coronavirus

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

A micrograph of the COVID-19-causing virus

From corona (crown-like circle of light appearing around the sun) +‎ virus.[1][2] Corona is derived from Latin corōna (garland, wreath; crown), from Ancient Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, something curved; curved stern of a ship; end, point, tip), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)ker- (to bend, turn). The name refers to the characteristic appearance of its virions by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a solar corona.[3] Compare the former genus name Coronavirus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

coronavirus (countable and uncountable, plural coronaviruses)

  1. (virology) A member of the family Coronaviridaews, comprising viruses which infect animals and human beings, and the genome of which consists of a single strand of RNA. [from 1968]
    • [1968 November 16, “Virology: Coronaviruses”, in Nature, volume 220, number 5168, page 650:
      A new group of viruses with the name of coronaviruses has been recognized by an informal group of virologists who have sent their conclusions to Nature. [] In the opinion of the eight virologists these viruses are members of a previously unrecognized group which they suggest should be called the coronaviruses, to recall the characteristic appearance by which these viruses are identified in the electron microscope.]
    • [1969 November, Harold S. Kaye; Walter R. Dowdle, “Some Characteristics of Hemagglutination of Certain Strains of ‘IBV-Like’ Virus”, in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, volume 120, number 5, Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, ISSN 0022-1899, JSTOR 30102206, OCLC 959781400, PMID 4310341, page 576, column 1:
      This characteristic structural resemblance and other shared properties of these viruses have caused certain virologists to propose the name coronavirus for this previously unrecognized group.]
    • 1970 September, J. C. Parker; S. S. Cross; W. P. Rowe, “Rat Coronavirus (RCV): A Prevalent, Naturally Occurring Pneumotropic Virus of Rats”, in Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung, volume 31, number 3–4, New York, N.Y.: Springer-Verlag, ISSN 0304-8608, OCLC 974929584, summary, page 293:
      The virus, designated as rat coronavirus (RCV), exhibits properties representative of the coronavirus group: characteristic surface structure, particles somewhat variable in size averaging approximately 90 mμ, apparent RNA content, essential lipid, heat sensitivity, and a close serologic relationship with the mouse hepatitis virus complex.
    • 1984, Johnny D. Hoskins; John D. Rhoades, “Distemper, Other Infectious Dog Diseases”, in Jack Hayes, editor, 1984 Yearbook of Agriculture: Animal Health: Livestock and Pets, Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture, OCLC 18260310, page 388:
      In 1971 a canine coronavirus was isolated from feces of military dogs that were suffering from severe vomiting and diarrhea. [...] Diagnosis usually is based on the history and physical examination and the identification of coronavirus by electron microscope examination of feces or by performing other laboratory tests on the feces.
    • 1993, Kenneth L. Rinehart; Lois S. Shield; Martha Cohen-Parsons, “Antiviral Substances”, in David H. Attaway and Oskar R. Zaborsky, editors, Marine Biotechnology, volume 1 (Pharmaceutical and Bioactive Natural Products), New York, N.Y.: Plenum Press, →ISBN, section 4.7 (Thyrsiferol and Related Triterpenes), page 319:
      Some accompanying cytotoxicity has also been observed as well as slight activity against A59 corona virus without concurrent cytotoxicity [...].
    • 1997, Michiel F. J. Blankenvoorde [et al.], “Antibacterial Activity against Porphyromonas Gingivalis by Cystatins”, in V. K. Hopsu-Havu, M. Järvinen, and H. Kirschke, editors, Proteolysis in Cell Functions, Amsterdam: IOS Press, →ISBN, page 532:
      [T]he replication of the corona-virus and the herpes-simplex virus is blocked by cystatin C [...]
    • 1999, J. Heritage; E[mlyn] G[lyn] V[aughan] Evans; R. A. Killington, “Microbial Infections”, in Microbiology in Action, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire; New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, published 2000, →ISBN, section 7.6.8 (What Causes Sore Throats and Glandular Fever?), page 191:
      There are many viruses that have been implicated as the cause of 'colds'. Among the most common are coronaviruses, rhinoviruses and adenoviruses. Coronaviruses are so called because they look like crowns when viewed in an electron microscope, [...]
    • 2005, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, “Sampling for Pollutants of Biological Origin”, in Occupational Exposure Assessment for Air Contaminants, Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, →ISBN, section 14.1 (Introduction), page 221:
      [T]he common cold is attributed to rhinoviruses and corona viruses; [...]
    • 2008, Carol Ballard, “SARS”, in AIDS and Other Epidemics (What If We Do Nothing?), Pleasantville, N.Y.: Gareth Stevens Publishing, →ISBN, page 22:
      SARS [severe acute respiratory syndrome] is caused by a coronavirus. Viewed under a microscope, the virus looks like a crown, or corona. This is the same type of virus that causes the common cold and pneumonia. The coronavirus that causes SARS is called SARS-CoV.
    • 2010, Rodolfo Saracci, “What is Epidemiology?”, in Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions), Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, →ISBN:
      It took four months to identify the culprit of the new disease as a virus of the corona-virus family that had jumped to infect humans from wild small animals handled and consumed as food in the Guangdong province of China.
    • 2020 January 24, Denise Grady, “Chicago woman is second patient in U.S. with Wuhan coronavirus”, in The New York Times[1], New York, N.Y.: The New York Times Company, ISSN 0362-4331, OCLC 971436363:
      Coronaviruses are worrying because epidemics caused by other members of the viral family, SARS and MERS, have had high death rates: 10 percent for SARS, and about 35 percent for MERS.
    1. SARS-CoV-2, the specific coronavirus that causes the infectious disease COVID-19.
      • 2020 March 6, “First UK death from coronavirus confirmed as cases surge to 116”, in The Guardian[2]:
        A woman in her 70s was confirmed as the first coronavirus death in the UK on Thursday as Downing Street warned that it was now highly likely that the virus would spread in “a significant way”.
  2. (medicine) An illness caused by a coronavirus.
    1. COVID-19, the disease caused by the specific coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (member of the family Coronaviridae): crown virus (rare)
  • (the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2): corona (clipping), rona (clipping)
  • (the disease COVID-19): corona (clipping), rona (clipping)

