-us

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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Learned borrowing from Latin -us.

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. (taxonomy) Used to form taxonomic names.

Derived terms[edit]


Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Esperanto suffixes -as, -is, -os, and -us are related and appear to have been inspired by previous language projects:

This play of vowels is not an original idea of Zamenhof's: -as, -is, -os are found for the three tenses of the infinitive in Faiguet's system of 1765; -a, -i, -o without a consonant are used like Z's -as, -is, -os by Rudelle (1858); Courtonne in 1885 had -am, -im, -om in the same values, and the similarity with Esperanto is here even more perfect than in the other projects, as -um corresponds to Z's -us.An International Language (1928)

In addition, the u of -us is likely to be related to -u.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Ending of the conditional in verbs.

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

A merger of Proto-Finnic *-us (in the first sense) and Proto-Finnic *-uc (in the second sense). Cognate with Finnish -us.

Suffix[edit]

-us (genitive -use, partitive -ust)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs.
    armastama "to love" → armastus "love"
    võistlema "to compete" → võistlus "competition"
    joonistama "to draw" → joonistus "a drawing"
  2. Derives nouns from adjectives.
    aus "honest" → ausus "honesty"
    pikk "long" → pikkus "length"

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-us, generalized from -s-derivatives of u-stem verbs (e.g. ihastuaihastus, menestyämenestys). Compare -os.

Suffix[edit]

-us (front vowel harmony variant -ys)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, describing an action or event.
    kuvata (to describe)kuvaus (description)
    pakata (to pack)pakkaus (package)
    ylentää (to promote)ylennys (promotion)
    hälyttää (to alarm)hälytys (an alarm)
Declension[edit]
Inflection of -us (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative -us -ukset
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
illative -ukseen -uksiin
singular plural
nominative -us -ukset
accusative nom. -us -ukset
gen. -uksen
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
inessive -uksessa -uksissa
elative -uksesta -uksista
illative -ukseen -uksiin
adessive -uksella -uksilla
ablative -ukselta -uksilta
allative -ukselle -uksille
essive -uksena -uksina
translative -ukseksi -uksiksi
instructive -uksin
abessive -uksetta -uksitta
comitative -uksineen
Possessive forms of -us (type vastaus)
possessor singular plural
1st person -ukseni -uksemme
2nd person -uksesi -uksenne
3rd person -uksensa
Synonyms[edit]
  • -mus (used with "sallia"-, and certain "sanoa"- and "muistaa"-type verbs)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-us. Probably generalized from -s-derivatives of u-stem nominals (e.g. etu-edus, palvelupalvelus), or through the loss of a plain u-derivative from the standard language (e.g. keski- → dial. kesku-keskus), and thus identical to etymology 1. Alternatively from Proto-Uralic *-wikse.

Suffix[edit]

-us (front vowel harmony variant -ys)

  1. Forms nouns, indicating resemblance or association.
    kanta (base)kannus (spur)
    sormi (finger)sormus (ring)
    vasta- (counter-)vastus (resistance, opposition)
    kehä (circle, ring)kehys (frame)
    syli (bosom, lap)sylys (armful)
    typerä (stupid)typerys (fool)
Declension[edit]
Inflection of -us (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative -us -ukset
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
illative -ukseen -uksiin
singular plural
nominative -us -ukset
accusative nom. -us -ukset
gen. -uksen
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
inessive -uksessa -uksissa
elative -uksesta -uksista
illative -ukseen -uksiin
adessive -uksella -uksilla
ablative -ukselta -uksilta
allative -ukselle -uksille
essive -uksena -uksina
translative -ukseksi -uksiksi
instructive -uksin
abessive -uksetta -uksitta
comitative -uksineen
Possessive forms of -us (type vastaus)
possessor singular plural
1st person -ukseni -uksemme
2nd person -uksesi -uksenne
3rd person -uksensa
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

See the etymology of -uus.

