para

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English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Serbo-Croatian pàra/па̀ра, from Ottoman Turkishپاره(pare, para), from Persianپاره(pâre).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (UK) enPR: päʹrə, IPA(key): /ˈpɑːɹə/
    • (file)
  • (US) enPR: pärʹə, IPA(key): /ˈpɑːɹə/
  • Rhymes: -ɑːɹə

Noun[edit]

para (plural paras)

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
  1. (historical) A former subunit of currency in several countries in the Ottoman/Turkish and Yugoslav regions.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

The second part of words such as primipara and multipara

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpæɹə/, /ˈpɑːɹə/

Noun[edit]

para (plural paras)

  1. (medicine) A woman who has given birth or brought pregnancies to viable gestational age a certain number of times, indicated by the number prepended to this word.
Related terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Clippings.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

para (plural paras)

  1. Clipping of paragraph.
  2. (military) Clipping of paratrooper.
    • 2023 September 26, Dan Sabbagh, “Family of dead para launch legal challenge to Northern Ireland legacy legislation”, in The Guardian[1], →ISSN:
      Family of dead para launch legal challenge to Northern Ireland legacy legislation [title]
  3. (US, education, informal) Clipping of paraprofessional educator.
  4. Clipping of paraplegic.
    • 2010, Shelley Lynn Tremain, editor, Foucault and the Government of Disability:
      The problems that male paras encounter in relation to bladder management pale in significance when placed alongside the problems with bladder management that female paraplegics experience. For women paras, attempts are made to train the bladder to empty itself at regular intervals; however, accidents do happen.

Etymology 4[edit]

Shortened from paralytic

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

para (comparative more para, superlative most para)

  1. (UK, Australia, slang) very drunk
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Noun[edit]

para

  1. (New Zealand) Synonym of king fern (the plant Ptisana salicina)

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

'Are'are[edit]

Noun[edit]

para

  1. fishhook

Verb[edit]

para

  1. be white

References[edit]

Albanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Back formation from përpara, from Proto-Albanian *pər-parə-a, from Proto-Indo-European *pr̥H-e/o-s (before, in front)

Preposition[edit]

para (+ablative)

  1. before
    para afatit
    before the deadline
  2. ago
    para dy shekujsh
    two centuries ago
  3. (physical position) in front of
    para një pasqyre
    in front of a mirror
  4. (presence) in front of, in the presence of
    para klasës
    in front of the class
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Ottoman Turkishپاره(pare, para), from Persianپاره(pâre).

Noun[edit]

para f (plural para, definite paraja, definite plural paratë)

  1. money

Asturian[edit]

Verb[edit]

para

  1. third-person singular present indicative of parar
  2. second-person singular imperative of parar

Bikol Central[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Spanish parar (to stop).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpaɾa/, [ˈpa.ɾa]
  • Hyphenation: pa‧ra

Interjection[edit]

pára (Basahan spelling ᜉᜍ)

  1. stop! (used as a command to stop a vehicle)

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Spanish para (for).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpaɾa/, [ˈpa.ɾa]
  • Hyphenation: pa‧ra

Preposition[edit]

pára (Basahan spelling ᜉᜍ)

  1. for
    Para sain ini?
    What's this for?

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpaɾaʔ/, [ˈpa.ɾaʔ]
  • Hyphenation: pa‧ra

Preposition[edit]

parà (Basahan spelling ᜉᜍ)

  1. because of
    Para kaiyan?
    Because of that?

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpaɾaʔ/, [ˈpa.ɾaʔ]
  • Hyphenation: pa‧ra

Noun[edit]

parà (Basahan spelling ᜉᜍ)

  1. erasure
Derived terms[edit]

Catalan[edit]

Verb[edit]

para

  1. inflection of parar:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Cebuano[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: pa‧ra

Verb[edit]

para

  1. to flag down; to signal to, especially to stop a passing vehicle etc.
  2. to signal a driver to stop in order for one to alight a vehicle

Preposition[edit]

para

  1. for

Crimean Tatar[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkishپاره(pare, para), from Persianپاره(pâre).

Noun[edit]

para

  1. cash, money

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: pa‧ra

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from English para (paratrooper).