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ coronavirus, n.”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford: Oxford University Press, June 2008
  2. ^ coronavirus, n.” in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press.
  3. ^ “Virology: Coronaviruses”, in Nature, volume 220, issue 5168, 16 November 1968, page 650

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Catalan Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ca

Noun[edit]

coronavirus m (plural coronavirus)

  1. (virology) coronavirus
    • 2020 January 27, Cristina Mas, “Guia pràctica sobre el coronavirus”, in Ara[3]:
      És un virus d'una família coneguda, els coronavirus, que causa refredats i infeccions respiratòries.
      It's a virus from a well-known family, the coronaviruses, which cause colds and respiratory infections.

Dutch[edit]

Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nl

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from translingual Coronavirus. Equivalent to corona +‎ virus.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /koːˈroː.naːˌviː.rʏs/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: co‧ro‧na‧vi‧rus

Noun[edit]

coronavirus n (plural coronavirussen)

  1. coronavirus (member of the family Coronaviridae)

French[edit]

French Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia fr

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /kɔ.ʁɔ.na.vi.ʁys/

Noun[edit]

coronavirus f (plural coronavirus)

  1. (virology) coronavirus
    • 2020 February 3, Isabelle Mandraud, “Partout en Europe, la peur du coronavirus s’installe”, in Le Monde[4]:
      Les pays du G7 vont se concerter pour apporter une réponse face au nouveau coronavirus apparu en Chine, a annoncé dimanche le ministre allemand de la santé, dont le pays est le plus touché au sein de l’Union européenne avec 10 personnes contaminées.
      (please add an English translation of this quote)

Galician[edit]

Noun[edit]

coronavirus m (plural coronavirus)

  1. (virology) coronavirus
    • 2020 January 27, “Aumenta a capacidade de contaxio do coronavirus”, in TVG[5]:
      O coronavirus infectou case 800 persoas na China en 24 horas, período en que morreron 24 doentes, todos eles na provincia de Hubei, da que Wuhan é capital.
      Coronavirus infected almost 800 people in China in 24 hours, a period in which 24 patients died, all in the province of Hubei, of which Wuhan is capital.

Italian[edit]

Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia it

Etymology[edit]

From corona +‎ virus.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ko.ro.naˈvi.rus/
  • Hyphenation: co‧ro‧na‧vì‧rus

Noun[edit]

coronavirus m (plural coronavirus)

  1. (virology) coronavirus

References[edit]


Occitan[edit]

Noun[edit]

coronavirus m (plural coronavirus)

  1. (virology) coronavirus
    • 2020 January 25, “Vint milions de personas confinadas en China: que sabèm del novèl coronavirus?”, in Jornalet[6]:
      Li dison coronavirus per la forma del patogèn e afèctan lo sistèma respiratòri, principalament los palmons, amb un risc de mòrt.
      It is called coronavirus for the shape of the pathogen, and they affect the respiratory system, mainly the lungs, with a risk of death.