Suffix[edit]

-us (front vowel harmony variant -ys)

  1. Short form of the suffix -uus, used where the stem of the root adjective ends in a vowel.
Declension[edit]
Inflection of -us (Kotus type 40/kalleus, t-d gradation)
nominative -us -udet
genitive -uden -uksien
partitive -utta -uksia
illative -uteen -uksiin
singular plural
nominative -us -udet
accusative nom. -us -udet
gen. -uden
genitive -uden -uksien
partitive -utta -uksia
inessive -udessa -uksissa
elative -udesta -uksista
illative -uteen -uksiin
adessive -udella -uksilla
ablative -udelta -uksilta
allative -udelle -uksille
essive -utena -uksina
translative -udeksi -uksiksi
instructive -uksin
abessive -udetta -uksitta
comitative -uksineen
Possessive forms of -us (type kalleus)
possessor singular plural
1st person -uteni -utemme
2nd person -utesi -utenne
3rd person -utensa
Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

-u (diminutive suffix) + -s (diminutive suffix)[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to a proper noun or other nouns to create a diminutive noun.
    Teréz (Theresa)Terus (Tess)
    apa (father)apus (dad)
    cica (cat)cicus (kitty)
    kutya (dog)kutyus (pooch, puppy)
  2. A distinguishable foreign word ending in nouns. It cannot be considered as an independent Hungarian suffix.
    agronómus (agronomist)

Usage notes[edit]

(diminutive suffix): It creates diminutive or affectionate forms, most of the time of people’s given names, but also of common nouns, usually from ones ending in -a. Other examples: Anna → Annus, Magda → Magdus, Gyula → Gyulus. The -ka diminutive suffix can also be appended after -us to further increase the degree of endearment: apuska, cicuska, kutyuska, Annuska, Magduska.

Derived terms[edit]

Category Hungarian nouns suffixed with -us (diminutive) not found

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ -us in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (‘Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)

Ingrian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-uc. Cognates include Finnish -us and Estonian -us.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us (front vowel variant -ys)

  1. Forms nouns from adjectives, expressing a quality; -ness
    vanha (old) + ‎-us → ‎vanhus (age)
Declension[edit]
Declension of -us (type 2/oikehus, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -us -uet
genitive -uen -uksin
partitive -utta -uksia
illative -uee -uksii
inessive -uees -uksiis
elative -uest -uksist
allative -uelle -uksille
adessive -ueel -uksiil
ablative -uelt -uksilt
translative -ueks -uksiks
essive -uenna, -ueen -uksinna, -uksiin
exessive1) -uent -uksint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-us. Cognates include Finnish -us.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us (front vowel variant -ys)

  1. Forms nouns denoting resemblance.
    pääl (above) + ‎-us → ‎päälys (surface)
Declension[edit]
Declension of -us (type 2/petos, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -us -ukset
genitive -uksen -uksiin
partitive -usta, -ust -uksia
illative -uksee -uksii
inessive -uksees -uksiis
elative -uksest -uksist
allative -ukselle -uksille
adessive -ukseel -uksiil
ablative -ukselt -uksilt
translative -ukseks -uksiks
essive -uksenna, -ukseen -uksinna, -uksiin
exessive1) -uksent -uksint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • V. I. Junus (1936) Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka[1], Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 57

Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Latin -os, from Proto-Italic *-os, from Proto-Indo-European *-os (adjectival ending). Cognate with Ancient Greek -ος (-os), Proto-Germanic *-az, Icelandic -ur, Sanskrit -ः (-ḥ), Proto-Slavic *-ъ.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. suffix of nouns in the second declension.
    1. (chiefly) nominative singular of -us
    2. (uncommon) nominative/accusative/vocative singular of -us for second-declension neuter nouns.
      vīrus; vulgus; pelagusrammish smell; common people, crowd; sea
  2. suffix of adjectives in the first/second declension.
    1. (chiefly) nominative singular of -us
Declension[edit]
Second-declension noun forms

Second-declension noun, with locative.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us
Genitive -ōrum
Dative -īs
Accusative -um -ōs
Ablative -īs
Vocative -e
Locative -īs
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Second-declension noun (neuter, nominative/accusative/vocative in -us), with locative.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us
Genitive -ōrum
Dative -īs
Accusative -us -ōs
Ablative -īs
Vocative -us
Locative -īs

Second-declension noun (neuter, nominative/accusative/vocative plural in -a), with locative.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us -a
Genitive -ōrum
Dative -īs
Accusative -us -a
Ablative -īs
Vocative -us -a
Locative -īs

Note: The plural exists for New Latin vīrus.