Noun[edit]

para f or m (plural para's)

  1. para (paratrooper)
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Clipping of paranoïde

Adjective[edit]

para (comparative paraer, superlative para'st)

  1. (informal) Synonym of paranoïde

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From paro (pair) +‎ -a.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈpara]
  • Rhymes: -ara
  • Hyphenation: par‧a

Adjective[edit]

para (accusative singular paran, plural paraj, accusative plural parajn)

  1. even (not odd)
  2. paired

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably borrowed from North Germanic, from the same origin as Swedish bära (to carry, bear).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpɑrɑ/, [ˈpɑ̝rɑ̝]
  • Rhymes: -ɑrɑ
  • Syllabification(key): pa‧ra

Noun[edit]

para

  1. (witchcraft) A being created to bring milk or butter to its creator.

Declension[edit]

Inflection of para (Kotus type 9/kala, no gradation)
nominative para parat
genitive paran parojen
partitive paraa paroja
illative paraan paroihin
singular plural
nominative para parat
accusative nom. para parat
gen. paran
genitive paran parojen
parainrare
partitive paraa paroja
inessive parassa paroissa
elative parasta paroista
illative paraan paroihin
adessive paralla paroilla
ablative paralta paroilta
allative paralle paroille
essive parana paroina
translative paraksi paroiksi
abessive paratta paroitta
instructive paroin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of para (Kotus type 9/kala, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative parani parani
accusative nom. parani parani
gen. parani
genitive parani parojeni
parainirare
partitive paraani parojani
inessive parassani paroissani
elative parastani paroistani
illative paraani paroihini
adessive parallani paroillani
ablative paraltani paroiltani
allative paralleni paroilleni
essive paranani paroinani
translative parakseni paroikseni
abessive parattani paroittani
instructive
comitative paroineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative parasi parasi
accusative nom. parasi parasi
gen. parasi
genitive parasi parojesi
paraisirare
partitive paraasi parojasi
inessive parassasi paroissasi
elative parastasi paroistasi
illative paraasi paroihisi
adessive parallasi paroillasi
ablative paraltasi paroiltasi
allative parallesi paroillesi
essive paranasi paroinasi
translative paraksesi paroiksesi
abessive parattasi paroittasi
instructive
comitative paroinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative paramme paramme
accusative nom. paramme paramme
gen. paramme
genitive paramme parojemme
paraimmerare
partitive paraamme parojamme
inessive parassamme paroissamme
elative parastamme paroistamme
illative paraamme paroihimme
adessive parallamme paroillamme
ablative paraltamme paroiltamme
allative parallemme paroillemme
essive paranamme paroinamme
translative paraksemme paroiksemme
abessive parattamme paroittamme
instructive
comitative paroinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative paranne paranne
accusative nom. paranne paranne
gen. paranne
genitive paranne parojenne
parainnerare
partitive paraanne parojanne
inessive parassanne paroissanne
elative parastanne paroistanne
illative paraanne paroihinne
adessive parallanne paroillanne
ablative paraltanne paroiltanne
allative parallenne paroillenne
essive parananne paroinanne
translative paraksenne paroiksenne
abessive parattanne paroittanne
instructive
comitative paroinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative paransa paransa
accusative nom. paransa paransa
gen. paransa
genitive paransa parojensa
parainsarare
partitive paraansa parojaan
parojansa
inessive parassaan
parassansa
paroissaan
paroissansa
elative parastaan
parastansa
paroistaan
paroistansa
illative paraansa paroihinsa
adessive parallaan
parallansa
paroillaan
paroillansa
ablative paraltaan
paraltansa
paroiltaan
paroiltansa
allative paralleen
parallensa
paroilleen
paroillensa
essive paranaan
paranansa
paroinaan
paroinansa
translative parakseen
paraksensa
paroikseen
paroiksensa
abessive parattaan
parattansa
paroittaan
paroittansa
instructive
comitative paroineen
paroinensa

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

para

  1. third-person singular past historic of parer

Anagrams[edit]

Galician[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Galician-Portuguese pera, para, from Latin per (through) + ad (to).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

para

  1. for (directed at, intended to belong to)
  2. for (to obtain)
  3. to, toward (indicating destination)
  4. for (by the standards of)
  5. (after a form of estar) about to
Usage notes[edit]

In spoken language this preposition frequently contracts with the next word, especially with articles and pronouns, but today these contraction are not usually represented in the written language.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Deverbal from parar (to prepare). Cognate with Portuguese apara.