Romanian[edit]

Romanian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ro

Etymology[edit]

From English coronavirus (also formed from Latin corōna +‎ virus).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /koˌronaˈvirus/
  • Rhymes: -irus
  • Hyphenation: co‧ro‧na‧vi‧rus

Noun[edit]

coronavirus n (plural coronavirusuri)

  1. (virology) coronavirus

Declension[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Spanish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia es

Etymology[edit]

In part from English coronavirus (also formed from combination with corona +‎ virus).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /koɾonaˈbiɾus/, [koɾonaˈβiɾus]
  • Rhymes: -iɾus
  • Hyphenation: co‧ro‧na‧vi‧rus

Noun[edit]

coronavirus m (plural coronavirus)

  1. (virology) coronavirus
    • 1985, Carlos Buxadé Carbó, El pollo de carne: sistemas de explotación y técnicas de producción:
      Se cree que el coronavirus es un precursor de la infección por E. coli.
      It is believed that the coronavirus is a precursor to E. coli infection.
    • 1993, María José Cubero Pablo, El coronavirus respiratorio porcino en la región de Murcia, page 57:
      El estudio sero-epidemiológico, efecutado en 1987, ha demostrado la presencia y difusión de coronavirus respiratorio porcino en la Región de Murcia.
      The seroepidemiological study, carried out in 1987, has demonstrated the presence and spread of porcine respiratory coronavirus in the Region of Murcia.
    • 2020 January 20, Ricardo Pérez Vallejos, “Virus que provoca neumonía causa tercera muerte en China y llega a Corea del Sur”, in La Nación [Chile][7]:
      La nueva cepa de coronavirus, descubierta por primera vez en la ciudad de Wuhan, centro de China, causó alarma debido a su conexión con el Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo (SARS), que mató a casi 650 personas en China continental y Hong Kong en 2002-2003.
      The new strain of coronavirus, first discovered in the city of Wuhan, central China, caused concern due to its connection to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which killed almost 650 people in mainland China and Hong Kong in 2002-2003.

Swedish[edit]

Noun[edit]

coronavirus n

  1. coronavirus
Declension[edit]
Declension of coronavirus 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative coronavirus coronaviruset coronavirus coronavirusen
Genitive coronavirus coronavirusets coronavirus coronavirusens

Vietnamese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

English coronavirus. From translingual Coronavirus, from Latin corona+Latin virus, from Ancient Greek κορώνη (korṓnē). Compare virus corona.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Hà Nội) IPA(key): [kɔ˧˧ zo˧˧ naː˧˧ vi˧˧ ɹut̚˧˦], [ko˧˧ zo˧˧ naː˧˧ vi˧˧ ɹut̚˧˦] ~ [kɔ˧˧ zo˧˧ naː˧˧ vi˧˧ zut̚˧˦], [ko˧˧ zo˧˧ naː˧˧ vi˧˧ zut̚˧˦]
  • (Huế) IPA(key): [kɔ˧˧ ʐow˧˧ naː˧˧ vɪj˧˧ ɹʊk̚˦˧˥], [kow˧˧ ʐow˧˧ naː˧˧ vɪj˧˧ ɹʊk̚˦˧˥]
  • (Hồ Chí Minh City) IPA(key): [kɔ˧˧ ɹow˧˧ naː˧˧ vɪj˧˧ ɹʊk͡p̚˦˥], [kow˧˧ ɹow˧˧ naː˧˧ vɪj˧˧ ɹʊk͡p̚˦˥] ~ [kɔ˧˧ ɹow˧˧ naː˧˧ jɪj˧˧ ɹʊk͡p̚˦˥], [kow˧˧ ɹow˧˧ naː˧˧ jɪj˧˧ ɹʊk͡p̚˦˥]
  • Phonetic: co rô na vi Rút, cô rô na vi Rút

Noun[edit]

coronavirus

  1. coronavirus
    • 2020 February 24, Nguyễn, Trinh, “Hàn Quốc trở thành tâm dịch coronavirus lớn nhất bên ngoài Trung Quốc”, in SBS Vietnamese[8], Special Broadcasting Service, retrieved 2020-03-19:
      Bộ Ngoại giao Việt Nam hôm qua xác nhận có 8285 người Việt “đang sinh sống, học tập và lao động” tại thành phố Daegu, tâm dịch coronavirus ở Hàn Quốc.
      The Vietnam Foreign Ministry yesterday confirmed that 8,285 Vietnamese “are living, studying, and working” in the city of Daegu, the epicenter of a coronavirus outbreak in South Korea.
    • 2020 March 14, Trần Đức Anh, “Sinh hoạt Công Giáo đó đây trước nạn dịch Coronavirus”, in Vatican News[9], Pontifical Council for Social Communications, retrieved 2020-03-19:
      Italia bị dịch Coronavirus nặng nhất sau Trung Quốc.
      Italy suffered the worst coronavirus outbreak after China.

Synonyms[edit]