ir

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Alemannic German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German ir, from Proto-Germanic *jīz, a variant of *jūz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ir

  1. you (plural)

Declension[edit]


Chuukese[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ir

  1. them

Related terms[edit]


Danish[edit]

Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia da

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse eir.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ir c (singular definite irren, not used in plural form)

  1. verdigris

Elfdalian[edit]

Verb[edit]

ir

  1. singular present of wårå

Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese ir, from Latin īre, present active infinitive of ; the forms beginning with V from corresponding forms of vādō; the forms beginning with F from the corresponding forms of sum.

Verb[edit]

ir (first-person singular present vou, first-person singular preterite fun, past participle ido)

  1. to go
  2. to work, to function
    Vai ou non vai? —Non vai.
    Does that work or does it not work? No, it doesn't work.
  3. first-person singular personal infinitive of ir
  4. third-person singular personal infinitive of ir

Conjugation[edit]

See also[edit]


Interlingua[edit]

Verb[edit]

ir

  1. to go

Conjugation[edit]

  • Present: va
  • Future: ira
  • Past: iva
  • Present participle: iente (?)
  • Past participle: ite

Antonyms[edit]


Kaera[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Alor–Pantar *jira.

Noun[edit]

ir

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Gary Holton and Laura Robinson, The Internal History of the Alor-Pantar language family, in The Alor-Pantar languages: History and Typology, edited by Marian Klamer
  • Marian Klamer, One item, many faces: ‘come’ in Teiwa (2010, in wing & Klamer) and Kaera (2014, in Schapper)
  • Gary Holton, Marian Klamer, František Kratochvíl, Laura C. Robinson, Antoinette Schapper, The Historical Relations of the Papuan Languages of Alor and Pantar, Oceanic Linguistics 2012:1

Latgalian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Shortened from irā, related to Latvian ir and Lithuanian yra (with the same meaning). In Latgalian, the shortened form ir is mostly used in unstressed positions, while irā is mostly common for stressed positions in the sentence.

Verb[edit]

ir

  1. is, are (present simple 3rd-person form, singular and plural)

Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Ancient Greek χείρ (kheír).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ir n (indeclinable)

  1. (rare, anatomy) hand

Declension[edit]

Not declined; used only in the nominative and accusative singular.

Case Singular
Nominative ir
Genitive
Dative
Accusative ir
Ablative
Vocative

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]


Latvian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *irā (cf. dialectal, archaic forms irād, iraid, irāg, and also Lithuanian yrà, which existed alongside *esti (cf. Old Church Slavonic єстъ (jestŭ), Russian есть (jest’), Lithuanian dialectal ẽsti, Old Prussian ast), initially with basically existential (“there is”) meaning, but later on extending to all copular meanings, thus replacing *esti. In Sudovian, also the first person form irm (I am) is derived from this stem. The origin of Proto-Baltic *irā is, however, unclear. Various sources have been proposed: an older interjection (cf. Lithuanian aurè (look!)), the particle and conjunction ir (both... and...), a noun with the meaning “existence,” “reality,” “thing,” or even (more recently) the Proto-Indo-European secondary third-person verbal ending *-r with a later -extension.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ir

  1. (he, she, it) is; 3rd person singular present indicative form of būt
  2. (they) are; 3rd person plural present indicative form of būt
  3. (with the particle lai) let (him, her, it) be; 3rd person singular imperative form of būt
  4. (with the particle lai) let them be; 3rd person plural imperative form of būt

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *ir, from the reduced grade *r̥ of Proto-Indo-European *ar (so, then; question particle) (whence also Latvian ar (with), q.v.). The original meaning “and” (cf. Lithuanian cognate) is found in 16th- and 17th-century texts, but from the 18th century on ir was no longer used in this sense. Cognates include Lithuanian ir̃ (and), Old Prussian ir (also), er ((along) with), Ancient Greek ἄρα, ἄρ', ῥά (ára, ár', rhá, so, then, therefore).[1]

Conjunction[edit]

ir

  1. additive conjunction used to join several similar sentence elements, indicating their similar nature: both ... and ..., ... and also ..., ... as well as ...
    gribējas ir smieties, ir raudātone wanted both to laugh and to cry
    nāca ir jaunie, ir vecieboth the young and the old came
    tolaik ir tēvs, ir māte bija mirušiat that time, both the father and the mother had died
    tā bija droša, interesanta un glīta meitene, kas prata būt ir jautra, ir nopietnathat was a brave, fun (lit. interesting) and pretty girl, who knew how to be both cheerful and serious
    nakts kā jau nakts: ir mēness spīd, ir tālē rūsa plaiksnīthe night is like the night (= as usual): the moon shines and also in the distance silent lightning flashes
Synonyms[edit]

Particle[edit]

ir

  1. used to mark connection and emphasis, reinforcement; syn. arī
    Ludis nolēca lielā dubļu pančkā un tur ir palika, ratiem pakaļ skatīdamiesLudis jumped into a big mud puddle and there also he stayed, looking ahead at the cart
    Dūdums pateica: “man vēl laika diezgan”, un pārliecināt viņu par piegādes normu nodošanu pirms termiņa tā ir neizdevās — Dūdums said: “I still have enough time,” and also, so it was impossible to convince him about the rules for delivery before the deadline
  2. used to mark emphasis, to reinforce; syn. pat: really, even
    tas viņam ir prātā nenākthat doesn't even come to his mind
    krūmos ir pa naktīm guļot, pilsētā viņš parādoties retireally sleeping at night in the bushes, he appeared rarely in the city
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “ir”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, →ISBN

Lithuanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *ir (and, also), compare Latvian ir, Old Prussian ir (and, even), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂r̥- (thus, so); compare Ancient Greek ἄρα (ára, so, then, consequently). If the original meaning was "fittingly, accordingly", the root may be identical to *h₂er- (fit together), see artì (near) for more.

Proto-Slavic *i (and, even) is probably not related.

Conjunction[edit]

ir̃

  1. (coordinating, cumulative) and, too
  2. (coordinating, illative) and, so
    Bùvo gražùs óras, ir̃ mẽs nùtarėme keliáuti. - the weather was nice, and (=so) we decided to travel.
  3. (coordinating, correlative) bothand

Particle[edit]

ir̃

  1. (emphatic) even, and
    Mán ir̃ nepavỹko padarýt! - I didn't even manage that!
  2. (emphatic) exactly, just, precisely
    Jìs ir̃ yrà tàs žmogùs, apiẽ kùrį kal̃bame. - It's him that we're talking about
  3. (interrogative) and, so
    , ir̃ kàs! - So what!

Related terms[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Determiner[edit]

ir

  1. Alternative form of hire

Pronoun[edit]

ir

  1. Alternative form of hire

References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ir

  1. Alternative form of hire

References[edit]


Old Swedish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse ír, variant of ér, from Proto-Germanic *jīz, variant of *jūz.

Pronoun[edit]

īr

  1. you (plural)

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • hir (obsolete)
  • yr (obsolete)

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese ir, from Latin īre, present active infinitive of (from Proto-Italic *eō, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey-); the forms beginning with V from corresponding forms of vādō; the forms beginning with F from the corresponding forms of sum.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ir (first-person singular present indicative vou, past participle ido)

  1. (intransitive, or transitive with para or a or até) to go (to move to a destination)
    Vamos a pé?
    Do we go on foot?
    Eles foram ao shopping.
    They went to the mall.
    Queríamos ir para casa.
    We wanted to go home.
  2. (auxiliary, with an infinitive) will; to be going to; forms the future tense
    Vou comprar um sapato.
    I will buy a shoe.
    Nós não íamos fazer nada.
    We weren’t going to do anything.
  3. (auxiliary, with a gerund) to keep on; to go on; ~ on; forms the continuative aspect
    A água vai escorrendo até acabar.
    The water keeps on leaking until it is all gone.
  4. (takes a reflexive pronoun) to go; to leave; to depart
    Os homens já se foram todos.
    All the men have left already.
  5. (intransitive, or transitive with para or em or a) to attend; to go to (to be present in an event)
    Sinto muito, não poderei ir à sua festa.
    I’m sorry, I won’t be able to go to your party.
  6. (transitive with até) to go on until; to last to
    A batalha foi até as duas da manhã.
    The battle went on until two AM.
  7. (intransitive, or transitive with em) to do; to fare (to have a good or bad result)
    Fui muito mal em quase todas as provas.
    I did very bad in nearly all the tests.
  8. (intransitive) to be doing (formula used in greetings)
    “Como vai?” “Vou bem, obrigado.”
    “How are you doing?” “I am doing fine, thanks.”
  9. (takes a reflexive pronoun) to be gone (depleted, destroyed; no longer usable)
    Porcaria! Minha TV se foi.
    Damn it! My TV is gone.
  10. (euphemistic, takes a reflexive pronoun) to leave us; to depart (to die)
    Uma oração para os que já se foram.
    A prayer for those who have already left us.
  11. (intransitive) to go (to begin an action or process)
    Um, dois, três, vai!
    One, two, three, go!
    O sinal verde ainda não foi!
    The green light still didn’t light up.
    Vamos!
    Get on with it!
  12. (transitive with com) to match; to go with (to form a good combination with)
    Este casaco não vai bem com os sapatos.
    This jacket doesn't go well with the shoes.
  13. (transitive with com) to like or tolerate someone or something
    Parece que ninguém vai comigo.
    It seems nobody likes me.
  14. (transitive with por) to follow (to take into account when making choices)
    Vai pela razão, não pelos sentimentos.
    Follow reason, not feelings.
    Se a luz não acender, pode encontrar o livro indo pelo tato.
    If the light doesn’t turn on, you can find the book by following your sense of touch.
    Vai por mim.
    Trust me.
  15. (transitive with de) to range from (to encompass values between two given extremes)
    As perguntas iam do fácil ao díficil.
    The questions ranged from easy to difficult.
  16. (poker, intransitive) to call (to match the amount of chips in the pot)
    • 2012, Luís Fernando Veríssimo, “Os pêssegos”, in Diálogos Impossíveis, Editora Objetiva, →ISBN, page 29:
      Não se ouvia mais nada, além dos ruídos naturais do pôquer. O clicar das fichas. Frases curtas: "Dou cartas." "Vou." "Não vou." "Pago pra ver." "Não é possível!"

Usage notes[edit]

The use of auxiliary ir with lexical ir (e.g. Eu vou ir para casa “I will go home”) is usually considered nonstandard in Brazil. A single ir (Eu vou para casa, even though this also means “I am going home”) or the future tense form (Eu irei para casa, which is rather formal) is used instead.

Conjugation[edit]

Quotations[edit]

For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:ir.

Synonyms[edit]


Romansch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin eō, īre, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey-. The forms beginning with V derive from corresponding forms of Latin vādō.

Verb[edit]

ir

  1. (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Puter, Vallader) to go

Conjugation[edit]


Scots[edit]

Verb[edit]

ir

  1. (South Scots) Second-person simple present form of ti be
  2. (South Scots) Plural simple present form of ti be

See also[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The infinitive and forms beginning with i or y are from Latin īre, present active infinitive of (from Proto-Italic *eō, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey-); the forms beginning with v from corresponding forms of vādō; the forms beginning with f probably from forms of sum or fugio.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ir (first-person singular present voy, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle ido)

  1. to go
  2. (reflexive) to go away, to leave (see irse)
  3. (with a followed by the infinitive), to be going to (near future)
    Hoy vamos a ver una película.
    Today we are going to see a movie.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The basic meaning "go" applies to any kind of animate or inanimate motion: walk, ride, sail, fly, etc.
  • The voseo imperative of ir is typically replaced by the imperative of andar, which has the form andá.[1], though the form i is sometimes used as well.

Conjugation[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “Spanish from Argentina: That Voseo Thing”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1], accessed 9 October 2015

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

ir (feminine singular ir, plural irion, equative ired, comparative irach, superlative iraf)

  1. raw, unprocessed
  2. fresh, succulent

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
ir unchanged unchanged hir
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Yapese[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ir

  1. Third-person singular pronoun; he, she, it