Adjective forms

First/second-declension adjective, with locative.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative -us -a -um -ae -a
Genitive -ae -ōrum -ārum -ōrum
Dative -īs
Accusative -um -am -um -ōs -ās -a
Ablative -īs
Vocative -e -a -um -ae -a
Locative -ae -īs
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Second-declension adjective (feminine forms identical to masculine forms), with locative.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masc./Fem. Neuter Masc./Fem. Neuter
Nominative -us -um -a
Genitive -ōrum
Dative -īs
Accusative -um -ōs -a
Ablative -īs
Vocative -e -um -a
Locative -īs
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Generally from Proto-Indo-European *-os (suffix forming neuter s-stem nouns from verbs), as in genus from Proto-Italic *genos from Proto-Indo-European *ǵénh₁os (race) from Proto-Indo-European *ǵenh₁- (to produce, beget). Not a productive derivational suffix in Latin. The plural and oblique case forms have -r- as the result of the sound change of rhotacism. Additionally, in many words, the oblique stem has the vowel -ĕ- (as in generis), which is generally taken to be the phonetically regular development of the Proto-Indo-European forms. Some words, such as as decus, decoris, instead have -ŏ- in the oblique stem; this is the result of analogical introduction of the rounded vowel from the nominative/accusative singular form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. ending of some neuter nouns in the third declension.
    1. nominative/accusative/vocative singular of -us
Declension[edit]
Third-declension noun forms

Third-declension noun (neuter, imparisyllabic non-i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us -ora
Genitive -oris -orum
Dative -orī -oribus
Accusative -us -ora
Ablative -ore -oribus
Vocative -us -ora

Third-declension noun (neuter, imparisyllabic non-i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us -era
Genitive -eris -erum
Dative -erī -eribus
Accusative -us -era
Ablative -ere -eribus
Vocative -us -era

From the noun tempus, the locative forms temperī and temporī were used adverbially, as well as the ablative tempore.

Descendants[edit]
  • Romanian: -uri (from the plural -ora, with the final vowel replaced due to analogy with feminine plural forms)[1][2]

Etymology 3[edit]

Not a single suffix, but an ending of various miscellaneous origins. In most words, from Old Latin -us, from Proto-Italic *-us, from Proto-Indo-European *-us as the final part of Proto-Indo-European *-tus (suffix deriving action nouns from verb roots).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. nominative/vocative singular of -us for nouns in the fourth declension.
Declension[edit]
Fourth-declension noun forms

Fourth-declension noun, with locative.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us -ūs
Genitive -ūs -uum
Dative -uī -ibus
Accusative -um -ūs
Ablative -ibus
Vocative -us -ūs
Locative -ibus

Fourth-declension noun (dative/ablative plural in -ubus), with locative.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us -ūs
Genitive -ūs -uum
Dative -uī -ubus
Accusative -um -ūs
Ablative -ubus
Vocative -us -ūs
Locative -ubus

Suffix[edit]

-ūs

  1. nominative/vocative plural of -us for fourth-declension nouns.
  2. genitive singular of -us for fourth-declension nouns.
  3. accusative plural of -us for fourth-declension nouns.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nicolae, Andreea and Scontras, Gregory, 2015. "The Progression of Gender from Latin to Romanian," page 87
  2. ^ Maiden, Martin. January 2016. "Ambiguity in Romanian word-structure. The structure of plurals in ...uri" Revue Roumaine de Linguistique 61(1):3-12

Lithuanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *-ós (adjectival ending). Pairs such as lañkas (bend) : lankùs (flexible) find parallels in Sanskrit रुधिर (rúdhira-, blood) : रुधिर (rudhirá-, red), Ancient Greek δόλιχος (dólikhos, a long run) : δολιχός (dolikhós, long) and suggest that oxytone stress was used to mark adjectives in Proto-Indo-European. In Proto-Balto-Slavic, the raising of *o to *u must have been conditioned by stress, with the ending *-os giving Lithuanian -ùs under stress and -as otherwise.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ùs m stress pattern 4

  1. Adjectival suffix, applied to verbal and nominal roots to denote a disposal or tendency towards something
    ardýti (take apart)ardùs (crumbly)
    kalbėti (talk)kalbùs (talkative)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-us, reflecting Proto-Indo-European u-stems.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us, -ùs m

  1. Masculine nominal singular ending for u-stem nouns and adjectives.
    alùs (beer) (< Proto-Indo-European *h₂elu-)
    sūnùs (son) (< Proto-Indo-European *suHnús)
Declension[edit]

(noun):

(adjective):

Etymology 3[edit]

From an older *-uos (compare the pronominal ending -uosius). From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-ons; compare Latvian -us, Old Prussian -ans, Proto-Slavic *-y. From Proto-Indo-European *-ons (accusative plural ending), also reflected in Ancient Greek -ους (-ous), Latin -ōs, Sanskrit -आन् (-ān) and Gothic -𐌰𐌽𐍃 (-ans).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us, -ùs

  1. Used to form accusative plurals of masculine a- and u-stem nouns.
  2. Used to form accusative plurals of masculine a-stem adjectives.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Cognate with Russian (-v), Bulgarian -вш (-vš). See also -usi. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Used to form the past adverbial (padalyvis) participle
    bū́ti (to be)bùvo (was)bùvus (having been)
    slė̃pti (hide)past frequentative slė̃pdavo (hid)slė̃pdavus (having hid)
Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eugen Hill. (2013) 'Historical phonology in service of subgrouping. Two laws of final syllables in the common prehistory of baltic and slavonic'. Baltistica, volume 48, number 2, p. 161-204

Livvi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-us. Cognates include Finnish -us and Estonian -us.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us (front vowel variant -ys)

  1. Used to form action nouns from verbs; -ion

Derived terms[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Alternative form of -ous

Middle Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *-ʉs, from Latin -ōsus.[1] Cognate with Cornish -us.

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. -ous, full of, prone to; used to form adjectives from nouns

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ J. Morris Jones, A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative (Oxford 1913), § 153 i 13.

Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ōksë.

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that is to have the verb's action performed on it.
    vuošˈšat (to cook) + ‎-us → ‎vuoššus (something to be cooked)
    muitalit (to tell) + ‎-us → ‎muitalus (something to be told; story)
  2. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that results from having the verb's action performed.
    juohkit (to divide) + ‎-us → ‎juogus (division, section)

Usage notes[edit]

  • This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable in the nominative singular and essive, and the strong grade in the other forms.

When attached to even-syllable stems, there is diphthong simplification in all forms except the nominative singular and essive.

Inflection[edit]

For even-syllable stems:

Odd, no gradation
Nominative -us
Genitive -usa
Singular Plural
Nominative -us -usat
Accusative -usa -usiid
Genitive -usa -usiid
Illative -usii -usiidda
Locative -usis -usiin
Comitative -usiin -usiiguin
Essive -usin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -usan -useamẹ -useamẹt
2nd person -usat -useattẹ -useattẹt
3rd person -usis -useaskkạ -useasẹt

For odd-syllable stems:

Even a-stem, ss-s gradation
Nominative -us
Genitive -usa
Singular Plural
Nominative -us -usat
Accusative -usa -usaid
Genitive -usa -usaid
Illative -ussii -usaide
Locative -usas -usain
Comitative -usain -usaiguin
Essive -ussan
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -ussan -ussame -ussamet
2nd person -ussat -ussade -ussadet
3rd person -ussas -ussaska -ussaset

Derived terms[edit]


Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -ōsus.

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. -ous, used for forming adjectives

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *-es-tus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Alternative form of -as

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-us (suffixed pronoun)

  1. her (object pronoun), it (in reference to a feminine noun)
  2. them
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /us/
  • Rhymes: -us
  • Syllabification: us

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. derogatory suffix
    sługa + ‎-us → ‎sługus
  2. demonym suffix
    Kraków + ‎-us → ‎krakus

Usage notes[edit]

Usually creates colloqiual words that have pejorative or offensive meaning, such as arabus or bambus. More rarely, creates demonyms, for example krakus.

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • -us in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • -us in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Welsh -us, from Proto-Brythonic *-ʉs, from Latin -ōsus.[1] Cognate with Cornish -us.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. adjectival suffix often indicating a characteristic, propensity or abundance
    blas (taste) + ‎-us → ‎blasus (tasty)
    gwybod (to know) + ‎-us → ‎gwybodus (knowledgeable)
    anffawd (misfortune) + ‎-us → ‎anffodus (unfortunate)

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “-us”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, § 153 i 13