Paras de pataca ("potato peelings")

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

para f (plural paras)

  1. peeling (of a fruit, vegetable, cheese)
    Synonyms: carapa, carapela, casca, monda, paraza, pela, peladura, peleca, plana, tona
  2. shaving, woodshaving
    Synonyms: labra, lasca
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Verb[edit]

para

  1. inflection of parar:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative
  2. (reintegrationist norm) inflection of parir:
    1. first/third-person singular present subjunctive
    2. third-person singular imperative

References[edit]

  • para” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006–2022.
  • para” in Xavier Varela Barreiro & Xavier Gómez Guinovart: Corpus Xelmírez - Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval. SLI / Grupo TALG / ILG, 2006–2018.
  • para” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
  • para” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.
  • para” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

Gamo[edit]

Noun[edit]

para

  1. horse

References[edit]

  • Corinna Handschuh, A typology of marked-S languages

Guaraní[edit]

Guaraní Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia gn

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Old Tupi pará.

Noun[edit]

para

  1. sea

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈpɒrɒ]
  • Hyphenation: pa‧ra
  • Rhymes: -rɒ

Etymology 1[edit]

Of uncertain origin.

Noun[edit]

para (usually uncountable, plural parák)

  1. suber, cork
Declension[edit]
Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative para parák
accusative parát parákat
dative parának paráknak
instrumental parával parákkal
causal-final paráért parákért
translative parává parákká
terminative paráig parákig
essive-formal paraként parákként
essive-modal
inessive parában parákban
superessive parán parákon
adessive paránál paráknál
illative parába parákba
sublative parára parákra
allative parához parákhoz
elative parából parákból
delative paráról parákról
ablative parától paráktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
paráé paráké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
paráéi parákéi
Possessive forms of para
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. parám paráim
2nd person sing. parád paráid
3rd person sing. parája parái
1st person plural paránk paráink
2nd person plural parátok paráitok
3rd person plural parájuk paráik
Derived terms[edit]
Compound words

Etymology 2[edit]

Perhaps from paranoia.

Noun[edit]

para

  1. (slang) fear
    Synonyms: félelem, rettegés
Declension[edit]
Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative para parák
accusative parát parákat
dative parának paráknak
instrumental parával parákkal
causal-final paráért parákért
translative parává parákká
terminative paráig parákig
essive-formal paraként parákként
essive-modal
inessive parában parákban
superessive parán parákon
adessive paránál paráknál
illative parába parákba
sublative parára parákra
allative parához parákhoz
elative parából parákból
delative paráról parákról
ablative parától paráktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
paráé paráké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
paráéi parákéi
Possessive forms of para
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. parám paráim
2nd person sing. parád paráid
3rd person sing. parája parái
1st person plural paránk paráink
2nd person plural parátok paráitok
3rd person plural parájuk paráik
Derived terms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

para (comparative parább, superlative legparább)

  1. (slang) scary, spooky, sinister, dark
    Synonyms: félelmetes, rémisztő, ijesztő, baljós
Declension[edit]
Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative para parák
accusative parát parákat
dative parának paráknak
instrumental parával parákkal
causal-final paráért parákért
translative parává parákká
terminative paráig parákig
essive-formal paraként parákként
essive-modal
inessive parában parákban
superessive parán parákon
adessive paránál paráknál
illative parába parákba
sublative parára parákra
allative parához parákhoz
elative parából parákból
delative paráról parákról
ablative parától paráktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
paráé paráké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
paráéi parákéi

Etymology 3[edit]

From paraméter.

Noun[edit]

para

  1. (slang) (physical) parameter (height, weight, and age, often asked at the beginning of online dating)
    Synonym: paraméter
    Mik a paráid?What are your parameters?
Declension[edit]
Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative para parák
accusative parát parákat
dative parának paráknak
instrumental parával parákkal
causal-final paráért parákért
translative parává parákká
terminative paráig parákig
essive-formal paraként parákként
essive-modal
inessive parában parákban
superessive parán parákon
adessive paránál paráknál
illative parába parákba
sublative parára parákra
allative parához parákhoz
elative parából parákból
delative paráról parákról
ablative parától paráktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
paráé paráké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
paráéi parákéi
Possessive forms of para
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. parám paráim
2nd person sing. parád paráid
3rd person sing. parája parái
1st person plural paránk paráink
2nd person plural parátok paráitok
3rd person plural parájuk paráik

Etymology 4[edit]

Borrowed from Ottoman Turkishپاره(para, money), from Persianپاره(pâre, piece).

Noun[edit]

para (plural parák)

  1. para (a subunit of Ottoman currency)
Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Ido[edit]

Adjective[edit]

para

  1. (mathematics) even

Antonyms[edit]

Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *paRa (collective particle). Compare Acehnese para (horde, troop).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpara/, [ˈpa.ra]

Particle[edit]

para

  1. definitive particle used to denote that the word preceded is plural
    para siswastudents

Usage note[edit]

  • This particle is only used in human nouns. Plural forms of other nouns are formed by reduplication.

