vir

From Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: Vir, VIR, viř, vír, Vir., -vir-, and вир

Afrikaans[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ver (archaic)
  • vi (Cape Afrikaans)
  • vi' (Cape Afrikaans)

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch voor (for; before) or rather the dialectal variant veur (compare deur with Dutch door). The Afrikaans distinction between vir (for) and voor (before) may have been influenced by corresponding German für and vor.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /fər/, [fɨr]
  • (file)

Preposition[edit]

vir

  1. for
    Dit is vir jou!It is for you!
  2. Used to indicate the addressee of a communicative act.
    Sy roep vir haar sussie.She is calling to her little sister.
    Amen, sê ek vir julle.Amen, I say to you.
    Die ou man het gesein vir die motorbestuurder.The old man signalled to the car driver.
  3. Direct object marker.
    Die vrou moer vir die inbreker toe met 'n hamer.The woman then whacked the burglar with a hammer.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Baure[edit]

Noun[edit]

vir

  1. wind

Czech[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from modern European languages, English virus, French virus, German Virus, which are all from Latin virus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

vir m inan

  1. virus

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • vir in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • vir in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989
  • vir in Akademický slovník cizích slov, 1995, at prirucka.ujc.cas.cz

Galician[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Galician-Portuguese vĩir, from Latin venīre.

Verb[edit]

vir (first-person singular present veño, first-person singular preterite vin, past participle vindo)
vir (first-person singular present venho, first-person singular preterite vim, past participle vindo, reintegrationist norm)

  1. to come
    Antonym: ir
Conjugation[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Inflected form of ver (to see).

Verb[edit]

vir

  1. first/third-person singular future subjunctive of ver

References[edit]

  • viir” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006–2022.
  • vir” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
  • vir” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.
  • vir” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *wiros, from Proto-Indo-European *wiHrós. Cognates include Sanskrit वीर (vīrá), Old Prussian wijrs, Lithuanian vyras, Latvian vīrs, Old Irish fer, Old Norse verr, Ossetian ир (ir, Ossetians) and Old English wer (English were-).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

vir m (genitive virī); second declension

  1. man (adult male human)
  2. brave or courageous man, hero, warrior
  3. husband
  4. (military) foot soldier

Usage notes[edit]

Vir has the sense of adult male human being. In reference to age or maturity, it is used in opposition to puer (boy); in reference to gender or sex, it is used in opposition to or coordination with fēmina or mulier (woman). In the context of ancient Roman society, vir connoted a man of freeborn status rather than an enslaved man or freedman.[1] "Man" in the sense of "human being" is rendered by Latin homō (e.g., as opposed to bēstia (beast) or deus (god)); in the sense of male, by Latin mās (as opposed to fēmina (female)).

Declension[edit]

Second-declension noun (nominative singular in -r).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative vir virī
Genitive virī virōrum
Dative virō virīs
Accusative virum virōs
Ablative virō virīs
Vocative vir virī

Hypernyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hagelin, L. (2020), "Homo inter homines sum. The importance of age for freedmen's construction of masculinity in Late Republican and Early Imperial Rome", page 131

Further reading[edit]

  • vir”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • vir”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • vir in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • Pericles, the greatest man of his day: Pericles summus vir illius aetatis
    • Pericles, the greatest man of his day: Pericles, vir omnium, qui tum fuerunt, clarissimus
    • a man of considerable learning for those times: vir ut temporibus illis doctus
    • a man of ability: vir magno ingenio, ingeniosus
    • a man of ability: vir magno ingenio praeditus
    • a man of learning; a scholar; a savant: vir or homo doctus, litteratus
    • a great scholar: vir doctissimus
    • a man of profound erudition: vir perfecte planeque eruditus
    • a man perfect in all branches of learning: vir omni doctrina eruditus
    • the learned men are most unanimous in..: summa est virorum doctissimorum consensio (opp. dissensio)
    • a man of character, with a strong personality: vir constans, gravis (opp. homo inconstans, levis)
    • a man who has held every office (up to the consulship): vir defunctus honoribus
    • a hero: vir fortissimus
    • (ambiguous) many learned men; many scholars: multi viri docti, or multi et ii docti (not multi docti)
    • (ambiguous) to separate (of the woman): repudium remittere viro (Dig. 24. 3)
    • (ambiguous) statesmen: viri rerum civilium, rei publicae gerendae periti or viri in re publica prudentes
    • (ambiguous) men of rank and dignity: viri clari et honorati (De Sen. 7. 22)

