virus

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See also: Virus, vírus, vīrus, vīruss, virüs, and -virus

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Wikispecies has information on:

Wikispecies

The virions that carry the Marburg virus

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English virus, from Latin vīrus (poison, slime, venom), via rhotacism from Proto-Italic *weizos, from Proto-Indo-European *wisós (fluidity, slime, poison). First use in the computer context by David Gerrold in his 1972 book When HARLIE Was One.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • enPR: vīʹrəs, IPA(key): /ˈvaɪɹəs/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -aɪɹəs

Noun[edit]

virus (countable and uncountable, plural viruses or virusses or (rare) vira or (proscribed) viri or (proscribed) virii)

  1. A submicroscopic, non-cellular structure consisting of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat, that requires a living host cell to replicate, and often causes disease in the host organism; such agents are often classed as nonliving infectious particles and less often as microorganisms.
    • 2001, Leslie Iversen, Drugs: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford 2001, p. 64)
      Viruses are the smallest and most simplified forms of life.
    • 2013 May-June, Katie L. Burke, “In the News”, in American Scientist, volume 101, number 3, page 193:
      Bats host many high-profile viruses that can infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome and Ebola.
  2. (informal, metonymically) A disease caused by such an infectious agent; a viral illness.
    He's got a virus and had to stay home from school.
  3. (archaic) Venom, as produced by a poisonous animal etc.
    • 1890, Aluísio Azevedo, The Slum:
      Brazil, that inferno where every budding flower and every buzzing bluebottle fly bears a lascivious virus.
  4. (computing) A type of malware which can covertly transmit itself between computers via networks (especially the Internet) or removable storage such as disks, often causing damage to systems and data; also computer virus.
  5. (computing, proscribed) Any type of malware.

Synonyms[edit]

Hypernyms[edit]

Hyponyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Asturian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrus.

Noun[edit]

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus

Azerbaijani[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Ultimately from Latin vīrus.

Noun[edit]

virus (definite accusative virusu, plural viruslar)

  1. (medicine) virus
  2. (computing) computer virus

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • virus” in Obastan.com.

Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus

Related terms[edit]


Cornish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Revived Middle Cornish) IPA(key): [ˈviːrʏs]
  • (Revived Late Cornish) IPA(key): [ˈviːrɪz]

Noun[edit]

virus m (plural virusys)

  1. virus

References[edit]

  • Cornish-English Dictionary from Maga's Online Dictionary
  • 2018, Akademi Kernewek Gerlyver Kernewek (FSS) Cornish Dictionary (SWF) (2018 edition, p.190)

Czech[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

virus m inan

  1. (virology) virus (a submicroscopic, non-cellular structure)
  2. (computing) virus (a type of computer malware)

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • virus in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • virus in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989
  • virus in Akademický slovník cizích slov, 1995, at prirucka.ujc.cas.cz

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrus.

Noun[edit]

virus c or n (singular definite virussen or virusset, plural indefinite virus or virusser or vira, plural definite virussene or virusserne or viraene)

  1. virus

Dutch[edit]

Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nl

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrus. Coined in the virological sense by Martinus Beijerinck; the word had been previously used for pathogens, although not for viruses in the modern sense. The computing sense derives from English virus.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈviː.rʏs/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: vi‧rus

Noun[edit]

virus n (plural virussen, diminutive virusje n)

  1. (microbiology) virus
  2. (computer science) virus (computer virus)

Usage notes[edit]

Like most Latin borrowings, this word kept its original Latin gender (neuter); it is one of the few Dutch words ending in -us which is not masculine; cf. also corpus and opus. Marginally, use as a masculine noun is sometimes erroneously encountered, indeed based on the ending.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈʋirus/, [ˈʋirus̠]
  • IPA(key): /ˈʋiːrus/, [ˈʋiːrus̠] (proscribed)
  • Rhymes: -irus
  • Syllabification: vi‧rus

Noun[edit]

virus

  1. virus
  2. (computer security) virus (computer virus)

Declension[edit]

Inflection of virus (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative virus virukset
genitive viruksen virusten
viruksien
partitive virusta viruksia
illative virukseen viruksiin
singular plural
nominative virus virukset
accusative nom. virus virukset
gen. viruksen
genitive viruksen virusten
viruksien
partitive virusta viruksia
inessive viruksessa viruksissa
elative viruksesta viruksista
illative virukseen viruksiin
adessive viruksella viruksilla
ablative virukselta viruksilta
allative virukselle viruksille
essive viruksena viruksina
translative virukseksi viruksiksi
instructive viruksin
abessive viruksetta viruksitta
comitative viruksineen
Possessive forms of virus (type vastaus)
possessor singular plural
1st person virukseni viruksemme
2nd person viruksesi viruksenne
3rd person viruksensa

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrus (poison, slime, venom).

Noun[edit]

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus (pathogen)
  2. computer virus

Indonesian[edit]

Indonesian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia id

Etymology[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈvirʊs]
  • Hyphenation: vi‧rus

Noun[edit]

virus (plural virus-virus, first-person possessive virusku, second-person possessive virusmu, third-person possessive virusnya)

  1. (biology, virology) virus
  2. (computing) virus (computer virus)

Further reading[edit]


Interlingua[edit]

Noun[edit]

virus (plural viruses)

  1. virus

Related terms[edit]


Italian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

virus m (invariable)

  1. (virology) virus

Further reading[edit]

  • virus in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Ladino[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

virus m (Latin spelling)

  1. virus
    • 2018 February 7, Dora Niyego, “El Antisemitizmo De Oy”, in Şalom[2]:
      El antisemitizmo es un prejudizio, komo un virus.
      Antisemitism is a prejudice, like a virus.

Latin[edit]

Latin Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia la

Etymology[edit]

Via rhotacism from Proto-Italic *weizos, from Proto-Indo-European *wisós (fluidity, slime, poison). Cognates include Sanskrit विष (viṣá), Ancient Greek ἰός (iós), from an older form ϝἰσός : wisós; Tocharian B wase, and Middle Irish . The neuter gender of this term despite its nominative singular ending in the masculine second-declension -us is a relic of this term's inheritance from a neuter s-stem.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

vīrus n sg (genitive vīrī); second declension

  1. A stinking, or rammish smell.
  2. The seed or nature in animals.
  3. A nasty taste.
  4. Poison, venom.
  5. Bitterness, sharpness.
  6. A strong smell of spices or perfumes.[2]
  7. slimy liquid, slime
  8. (New Latin) virus (infectious organism)

Declension[edit]

Second-declension noun (neuter, nominative/accusative/vocative in -us), singular only.

Case Singular
Nominative vīrus
Genitive vīrī
Dative vīrō
Accusative vīrus
Ablative vīrō
Vocative vīrus
  • There is also the heteroclitic genitive singular vīrūs.
  • When used in modern biology with the same meaning of English virus, a plural can be formed using the same suffixes of regular neuters of the 2nd. declension (i.e., vīra, vīrōrum, vīrīs, vīra, vīrīs, vīra):[3]

Second-declension noun (neuter, nominative/accusative/vocative plural in -a).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative vīrus vīra
Genitive vīrī vīrōrum
Dative vīrō vīrīs
Accusative vīrus vīra
Ablative vīrō vīrīs
Vocative vīrus vīra

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • virus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • virus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • virus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[3], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to vent one's anger, spite on some one: virus acerbitatis suae effundere in aliquem (De Amic. 23. 87)
    • (ambiguous) many learned men; many scholars: multi viri docti, or multi et ii docti (not multi docti)
    • (ambiguous) to separate (of the woman): repudium remittere viro (Dig. 24. 3)
    • (ambiguous) statesmen: viri rerum civilium, rei publicae gerendae periti or viri in re publica prudentes
    • (ambiguous) men of rank and dignity: viri clari et honorati (De Sen. 7. 22)
  • virus in William Smith, editor (1854, 1857) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, volume 1 & 2, London: Walton and Maberly
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “vīrus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 682-683
  2. ^ Ainsworth's Latin Dictionary revised 1847 by A. Jamieson, [1]
  3. ^ William T. Stearn, Botanical Latin. History, Grammar, Syntax, Terminology and Vocabulary, ed. 3a (David & Charles, 1983): "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)."

Anagrams[edit]


Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

virus

  1. virus

Inflection[edit]

Odd, no gradation
Nominative virus
Genitive virusa
Singular Plural
Nominative virus virusat
Accusative virusa virusiid
Genitive virusa virusiid
Illative virusii virusiidda
Locative virusis virusiin
Comitative virusiin virusiiguin
Essive virusin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person virusan viruseamẹ viruseamẹt
2nd person virusat viruseattẹ viruseattẹt
3rd person virusis viruseaskkạ viruseasẹt

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrus.

Noun[edit]

virus n (definite singular viruset, indefinite plural virus, definite plural virusa or virusene)

  1. (biology, virology) virus
  2. (computing) virus (computer virus) (see datavirus)

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nn

Etymology[edit]

From Latin virus.

Noun[edit]

virus n (definite singular viruset, indefinite plural virus, definite plural virusa)

  1. (biology, virology) virus
  2. (computing) virus (computer virus) (see datavirus)

References[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French virus, Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈvirus/
  • Rhymes: -irus
  • Hyphenation: vi‧rus

Noun[edit]

virus n (plural virusuri)

  1. virus

Declension[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Noun[edit]

vírus m (Cyrillic spelling ви́рус)

  1. (medicine) virus (DNA/RNA causing disease)
  2. (computing) computer virus

Declension[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈbiɾus/, [ˈbi.ɾus]
  • Rhymes: -iɾus
  • Hyphenation: vi‧rus

Noun[edit]

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus
  2. computer virus

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin vīrus.

Noun[edit]

virus n

  1. virus

Declension[edit]

Declension of virus 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative virus viruset virus virusen
Genitive virus virusets virus virusens