See also[edit]

Ingrian[edit]

Para.

Etymology[edit]

Akin to Finnish para and Karelian para.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

para

  1. (folklore) troll cat (being designed to bring milk to its creator)

Declension[edit]

Declension of para (type 3/kana, no gradation, gemination)
singular plural
nominative para parat
genitive paran parroin
partitive parraa paroja
illative parraa parroi
inessive paras parois
elative parast paroist
allative paralle paroille
adessive paral paroil
ablative paralt paroilt
translative paraks paroiks
essive paranna, parraan paroinna, parroin
exessive1) parant paroint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.

References[edit]

  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 383

Italian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpa.ra/
  • Rhymes: -ara
  • Hyphenation: pà‧ra

Etymology 1[edit]

From Pará, Brazil, where it is produced.

Noun[edit]

para f (plural pare)

  1. crepe rubber
  2. crepe (for shoes)

Etymology 2[edit]

Clipping.

Noun[edit]

para f (uncountable)

  1. (slang) paranoia

Etymology 3[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb[edit]

para

  1. inflection of parare:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Anagrams[edit]

Javanese[edit]

Article[edit]

para

  1. marker of group or collectivity

Kabuverdianu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Portuguese parar.

Verb[edit]

para

  1. to stop

Kashubian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *pàra. By surface analysis, deverbal from parzëc.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpara/
  • Syllabification: pa‧ra

Noun[edit]

para f

  1. steam (vapor formed when water changes from the liquid phase to the gas phase)
    Synonym: ropa

Further reading[edit]

  • Bernard Sychta (1967-1973), “para”, in Słownik gwar kaszubskich, volume 4, page 27
  • Eùgeniusz Gòłąbk (2011), “para woda”, in Słownik Polsko-Kaszubski / Słowôrz Pòlskò-Kaszëbsczi
  • para”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022

Latin[edit]

Verb[edit]

parā

  1. second-person singular present active imperative of parō

References[edit]

  • para in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • "para", in William Smith, editor (1848) A Dictionary of Greek Biography and Mythology, London: John Murray

Lithuanian[edit]

Noun[edit]

para f

  1. 24 hours (day)
    Aš manau kad užtruks apie vieną parą.
    I think it will take about 24 hours.

Malay[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *paRa (collective particle). Compare Acehnese para (horde, troop).

Prefix[edit]

para (Jawi spellingڤارا⁩)

  1. definitive prefix used to denote that the word preceded is plural
    para muridstudents
Descendants[edit]
  • Indonesian: para

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Austronesian *paRa (storage shelf; attic, loft). Compare Tagalog pága (storage loft made of bamboo attached to ceiling).

Noun[edit]

para (Jawi spellingڤارا⁩, plural para-para, informal 1st possessive paraku, 2nd possessive paramu, 3rd possessive paranya)

  1. shelf
    Synonym: rak
    para bukubookshelf
  2. rubber (of the material)
    Synonyms: getah, karet
    nilai paravalue of rubber
Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • para” in Pusat Rujukan Persuratan Melayu | Malay Literary Reference Centre, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 2017.
  • Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen (2010–), “*paRa₂”, in The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary
  • Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen (2010–), “*paRa₁”, in The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Masurian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish para (steam). By surface analysis, deverbal from parżicz.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈpara]
  • Syllabification: pa‧ra

Noun[edit]

para f

  1. steam (vapor formed when water changes from the liquid phase to the gas phase)
  2. breath

Further reading[edit]

  • Zofia Stamirowska (1987-2021), “I. para”, in Anna Basara, editor, Słownik gwar Ostródzkiego, Warmii i Mazur, volume 6, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, →ISBN, page 29

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

para n pl

  1. definite plural of par

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Noun[edit]

para n pl

  1. definite plural of par

Old Polish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *pàra. By surface analysis, deverbal from parzyć. First attested in 1420.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /para/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /para/

Noun[edit]

para f

  1. steam
    • 1454, Legenda o św. Aleksym[3], line 215:
      Kogokole para szaleczala oth thego szwyathego czala, ktoryle chorobą myal, nathemyescz szdrow ostal
      [Kogokole para zaleciała ot tego świętego ciała, ktoryle chorobę miał, natemieśc[ie] zdrow ostał]
  2. breath
    • 1874-1891 [Middle of the 15th century], Rozprawy i Sprawozdania z Posiedzeń Wydziału Filologicznego Akademii Umiejętności, volume XXIII, page 270:
      Faucibus, gl. ore, exuberat, gl. exit, grauis anhelitus dvch, para
      [Faucibus, gl. ore, exuberat, gl. exit, grauis anhelitus duch, para]
    • c. 1500, Wokabularz lubiński, inkunabuł Archiwum Archidiecezjalnego w Gnieźnie, sygn. Inc. 78d., page 129r:
      Spiraculum id est anhelitus vel foramen per quod spiratur proprie der atem. Spiramen idem pąrą vel dech
      [Spiraculum id est anhelitus vel foramen per quod spiratur proprie der atem. Spiramen idem para vel dech]
Derived terms[edit]
adjectives
Related terms[edit]
nouns
Descendants[edit]
  • Masurian: para (steam)
  • Polish: para (steam)
  • Silesian: para (steam)

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Middle High German pâr. First attested in 1447.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /paːra/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /pɒra/

Noun[edit]

para f

  1. pair (two of the same or similar things)
    • 1912 [1447], Monumenta Iuris cura praepositorum Chartophylacio Maximo Varsoviensi, volume III, page 156:
      Ego Petrus obligo me sibi (sc. Andree) solucionem facere..., videlicet vnum tharling pannorum coltryskych, in quo fieri debent XL-ta media stamina et quodlibet paria uel stamen integrum debet percipere a me per XII florenos Vngaricales vlg. par *puolstuczkow... Ego Petrus... promitto... Andree... secundum tharling staminorum vlg. *puolstuczkow coltryskych dare... sine omni dilatione..., videlicet quod par *puolstuczkuow per XII florenos Vngaricales
      [Ego Petrus obligo me sibi (sc. Andree) solucionem facere..., videlicet vnum tarlink pannorum koltryskich, in quo fieri debent XL-ta media stamina et quodlibet paria uel stamen integrum debet percipere a me per XII florenos Vngaricales vlg. par połusztuczkow... Ego Petrus... promitto... Andree... secundum tarlink staminorum vlg. połusztuczkow koltryskich dare... sine omni dilatione..., videlicet quod par połusztuczk[u]ow per XII florenos Vngaricales]
Descendants[edit]
  • Masurian: pára (pair)
  • Polish: para (pair)
  • Silesian: pŏra (pair)

References[edit]

Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Sanskrit पर (para), from Proto-Indo-European *per-.

Adjective[edit]

para

  1. other, another
  2. alien
  3. outsider
  4. further (on)
    • c. 500 AD, Kaccāyana, Pālivyākaraṇaṃ [Pali Grammar]‎[4], page 252; republished as Satish Chandra Acharyya Vidyabhusana, editor, Kaccayana's Pali Grammar (edited in Devanagari character and translated into English), Calcutta, Bengal: Mahabodhi Society, 1901:
      सब्बेसं तिण्णं पठममज्झिमुत्तमपुरिसानं एकाभिधाने परो पुरिसो गहेतब्बो। सो च पठति, ते च पठन्ति, त्वञ्च पठसि तुम्हे च पठथ, अहञ्च पठामि = मयं पठाम; सो पचति, ते च पचन्ति, त्वञ्च पचन्ति, तुम्हे च पठथ, अहञ्च पचआमि = मयं पचाम एवं सेसासु विभत्तीसु परो पुरिसो योजेतब्बो॥
      Sabbesaṃ tiṇṇaṃ paṭhamamajjhimuttamapurisānaṃ ekābhidhāne paro puriso gahetabbo. So ca paṭhati, te ca paṭhanti, tvañca paṭhasi, tumhe ca paṭhatha, ahañca paṭhāmi = mayaṃ paṭhāma; so pacati, te ca pacanti, tvañca pacasi, tumhe ca pacatha, ahañca pacāmi = mayaṃ pacāma. Evaṃ sesāsu vibhattīsu paro puriso yojetabbo.
      With all three, third, second, and first persons, in one expression, the last person is to be taken. He reads, they read, thou readest, you read, and I read = we read; he cooks, they cook, thou cookest, you cook , and I cook = we cook. The last person is to be applied thus for other endings.

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Pali Text Society (1921–1925), “para”, in Pali-English Dictionary‎, London: Chipstead

Papiamentu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Spanish pájaro and Portuguese pássaro and Kabuverdianu pasaru.

Noun[edit]

para

  1. bird

Etymology 2[edit]

From Portuguese parar and Spanish parar and Kabuverdianu para.

Verb[edit]

para

  1. to stop
  2. to stand

Polish[edit]

Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish para (steam). By surface analysis, deverbal from parzyć.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

para f (related adjective parowy)

  1. (uncountable) steam (vapor formed when water changes from the liquid phase to the gas phase)
  2. (uncountable, colloquial) steam (internal energy for progress or motive power)
  3. (uncountable) breath
    Synonyms: dech, tchnienie
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
adverbs
nouns
verbs

Etymology 2[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish para (pair).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

para f

  1. (countable) pair (two similar or identical things taken together)
  2. (countable) pair (two symmetrical organs or limbs)
  3. (countable) pair (object made of two things, such as scissors or pants)
  4. (countable) pair (two people, animals, or groups in the same place at the same time)
  5. (countable) pair, couple (two people in a relationship or partnership)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
adverbs
nouns
proverbs
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb[edit]

para

  1. third-person singular present of parać

Trivia[edit]

According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), para is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 43 times in scientific texts, 13 times in news, 4 times in essays, 16 times in fiction, and 11 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 87 times, making it the 733rd most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990), “para”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków; Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 356

Further reading[edit]

  • para in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • para in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • 1. para”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish], 2010-2023
  • 2. para”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish], 2010-2023
  • Paweł Kupiszewski (08.04.2014), “PARA”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century]
  • Paweł Kupiszewski (08.04.2014), “PARA”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century]
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814), “para”, in Słownik języka polskiego
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861), “para”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861
  • A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1908), “para”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 4, Warsaw, page 50

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From earlier pera, from Old Galician-Portuguese pera, from Latin per (through) + ad (to).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

 
  • (Brazil) IPA(key): /pa.ɾɐ/, (with syncope) /pɾa/, /pa/, /pɾɐ/
    • (Southern Brazil) IPA(key): /pa.ɾa/, (with syncope) /pɾa/, /pa/, /pɾɐ/

  • Hyphenation: pa‧ra

Preposition[edit]

para

  1. for (directed at, intended to belong to or to be appropriate for)
    Ração para gatos.
    Food for cats.
    O que é bom para gripe?
    What is good for the flu?
  2. indicates application of an adjective; to
  3. to; so; in order to (indicates purpose)
    Comprei um baixo para tocar numa banda.
    I bought a bass to play in a band.
  4. towards; to; in the direction of (indicates destination)
    Synonyms: a, até
    Vamos para a minha casa.
    Let’s go to my house.
  5. introduces the location, direction or context that applies to a verb
    Essa janela abre para um longo vale.
    That window opens into a long valley.
  6. to (to the value of)
    A cor da banana mudou de amarelo para preto.
    The colour of the banana changed from yellow to black.
    O valor da minha casa baixou para menos do que o que eu paguei.
    The value of my house has fallen to less than what I paid.
  7. in the opinion of
    Para mim, este livro é um dos melhores da história.
    In my opinion, this book is one of the best ever.
  8. (with an infinitive) about to; soon to be (indicates that something will happen soon)
    Synonyms: prestes a, por
    Fiquem quietos que o filme está para começar.
    Be quiet because the film is about to begin.

Contraction[edit]

Para + definite article contractions are colloquial. Those without r are nonstandard:

Para + indefinite article contractions are also nonstandard, but are not as common:

There are some para + personal pronoun contractions, which are also nonstandard and uncommon in writing:

Usage notes[edit]

Some senses of para, such as 'in order to', introduce a subordinate clause. When this clause begins with a personal pronoun, some Brazilian speakers use a prepositional pronoun instead of a nominative one:

  • Comprei um bolo para mim comer.
    I bought a cake for me to eat.

instead of the standard,

  • Comprei um bolo para eu comer.
    I bought a cake for me to eat.

Such usage is strongly proscribed.

Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:para.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Rhymes: -aɾɐ
  • Hyphenation: pa‧ra

Verb[edit]

para

  1. inflection of parar:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Quechua[edit]

Noun[edit]

para

  1. rain


Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Ottoman Turkishپاره(para), from Persianپاره(pâre).

Noun[edit]

para f (plural parale)

  1. para
  2. money

Declension[edit]

Verb[edit]

a para (third-person singular present parează, past participle parat) 1st conj.

  1. parry

Sanaviron[edit]

Noun[edit]

para

  1. water

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Julio Salinardi, Córdoba y Traslasierra: integración y disgregación (2006): Con respecto a la lengua sanavirona, hay algunas palabras cuyo significado es seguro, tales comon sacat (pueblo), charaba (cacique), para (agua) y mampa (acequia).
  • Čestmír Loukotka, ‎Johannes Wilbert (editor), Classification of South American Indian Languages (1968, Los Angeles: Latin American Studies Center, University of California), page(s) 48

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *para, *parъ.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pȁra f (Cyrillic spelling па̏ра)

  1. steam
  2. vapor
  3. fume
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Ottoman Turkishپاره(pare, para), from Persianپاره(pâre).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /pǎra/
  • Hyphenation: pa‧ra

Noun[edit]

pàra f (Cyrillic spelling па̀ра)

  1. para (Yugoslav currency)
  2. (colloquial) money, dough, moola (usually in plural)
    • 2010 April 12, Dubioza kolektiv (lyrics and music), “Kokuz”‎[5]:
      Nemam para daj posudi
      Il' mi žirant makar budi
      Steglo brate sa svih strana
      Trebam pomoć od jarana
      I don't have moola, lend me some
      or be my guarantor
      It's tightening from all sides my bro
      I need help from my buddies.
Declension[edit]

Silesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish para (steam). By surface analysis, deverbal from parzić.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpara/
  • Rhymes: -ara
  • Syllabification: pa‧ra

Noun[edit]

para f

  1. steam (vapor formed when water changes from the liquid phase to the gas phase)

Derived terms[edit]

adjectives
nouns

Related terms[edit]

nouns

Further reading[edit]

  • para in silling.org
  • Bogdan Kallus (2020), “para”, in Słownik Gōrnoślōnskij Gŏdki, IV edition, Chorzów: Pro Loquela Silesiana, →ISBN
  • Aleksandra Wencel (2023), “para”, in Dykcjůnôrz ślų̊sko-polski, page 469

Spanish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpaɾa/ [ˈpa.ɾa]
  • Audio (Colombia):(file)
  • Rhymes: -aɾa
  • Syllabification: pa‧ra

Etymology 1[edit]

From earlier pora (a combination of por and a, or from Latin prō ad) via assimilation, influenced by the archaic preposition par.[6]

Preposition[edit]

para

  1. for, to (expressing a recipient)
    Synonyms: pa', (colloquial) pa
    La niña compró un regalo de navidad para su abuela.
    The girl bought a Christmas gift for her grandmother.
    Ahora me gustaría hacer un truco de magia para ustedes.
    I'd now like to perform a magic trick for you all.
  2. to, in order to, so, for (expressing the intended purpose of an action)
    Estudio cada noche sin descanso para conseguir un trabajo decente al fin de todo esto.
    I study every night tirelessly so that I get a decent job at the end of all this.
    Voy a salir temprano para evitar el tráfico.
    I am going to leave early to avoid traffic.
  3. by, due, due on, due by (expressing a deadline)
    Necesito tu decisión para fin de mes.
    I need your decision by the end of the month.
    Sus proyectos de grupo son para el viernes sin excepción.
    Your group projects are due on Friday without exception.
  4. for (expressing contrast from what is expected)
    Para un turista americano, él es en realidad bastante respetuoso.
    For an American tourist, he is actually pretty respectful.
  5. for, to, in one's opinion, as far as one is concerned (expressing an opinion, perception or perspective)
    Para mí, la música es lo único bueno sobre esa película.
    For me, the music was the only good thing about that film.
    Para mi hermano, su esposa tiene toda la razón.
    As far as my brother is concerned, his wife is totally in the right.
  6. for (expressing using one's efforts for a group or an authority figure such as a sports team or a company/boss)
    Mi sobrino juega para el equipo de los Patos Poderosos.
    My nephew plays for the Mighty Ducks' team.
    Trabajamos para la misma jefe aunque no al mismo tiempo.
    We worked for the same boss but not at the same time.
    Ella trabajó para Microsoft durante años, pero ahora trabaja para Apple.
    She worked for Microsoft for years, but now she works for Apple.
  7. come (used to indicate a point in time at or after which a stated event or situation occurs)
    Para septiembre, me estaré quedando atrás.
    Come September, I'll be getting left behind.
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb[edit]

para

  1. inflection of parar:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Etymology 3[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb[edit]

para

  1. inflection of parir:
    1. first/third-person singular present subjunctive
    2. third-person singular imperative

Further reading[edit]

Swedish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From par +‎ -a.

