-us

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Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Esperanto suffixes -as, -is, -os, -us are related, and appear to have been inspired by previous language projects:

This play of vowels is not an original idea of Zamenhof's: -as, -is, -os are found for the three tenses of the infinitive in Faiguet's system of 1765; -a, -i, -o without a consonant are used like Z's -as, -is, -os by Rudelle (1858); Courtonne in 1885 had -am, -im, -om in the same values, and the similarity with Esperanto is here even more perfect than in the other projects, as -um corresponds to Z's -us.An International Language (1928)

In addition, the u of -us is likely to be related to -u.

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Ending of the conditional in verbs.

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Finnish -us.

Suffix[edit]

-us (genitive -use, partitive -ust)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs.
    armastama "to love" → armastus "love"
    võistlema "to compete" → võistlus "competition"
    joonistama "to draw" → joonistus "a drawing"
  2. Derives nouns from adjectives.
    aus "honest" → ausus "honesty"
    pikk "long" → pikkus "length"

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]



Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Generalized from -s-derivatives of u-stem verbs (e.g. ihastuaihastus, menestyämenestys) and nominals (e.g. etu-edus, palvelupalvelus), or through the loss of a plain u-derivative from the standard language (e.g. keski- → dial. kesku-keskus). Compare -os.

Suffix[edit]

-us (front vowel harmony variant -ys)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, describing an action or event.
    kuvata (to describe)kuvaus (description)
    pakata (to pack)pakkaus (package)
    ylentää (to promote)ylennys (promotion)
    hälyttää (to alarm)hälytys (an alarm)
  2. Forms nouns, indicating resemblance or association.
    kanta (base)kannus (spur)
    sormi (finger)sormus (ring)
    vasta- (counter-)vastus (resistance, opposition)
    kehä (circle, ring)kehys (frame)
    syli (bosom, lap)sylys (armful)
    typerä (stupid)typerys (fool)
Declension[edit]
Inflection of -us (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative -us -ukset
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
illative -ukseen -uksiin
singular plural
nominative -us -ukset
accusative nom. -us -ukset
gen. -uksen
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
inessive -uksessa -uksissa
elative -uksesta -uksista
illative -ukseen -uksiin
adessive -uksella -uksilla
ablative -ukselta -uksilta
allative -ukselle -uksille
essive -uksena -uksina
translative -ukseksi -uksiksi
instructive -uksin
abessive -uksetta -uksitta
comitative -uksineen

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us (front vowel harmony variant -ys)

  1. Short form of the suffix -uus, used where the stem of the root adjective ends in a vowel.
Declension[edit]
Inflection of -us (Kotus type 40/kalleus, t-d gradation)
nominative -us -udet
genitive -uden -uksien
partitive -utta -uksia
illative -uteen -uksiin
singular plural
nominative -us -udet
accusative nom. -us -udet
gen. -uden
genitive -uden -uksien
partitive -utta -uksia
inessive -udessa -uksissa
elative -udesta -uksista
illative -uteen -uksiin
adessive -udella -uksilla
ablative -udelta -uksilta
allative -udelle -uksille
essive -utena -uksina
translative -udeksi -uksiksi
instructive -uksin
abessive -udetta -uksitta
comitative -uksineen

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Diminutive suffix.
    apa (father) → apus (dad)
    Kata (Kate) → Katus (Katie)
    cica (cat) → cicus (kitty)
    kutya (dog) → kutyus (pooch, puppy)
  2. A distinguishable foreign word ending in nouns. It is not considerable as an independent Hungarian suffix.
    agronómus (agronomist)

Usage notes[edit]

(diminutive suffix): It creates diminutive or affectionate forms, most of the time of people's given names, but also of common nouns, usually ending in a. Other examples: Anna → Annus, Magda → Magdus, Gyula → Gyulus. The -ka diminutive suffix can also be appended after -us to further increase the degree of endearment: apuska, cicuska, kutyuska, Annuska, Magduska.