Luxembourgish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

vir

  1. ahead, at the front, at the fore

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Northern Kurdish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

vir

  1. here

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

vir ?[1]

  1. lie
    vir kirinto lie
    vir kirin nav rûyato lie to one's eyes, lie blatantly
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kurdojev, K. K. (1960), “vir II”, in Kurdsko-russkij slovarʹ [Kurdish–Russian Dictionary], Moscow: Gosudarstvennoje izdatelʹstvo inostrannyx i nacionalʹnyx slovarej, page 781b

Old Swedish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old East Norse *wīʀ, (compare Old West Norse vér), from Proto-Germanic *wīz.

Pronoun[edit]

vīr

  1. we
    vīr ærum brø̄þerwe are brothers

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Swedish: vi

Picard[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French veoir, veir, from earlier vedeir, from Latin vidēre, present active infinitive of videō.

Verb[edit]

vir

  1. to see

Piedmontese[edit]

Noun[edit]

vir m (plural vir)

  1. turn

Related terms[edit]

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

 
 

  • (Brazil, non-standard) IPA(key): /vĩ/
  • Homophone: vi (Brazil) (with -r dropping)
  • Hyphenation: vir

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Galician-Portuguese viir~vĩir, from Latin venīre.

Verb[edit]

vir (first-person singular present venho, first-person singular preterite vim, past participle vindo)

  1. (intransitive) to come (to move towards the speaker or the agent)
    Ele veio me cumprimentar.
    He came to greet me.
  2. (intransitive) to come; to arrive (to reach a destination, especially where the speaker is)
    Synonym: chegar
    Venha antes das seis se quiser jantar.
    Come before six if you want to have dinner.
  3. (intransitive) to come (to manifest itself; to occur)
    Os meses vêm e vão.
    The months come and go.
  4. (intransitive) to come (to be located in a certain position in a sequence)
    A palavra coçar vem depois de cocar no dicionário.
    The word coçar comes after cocar in the dictionary.
  5. (transitive with de) to come from; to be from (to have as one’s place of origin)
    Synonym: ser de
    Eles vêm de vários países.
    They come from various countries.
    Estas botas são porcarias e baratas porque vêm da China.
    These boots are crap and cheap because they are from China.
  6. (transitive with de) to be caused by; to be due to
    Meu sofrimento vem das misérias da vida.
    My suffering is due to life’s miseries.
  7. (intransitive, or transitive with de) to come back (from); to return (from)
    Synonyms: volta, retornar, tornar
    Quando que o pai vem das férias?
    When is dad coming back from his vacation?
  8. (auxiliary, with a verb in the gerund) have/has been (forms the present perfect progressive aspect)
    Eu venho comendo pizza todos os dias.
    I have been eating pizza every day.
  9. (auxiliary with a and a verb in the infinitive) to end up (to eventually do)
    Synonym: acabar
    Meu irmão veio a se tornar padre.
    My brother ended up becoming a priest.
  10. (colloquial, intransitive, or transitive with com) to bitch; to whine (to complain, especially unnecessarily)
    Não venha com essa.
    Stop whining.
Conjugation[edit]
Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:vir.

Alternative forms[edit]
  • vim (nonstandard, proscribed)

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb[edit]

vir

  1. first/third-person singular future subjunctive of ver
Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:ver.

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *virъ.

Noun[edit]

vir m (Cyrillic spelling вир)

  1. whirlpool
  2. (regional) source

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • vir” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Slovene[edit]

Slovene Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sl

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *virъ.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

vȋr m inan

  1. source (of water; e.g. a spring or well)
  2. source, origin

Inflection[edit]

The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Masculine inan., hard o-stem
nom. sing. vír
gen. sing. víra
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
vír víra víri
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
víra vírov vírov
dative
(dajȃlnik)
víru víroma vírom
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
vír víra víre
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
víru vírih vírih
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
vírom víroma víri

Further reading[edit]

  • vir”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran