vira

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From translingual Vira or New Latin vīra.

Noun[edit]

vira (rare)

  1. plural of virus
    • 1907, Annual Report of the Director of Agriculture, page 69:
      Seeing, however, that neither virus Ordinary, Tzaneen, nor Bulawayo protected completely against horse-sickness in the various parts of the Transvaal I now decided to make a combination of the two vira and to add to it the third virus, Bulawayo.
    • 1909, Report of the Government Veterinary Bacteriologist, page 24:
      Then the idea occurred to unite all these various vira and to obtain in this way a polyvalent virus which would protect against any of the vira of which it was composed, and by this means I hoped to reduce the mortality in practice.
    • 1909 January, Arnold Theiler, “The Immunity of Mules Against Horse-Sickness.”, in Transvaal Agricultural Journal, volume VII, number 26, pages 178–182:
      In order to settle the point whether an animal that had been immunised on this station would contract horse-sickness when subjected to either of the two vira, the following experiments were made:— [] Our experiments not only demonstrate the fact that the immunity obtained from one virus does not completely protect against either of the other two, but that animals immune against two of the three vira may break down when subjected to the third virus. [] The fact that polyvalent virus did not protect against all of the constituents, as it should have done, shows that in passing the polyvalent virus through a horse one or more of the vira must have been excluded from the mixture with which the horse was injected. [] Accordingly, we again decided to increase the polyvalency of the virus by introducing into it, in addition to the strains with which we have inoculated hitherto, such other strains as have broken the immunity, and, in adding to the strain of polyvalent virus the new vira of relapses, we hope to finally arrive at a virus which will give immunity against any strain of the country. [] The question may perhaps suggest itself whether an immunity of an animal can be increased by the repeated injection of different strains of vira at intervals, and the following table may prove interesting:— []
    • 1925, Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, Collected Papers, volume 21, page 35:
      The very obvious predominance of epidermal lesions in the gross pathological anatomy of variola and vaccinia, whether spontaneous or experimentally induced, has for many years been interpreted as indicating a peculiar affinity of these vira for skin and not merely for skin-tissue as a whole, but for that portion of it which is derived from epiblast. [] Immunity to the vira in question was generally held to reside in the skin itself, and it is surprising that the demonstration by Sternberg (1892) of the fact that the serum of vaccinated animals acquired the property of neutralizing the specific virus in vitro so that a mixture of the two failed to take in a fresh animal, did so little to alter general opinion in the direction of postulating a general type of immunity, and that, too, although the presence of these viricidins or neutralizing bodies received ample confirmation from the work of Béclère, Chambon and Menard (1899) and many others.
    • 1933 December 22, L. T. Giltner; M. S. Shahan, “The Immunological Relationship of Eastern and Western Strains of Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus”, in Science, volume 78, number 2034, page 588:
      Neutralization tests, utilizing a hyperimmune horse serum and a hyperimmune rabbit serum, were conducted with the two vira. [] The technique of preparing virus suspensions, mixing and holding serum-virus inocula, was identical to that employed by Howitt in neutralization tests of poliomyelitis and equine encephalomyelitis vira. / A series of three tests was conducted, using S. D. and Md vira on the same days, with controls in the form of normal serum-virus mixtures and saline-virus mixtures of the same virus dilution as that in the immune serum-virus mixtures. [] The Md virus disease in the guinea-pigs is of a more acute type than the S. D. virus infection and the vira show certain immunological differences.
    • 1940, J. Mulder, “The Influenza Epidemic of February—March 1939 in the Garrison at Groningen.”, in Acta Medica Scandinavica:
      Table 4 shows the results of these tests, which show convincingly that the vira are related, as could be expected, but certainly not identical.
    • 1944, Seiffert, Gustav; Taylor, Marion Lee, Virus Diseases in Man, Animal, and Plant, page 65:
      Further virus is found most frequently in the tissues to which it has especial affinity, for ex. in the lymph of vaccine pustules and of the blisters of hoof and mouth disease, in the brain cells in the case of neurotrop vira.
    • 1990 February, S. Zvizdić; K. Serić; S. Radović; I. Selak, “Isolation of viruses from autopsy material during the Coxsackie virus epidemic in Sarajevo in 1985”, in Journal of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina:
      In this paper were presented results of isolation of vira from some organs of the dead newborn infants during the epidemy Coxsackie B virosis in Sarajevo in 1985. 12 newborn died. Obduction was done in seven newborn. From the seven obducated, in six were isolated Coxsackie B-3 vira from heart, lungs, brain, liquor, blood, heart blood but the attempts of isolation of the vira from intestine and from pericardial liquor did not succeed.
    • 1994 June 2, Hau, Jann, Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science: Animal Models, CRC Press, page 115:
      The difference in diabetogenic properties of the D and B variants might, however, be related to the affinity of the vira for beta-cell receptors. Thus, a study has shown that up to six times more EMC-D than EMC-B virus attaches to primary beta cells extracted from male ICR-Swiss mice.
    • 2001 July 25, Peter Larsen, “Re: Virus WARNING to AAPLS”, in alt.audio.pro.live-sound, Usenet, message-ID <3B5EBF2F.3000107@yahoo.com>:
      > *ducks* :) / Nothing to duck about, cross-platform vira are as yet rare, however complety[sic] possible in the newer parsed languages. Vira have come up that target also Netscape. [] If people simply reviewed their outbound folder prior to sending many of the vira would have been less able to spread like wildfire.
    • 2009, Johan Moan; Arne Dahlback; LiWei Ma; Asta Juzeniene, “Influenza, solar radiation and vitamin D”, in Dermato-Endocrinology:
      Additionally, the question of whether it is the host or the vira/bacteria that exhibit seasonality arises.
    • 2017 December 21, Gerson Silva Paiva, Anti-aids cocktail consisting of an anti-tumoral compound, a p-glycoprotein inhibitor, and an anti-viral agent, US Patent 20170360880 (PDF version), page 1, column 2:
      In accordance with the attached figure, the cocktail according to the present invention is an association of a commercial anti-tumoral medicament, such as doxorubicin (1), whose function is to destroy the hiding-place of the vira (i.e., the lymphocytes) by lowering the count of lymphocytes to zero in the blood by acting as an immunosuppressor, an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, such as tariquidar (2), whose purpose is to maximize the preceding anti-tumoral compound in the lymphocytes, and an anti-virus of the viricide type, such as N,N-dichloro-2,2-dimethyltaurin (NVC-422) (3), which acts directly on the virus, whose purpose is to eliminate completely the Aids virus in the organism. [] Cocktail according to claim 1, characterized in that it eliminates completely the HIV virus in the organism by the destroying action of the lymphocytes TCD4+ (the hiding-place of the HIV virus) by the anti-tumoral compound and by the inhibitor of glycoprotein P, exposing the virus later to the direct action of the viricide agent, thereby eliminating completely all the vira in the organism.
    • 2019 March 17, Dan Kehoe, “Bend, Oregon Written Testimony For Parental Choice”, in Testimony in Support of SB 357 Before the Joint Committee on Ways & Means:
      The vira that were around the Portland metropolitan/US population during my education were measles, mumps, chicken pox and polio. [] Early childhood had three common vira, measles, mumps and chicken pox, they were called early childhood diseases. [] As my siblings and myself had no input on what or how my parents deemed the best plan for inoculation/immunization against the vira was going to be, they along with the overall majority of parents CHOSE, not legislated. [] I knew no one that ever got any of the vira again.

