-us

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Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Esperanto suffixes -as, -is, -os, -us are related, and appear to have been inspired by previous language projects:

This play of vowels is not an original idea of Zamenhof's: -as, -is, -os are found for the three tenses of the infinitive in Faiguet's system of 1765; -a, -i, -o without a consonant are used like Z's -as, -is, -os by Rudelle (1858); Courtonne in 1885 had -am, -im, -om in the same values, and the similarity with Esperanto is here even more perfect than in the other projects, as -um corresponds to Z's -us.An International Language (1928)

In addition, the u of -us is likely to be related to -u.

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Ending of the conditional in verbs.

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Finnish -us.

Suffix[edit]

-us ‎(genitive -use, partitive -ust)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs.
    armastama "to love" → armastus "love"
    võistlema "to compete" → võistlus "competition"
    joonistama "to draw" → joonistus "a drawing"

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]



Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Generalized from -s-derivatives of u-stem verbs (e.g. ihastuaihastus, menestyämenestys) and nominals (e.g. etu-edus, palvelupalvelus), or through the loss of a plain u-derivative from the standard language (e.g. keski- → dial. kesku-keskus). Compare -os.

Suffix[edit]

-us ‎(front vowel harmony variant -ys)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, describing an action or event.
    kuvata ‎(to describe) → kuvaus ‎(description)
    pakata ‎(to pack) → pakkaus ‎(package)
    ylentää ‎(to promote) → ylennys ‎(promotion)
    hälyttää ‎(to alarm) → hälytys ‎(an alarm)
  2. Forms nouns, indicating resemblance or association.
    kanta ‎(base) → kannus ‎(spur)
    sormi ‎(finger) → sormus ‎(ring)
    vasta- ‎(counter-) → vastus ‎(resistance, opposition)
    kehä ‎(circle, ring) → kehys ‎(frame)
    syli ‎(bosom, lap) → sylys ‎(armful)
    typerä ‎(stupid) → typerys ‎(fool)
Declension[edit]
Inflection of -us (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative -us -ukset
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
illative -ukseen -uksiin
singular plural
nominative -us -ukset
accusative nom.? -us -ukset
gen. -uksen
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
inessive -uksessa -uksissa
elative -uksesta -uksista
illative -ukseen -uksiin
adessive -uksella -uksilla
ablative -ukselta -uksilta
allative -ukselle -uksille
essive -uksena -uksina
translative -ukseksi -uksiksi
instructive -uksin
abessive -uksetta -uksitta
comitative -uksineen

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us ‎(front vowel harmony variant -ys)

  1. Short form of the suffix -uus, used where the stem of the root adjective ends in a vowel.
Declension[edit]
Inflection of -us (Kotus type 40/kalleus, t-d gradation)
nominative -us -udet
genitive -uden -uksien
partitive -utta -uksia
illative -uteen -uksiin
singular plural
nominative -us -udet
accusative nom.? -us -udet
gen. -uden
genitive -uden -uksien
partitive -utta -uksia
inessive -udessa -uksissa
elative -udesta -uksista
illative -uteen -uksiin
adessive -udella -uksilla
ablative -udelta -uksilta
allative -udelle -uksille
essive -utena -uksina
translative -udeksi -uksiksi
instructive -uksin
abessive -udetta -uksitta
comitative -uksineen

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Diminutive suffix.
    apa (father) → apus (dad)
    Kata (Kate) → Katus (Katie)
    cica (cat) → cicus (kitty)
    kutya (dog) → kutyus (pooch, puppy)
  2. A distinguishable foreign word ending in nouns. It is not considerable as an independent Hungarian suffix.
    agronómus ‎(agronomist)

Usage notes[edit]

(diminutive suffix): It creates diminutive or affectionate forms, most of the time of people's given names, but also of common nouns, usually ending in a. Other examples: Anna → Annus, Magda → Magdus, Gyula → Gyulus. The -ka diminutive suffix can also be appended after -us to further increase the degree of endearment: apuska, cicuska, kutyuska, Annuska, Magduska.

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page as described here.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us m ‎(feminine -a, neuter -um); first/second declension

  1. suffix forming adjectives

Declension[edit]

First/second declension.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative -us -a -um -ae -a
genitive -ae -ōrum -ārum -ōrum
dative -ae -īs -īs -īs
accusative -um -am -um -ōs -ās -a
ablative -īs -īs -īs
vocative -e -a -um -ae -a

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]


Lithuanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *-ós ‎(adjectival ending). Pairs such as lañkas ‎(bend) : lankùs ‎(flexible) find parallels in Sanskrit रुधिर​ ‎(rúdhira-, blood) : रुधिर​ ‎(rudhirá-, red), Ancient Greek δόλιχος ‎(dólikhos, a long run) : δολιχός ‎(dolikhós, long) and suggest that oxytone stress was used to mark adjectives in Proto-Indo-European. In Proto-Balto-Slavic, the raising of *o to *u must have been conditioned by stress, with the ending *-os giving Lithuanian -ùs under stress and -as otherwise.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ùs m stress pattern 4

  1. Adjectival suffix, applied to verbal and nominal roots to denote a disposal or tendency towards something
    ardýti ‎(take apart) → ardùs ‎(crumbly)
    kalbėti ‎(talk) → kalbùs ‎(talkative)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-us, reflecting Proto-Indo-European u-stems.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us, -ùs m

  1. Masculine nominative singular ending for u-stem nouns and adjectives.
    alùs ‎(beer) (< Proto-Indo-European *h₂elu-)
    sūnùs ‎(son) (< Proto-Indo-European *suHnús)
Declension[edit]

(noun):

(adjective):

Etymology 3[edit]

From an older *-uos (compare the pronominal ending -uosius). From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-ons; compare Latvian -us, Old Prussian -ans, Proto-Slavic *-y. From Proto-Indo-European *-ons ‎(accusative plural ending), also reflected in Ancient Greek -ους ‎(-ous), Latin -ōs, Sanskrit -आन् ‎(-ān) and Gothic -𐌰𐌽𐍃 ‎(-ans).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us, -ùs

  1. Used to form accusative plurals of masculine a- and u-stem nouns.
  2. Used to form accusative plurals of masculine a-stem adjectives.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Cognate with Russian ‎(-v). See also -usi.

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page as described here.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Used to form the past adverbial (padalyvis) participle
    bū́ti ‎(to be) → bùvo ‎(was) → bùvus ‎(having been)
    slė̃pti ‎(hide) → past frequentative slė̃pdavo ‎(hid) → slė̃pdavus ‎(having hid)

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eugen Hill. (2013) 'Historical phonology in service of subgrouping. Two laws of final syllables in the common prehistory of baltic and slavonic'. Baltistica, volume 48, number 2, p. 161-204

Middle Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -ōsus.

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. -ous, full of, prone to; used to form adjectives from nouns

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]


Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. -ous, used for forming adjectives

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Used to form abstract nouns from adjectives and occasionally nouns

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

  • Old Irish: -as

Suffix[edit]

-us ‎(suffixed pronoun)

  1. her (object pronoun)
  2. them

See also[edit]

Derived terms[edit]



Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Welsh -us, from Latin -ōsus.

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. -ous, full of, prone to; used to form adjectives from nouns

Derived terms[edit]