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Latin -os, from Proto-Italic *-os, from Proto-Indo-European *-ós (adjectival ending).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us m (feminine -a, neuter -um); first/second declension

  1. suffix forming adjectives

Declension[edit]

First/second declension.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative -us -a -um -ae -a
genitive -ae -ōrum -ārum -ōrum
dative -īs
accusative -um -am -um -ōs -ās -a
ablative -īs
vocative -e -a -um -ae -a

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]

References[edit]


Lithuanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *-ós (adjectival ending). Pairs such as lañkas (bend) : lankùs (flexible) find parallels in Sanskrit रुधिर (rúdhira-, blood) : रुधिर (rudhirá-, red), Ancient Greek δόλιχος (dólikhos, a long run) : δολιχός (dolikhós, long) and suggest that oxytone stress was used to mark adjectives in Proto-Indo-European. In Proto-Balto-Slavic, the raising of *o to *u must have been conditioned by stress, with the ending *-os giving Lithuanian -ùs under stress and -as otherwise.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ùs m stress pattern 4

  1. Adjectival suffix, applied to verbal and nominal roots to denote a disposal or tendency towards something
    ardýti (take apart)ardùs (crumbly)
    kalbėti (talk)kalbùs (talkative)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-us, reflecting Proto-Indo-European u-stems.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us, -ùs m

  1. Masculine nominative singular ending for u-stem nouns and adjectives.
    alùs (beer) (< Proto-Indo-European *h₂elu-)
    sūnùs (son) (< Proto-Indo-European *suHnús)
Declension[edit]

(noun):

(adjective):

Etymology 3[edit]

From an older *-uos (compare the pronominal ending -uosius). From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-ons; compare Latvian -us, Old Prussian -ans, Proto-Slavic *-y. From Proto-Indo-European *-ons (accusative plural ending), also reflected in Ancient Greek -ους (-ous), Latin -ōs, Sanskrit -आन् (-ān) and Gothic -𐌰𐌽𐍃 (-ans).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us, -ùs

  1. Used to form accusative plurals of masculine a- and u-stem nouns.
  2. Used to form accusative plurals of masculine a-stem adjectives.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Cognate with Russian (-v). See also -usi.

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Used to form the past adverbial (padalyvis) participle
    bū́ti (to be)bùvo (was)bùvus (having been)
    slė̃pti (hide)past frequentative slė̃pdavo (hid)slė̃pdavus (having hid)

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eugen Hill. (2013) 'Historical phonology in service of subgrouping. Two laws of final syllables in the common prehistory of baltic and slavonic'. Baltistica, volume 48, number 2, p. 161-204

Middle Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -ōsus.

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. -ous, full of, prone to; used to form adjectives from nouns

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]


Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that is to have the verb's action performed on it.
    vuoš'šat (to cook) + ‎-us → ‎vuoššus (something to be cooked)
    muitalit (to tell) + ‎-us → ‎muitalus (something to be told; story)
  2. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that results from having the verb's action performed.
    juohkit (to divide) + ‎-us → ‎juogus (division, section)

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable in the nominative singular and essive, and the strong grade in the other forms.

When attached to even-syllable stems, there is diphthong simplification in all forms except the nominative singular and essive.

Inflection[edit]

For even-syllable stems:

Odd, no gradation
Nominative -us
Genitive -osa
Singular Plural
Nominative -us -osat
Accusative -osa -osiid
Genitive -osa -osiid
Illative -osii -osiidda
Locative -osis -osiin
Comitative -osiin -osiiguin
Essive -usin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -osan -oseame -oseamet
2nd person -osat -oseatte -oseattet
3rd person -osis -oseaskka -oseaset

For odd-syllable stems:

Even, ss-s gradation
Nominative -us
Genitive -usa
Singular Plural
Nominative -us -usat
Accusative -usa -usaid
Genitive -usa -usaid
Illative -ussii -usaide
Locative -usas -usain
Comitative -usain -usaiguin
Essive -ussan
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -ussan -ussame -ussamet
2nd person -ussat -ussade -ussadet
3rd person -ussas -ussaska -ussaset

Derived terms[edit]



Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. -ous, used for forming adjectives

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Alternative form of -as
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us (suffixed pronoun)

  1. her (object pronoun)
  2. them
See also[edit]

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Welsh -us, from Latin -ōsus.

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. -ous, full of, prone to; used to form adjectives from nouns

Derived terms[edit]