Anagrams[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Verb[edit]

vira

  1. third-person singular present indicative form of virar
  2. second-person singular imperative form of virar

Crimean Tatar[edit]

Adjective[edit]

vira

  1. continuous
    Synonyms: toqtamadan, turmadan

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From viro (man) +‎ -a.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈvira/
  • Rhymes: -ira
  • (file)

Adjective[edit]

vira (accusative singular viran, plural viraj, accusative plural virajn)

  1. male
    La vira sekso ofte signiĝas per la simbolo ♂.The male sex is often signified by the symbol .
    Coordinate term: ina

French[edit]

Verb[edit]

vira

  1. third-person singular past historic of virer

Anagrams[edit]


Galician[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Back-formation from virar (to turn).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

vira f (plural viras)

  1. (shoemaking) welt
  2. flounce; frill
    Synonym: fita
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Verb[edit]

vira

  1. first/third-person singular pluperfect indicative of ver

Etymology 3[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Verb[edit]

vira

  1. third-person singular present indicative of virar
  2. second-person singular imperative of virar

References[edit]


Guinea-Bissau Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Portuguese virar. Cognate with Kabuverdianu vira.

Verb[edit]

vira

  1. to turn

Italian[edit]

Verb[edit]

vira

  1. third-person singular present indicative of virare
  2. second-person singular imperative of virare

Anagrams[edit]


Kabuverdianu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Portuguese virar.

Verb[edit]

vira

  1. to turn

Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From vir (man)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

vira f (genitive virae); first declension (hapax, mentioning, Old Latin)

  1. a woman
Declension[edit]

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative vira virae
Genitive virae virārum
Dative virae virīs
Accusative viram virās
Ablative virā virīs
Vocative vira virae
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • vira in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • vira in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From translingual Vira.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    vīra (New Latin)

    1. nominative plural of vīrus

    References[edit]

    • William T. Stearn: Botanical Latin. History, Grammar, Syntax, Terminology and Vocabulary. David & Charles, third edition, 1983. Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)."

    Further reading[edit]


    Portuguese[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From virar (to turn).

    Noun[edit]

    vira m (plural viras)

    1. a traditional music and dance genre of northern Portugal

    Etymology 2[edit]

    See the etymology of the main entry.

    Verb[edit]

    vira

    1. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present indicative of virar
    2. second-person singular (tu, sometimes used with você) affirmative imperative of virar

    Etymology 3[edit]

    See the etymology of the main entry.

    Verb[edit]

    vira

    1. first-person singular (eu) pluperfect indicative of ver
    2. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) pluperfect indicative of ver

    Serbo-Croatian[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Slavic *věra, from Proto-Indo-European *weh₁ros.

    Noun[edit]

    vira f (Cyrillic spelling вира)

    1. (Chakavian, Ikavian) belief, faith; religion

    Noun[edit]

    vira (Cyrillic spelling вира)

    1. genitive singular of vir

    Shona[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Bantu *-bɪ̀da.

    Verb[edit]

    -vira (infinitive kuvira)

    1. (intransitive) to boil

    Derived terms[edit]


    Spanish[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Probably from Old French vire (dart, welt), from Vulgar Latin *veria (javelin, dart), from Latin verua.

    Noun[edit]

    vira f (plural viras)

    1. welt (of a hoe)
    2. dart

    Verb[edit]

    vira

    1. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present indicative form of virar.
    2. Informal second-person singular () affirmative imperative form of virar.

    Swedish[edit]

    Verb[edit]

    vira (present virar, preterite virade, supine virat, imperative vira)

    1. to wind (yarn on a roll), to roll
    2. (electronics) to wire-wrap

    Conjugation[edit]

    Anagrams[edit]