-u

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Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. out, outwards; used to modify verb direction

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps from the Greek -ou imperative (pronounced [u]) of deponent verbs such as dekhou "receive!", or from the Hebrew imperative -û. It may instead—or also—be connected to the vowel of the Esperanto conditional suffix -us, minus the s of the indicative inflections.

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. do [it]! (jussive inflection of verbs.)
    Parolu!‎ ― Speak!

Etymology 2[edit]

Apparently connected to the u at the end of unu ‎(one, a certain).

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. -one. (Ending of the individual correlatives.)
    kiu ‎(what individual, who)
    tiu ‎(that individual, that one)
    ĉiu ‎(all individuals, everyone)
    iu ‎(some individual, someone)
    neniu ‎(no individual, nobody)
    (nonce) aliu ‎(another individual, someone else)

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate to Finnish -u.

Suffix[edit]

-u ‎(genitive -u, partitive -u)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs or prefixes
    jagama "to divide" → jagu "a part, a share"
    kaduma "to disappear" → kadu "loss, losing"
    sise- "inside" → sisu "content"
    pesema "to wash" → pesu "wash, washing"

Derived terms[edit]



Finnish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u ‎(front vowel harmony variant -y)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs. Most common with e- and i-stem verbs.
    hyppiä ‎(to be jumping) + ‎-u → ‎hyppy ‎(jump)
    itkeä ‎(to cry) + ‎-u → ‎itku ‎(cry(ing))
    pestä ‎(to wash) + ‎-u → ‎pesu ‎(wash(ing))
    potkia ‎(to kick) + ‎-u → ‎potku ‎(kick)
    urheilla ‎(to practice sport) + ‎-u → ‎urheilu ‎(sport)
  2. Derives a number of nouns from other nouns.
    silmä ‎(eye) + ‎-u → ‎silmu ‎(bud)
    sisä- ‎(inside) + ‎-u → ‎sisu ‎(determination, perseverance)

Usage notes[edit]

The front-harmonic variant -y is only used when the first vowel of the word is one of the harmonic front vowels y, ä, ö; words beginning with neutral front vowels e, i take the back-harmonic variant.

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -u (Kotus type 1/valo, no gradation)
nominative -u -ut
genitive -un -ujen
partitive -ua -uja
illative -uun -uihin
singular plural
nominative -u -ut
accusative nom. -u -ut
gen. -un
genitive -un -ujen
partitive -ua -uja
inessive -ussa -uissa
elative -usta -uista
illative -uun -uihin
adessive -ulla -uilla
ablative -ulta -uilta
allative -ulle -uille
essive -una -uina
translative -uksi -uiksi
instructive -uin
abessive -utta -uitta
comitative -uineen
Inflection of -u (Kotus type 2/palvelu, no gradation)
nominative -u -ut
genitive -un -ujen
-uiden
-uitten
partitive -ua -uja
-uita
illative -uun -uihin
singular plural
nominative -u -ut
accusative nom. -u -ut
gen. -un
genitive -un -ujen
-uiden
-uitten
partitive -ua -uja
-uita
inessive -ussa -uissa
elative -usta -uista
illative -uun -uihin
adessive -ulla -uilla
ablative -ulta -uilta
allative -ulle -uille
essive -una -uina
translative -uksi -uiksi
instructive -uin
abessive -utta -uitta
comitative -uineen

See also[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -uto, the ablative of -utus. [1] Cognate to Italian -uto (as in barbuto) and Spanish -udo (as in barbudo).

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Forming adjectives having the sense of ‘having quality of, being provided with’ (the root word).
    barbe ‎(beard) + ‎-u → ‎barbu ‎(bearded)
    ventre ‎(belly) + ‎-u → ‎ventru ‎(pot-bellied, rounded)

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ -u, -ue; in: Jacqueline Picoche, Jean-Claude Rolland, Dictionnaire étymologique du français, Paris 2009, Dictionnaires Le Robert

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-u

  1. Romanization of -𐌿

Ido[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. suffix used to form pronouns indicating a person (not used on nouns)
    omna ‎(all, every) + ‎-u → ‎omnu ‎(everyone)

Derived terms[edit]



Maltese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic ـهُ ‎(-hu).

Pronoun[edit]

-u m

  1. him, it

Usage notes[edit]

  • Affixed to the verb directly:
qatel ‎(he killed) + ‎-u → ‎qatlu ‎(he killed him)

Related terms[edit]


Maori[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Used in contractions with particles of possession to mean you

See also[edit]


Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ō. Cognate with Finnish -o.

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Forms result or action nouns from verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Inflection[edit]
Even, no gradation
Nominative -u
Genitive -u
-o
Singular Plural
Nominative -u -ut
Accusative -u -uid
Genitive -u
-o
-uid
Illative -ui -uide
Locative -us -uin
Comitative -uin -uiguin
Essive -un
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -on -ome -omet
2nd person -ot -ode -odet
3rd person -us -uska -uset
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. Form of the suffix -i used with verbs in -ut.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Inflection[edit]
Even, no gradation
Nominative -u
Genitive -u
-o
Singular Plural
Nominative -u -ut
Accusative -u -uid
Genitive -u
-o
-uid
Illative -ui -uide
Locative -us -uin
Comitative -uin -uiguin
Essive -un
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -on -ome -omet
2nd person -ot -ode -odet
3rd person -us -uska -uset
Derived terms[edit]



Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From suppletive fusion of Old English feminine ending -u, -o and Proto-Germanic *-į̄ ‎(feminine abstract ending). Akin to Gothic feminine abstracts in -𐌴𐌹 ‎(-ei) (compare 𐌼𐌹𐌺𐌹𐌻𐌴𐌹 ‎(mikilei, greatness); 𐌳𐌹𐌿𐍀𐌴𐌹 ‎(diupei, depth)).

Suffix[edit]

-u f

  1. ending used to form abstract nouns from adjectives (compare Modern English -ness), often causing i-mutation, and remaining even when preceded by a long syllable
    eald ‎(old) + ‎-u → ‎ieldu ‎(age)
    hāliġ ‎(holy, sacred; pious) + ‎-u → ‎hāligu ‎(holiness)
    hāl ‎(sound, healthy, intact) + ‎-u → ‎hǣlu ‎(wholeness, health)
    hāt ‎(hot) + ‎-u → ‎hǣtu ‎(heat, warmth)
    mennisc ‎(human, natural, humane) + ‎-u → ‎menniscu ‎(humanity)
    miċel ‎(big, large; great) + ‎-u → ‎miċelu ‎(greatness, size)

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

In later Old English, -u became -o and the declension altered to reflect the following paradigm


Old French[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-u

  1. suffixed used to form adjectives (oblique masculine singular) from nouns

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle French: -u
    • French: -u