Old English, -u became -o and the declension altered to reflect the following paradigm


Old French[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. suffixed used to form adjectives (oblique masculine singular) from nouns

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle French: -u
    • French: -u