Appendix:Dutch pronunciation

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Dutch pronunciations in Wiktionary entries.

IPA Examples English approximation
b bal ball
d dan done
f fiets fits
ɣ gast loch (Scottish), but with voice; Spanish abogado
ɦ had hut, but with voice
j ja yard
k koud cold
l last last
m mast must
n nat not
ŋ lang long
p pak puck
r rest rest, trilled/rolled or uvular trill [ʀ]
s saai say
t tal tall
v vat vat
ʋ wat Watt, but with upper teeth against lower lips
x lach loch (Scottish)
z ziek zip
Consonants found in loanwords
jungle jungle
ɡ goal goal
ʃ chef chef
check check
ʒ montage montage
ˈ buideldier
as in battleship
IPA Examples English approximation
ɑ dak dog (but more open), father (but shorter)
a baan pa (but shorter)
daar pa
ɛ bed bed
e beet bait (without the 'y' sound at the end)
ɛː crème yeah, or RP English bare
ɪ zit sit
ɪː beer sit (but longer)
i ziet seat (but shorter)
zier seat
ɔ post boss
ɔː door door
o boot boat
ø leuk somewhat like hurl; French deux (but shorter)
u poets you but shorter, took but more closed/tense
boer you
ʏ nut much like the one below (y), but with the tongue slightly further from the lips
ʏː deur somewhat like er; French œuf
y nu French rue
zuur French rue, but longer
ɛi̯ wijd, eis between tie and day (the latter more as in Australia)
ɑu̯ hout, blauw how
œy̯ huid Similar to French fauteuil, no exact equivalent in English. Approximated as tie with rounded lips, or how with fronted lips.
eːu̯ or ɪːu̯ eeuw like the 'i' in sit, and mouth slightly closing
iːu̯ nieuw somewhat like new, but with the mouth wider
Reduced vowels
ə halte comma, label, chatter