Verb[edit]

para (present parar, preterite parade, supine parat, imperative para)

  1. to pair, match into pairs
  2. (transitive) to breed (two animals)
  3. (reflexive, of animals) to mate, breed
Conjugation[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Turkish para.

Noun[edit]

para c

  1. (slang) money
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Tagalog[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: pa‧ra
  • IPA(key): /ˈpaɾa/, [ˈpa.ɾɐ]
  • (file)

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Spanish para (for).

Conjunction[edit]

para (Baybayin spelling ᜉᜇ)

  1. for; so; in order to
    Synonyms: upang, nang
    Para makapasok sa eskuwelahan, kailangan mo ng valid ID.
    In order to be able to go inside the school, you need a valid ID.

Preposition[edit]

para (Baybayin spelling ᜉᜇ)

  1. for
    Nagtatrabaho si Ate Virgie para sa kanyang pamilya.
    Virgie works for her family.

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Spanish para (stop) (second person singular imperative), from parar (stop).

Interjection[edit]

para (Baybayin spelling ᜉᜇ)

  1. Said by any jeepney passenger to call onto the driver to halt the vehicle, with the intention of dismounting.
    Synonyms: tigil, hinto
Usage notes[edit]
  • The word is usually paired with ho or po for respect: para ho / para po.
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *pada (same, equal, like). Compare Ilocano pada, Malay pada, Makasar ᨄᨑ (para), Old Javanese paḍa. Also possibly borrowed from Spanish comparar.

Adjective[edit]

para (Baybayin spelling ᜉᜇ)

  1. looking like; seem
    Synonym: mukha
    Para kang tanga...
    You look like an idiot...
    Parang may gusto ka sa akin.
    You seem to like me / have a crush on me.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This word is now usually seen as parang, except when an enclitic is used which separates para and -ng, although this could be ignored also and have the enclitic after the word parang modifies.
    Parang... Parang aso siya.
    It looks like... It looks like a dog.
    (instead of Para siyang aso.)
  • This word may appear as parang alone. For example, when agreeing with someone that it actually looks like a dog, you reply with parang “It seems so”, or parang nga “It actually looks like one”.
  • This word used to be used like tulad or gaya, it used genitive case (ng, mo, etc.) instead of the linker -ng. Seen in the Lord's Prayer (Ama Namin), which is still preserved today. The Lord's Prayer spells ng as nang.
    Dito sa lupa, para nang sa langit.
    On earth as it is in heaven.
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkishپاره(pare, para), from Persianپاره(pâre). Doublet of pare.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /pɑˈɾɑ/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: pa‧ra

Noun[edit]

para (definite accusative parayı, plural paralar)

  1. money

Declension[edit]

Inflection
Nominative para
Definite accusative parayı
Singular Plural
Nominative para paralar
Definite accusative parayı paraları
Dative paraya paralara
Locative parada paralarda
Ablative paradan paralardan
Genitive paranın paraların
Possessive forms
Nominative
Singular Plural
1st singular param paralarım
2nd singular paran paraların
3rd singular parası paraları
1st plural paramız paralarımız
2nd plural paranız paralarınız
3rd plural paraları paraları
Definite accusative
Singular Plural
1st singular paramı paralarımı
2nd singular paranı paralarını
3rd singular parasını paralarını
1st plural paramızı paralarımızı
2nd plural paranızı paralarınızı
3rd plural paralarını paralarını
Dative
Singular Plural
1st singular parama paralarıma
2nd singular parana paralarına
3rd singular parasına paralarına
1st plural paramıza paralarımıza
2nd plural paranıza paralarınıza
3rd plural paralarına paralarına
Locative
Singular Plural
1st singular paramda paralarımda
2nd singular paranda paralarında
3rd singular parasında paralarında
1st plural paramızda paralarımızda
2nd plural paranızda paralarınızda
3rd plural paralarında paralarında
Ablative
Singular Plural
1st singular paramdan paralarımdan
2nd singular parandan paralarından
3rd singular parasından paralarından
1st plural paramızdan paralarımızdan
2nd plural paranızdan paralarınızdan
3rd plural paralarından paralarından
Genitive
Singular Plural
1st singular paramın paralarımın
2nd singular paranın paralarının
3rd singular parasının paralarının
1st plural paramızın paralarımızın
2nd plural paranızın paralarınızın
3rd plural paralarının paralarının

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

para (first-person singular present paraf)

  1. Alternative form of parhau (to endure, to last)

Conjugation[edit]

Noun[edit]

para m (uncountable)

  1. continuance, perseverance, permanence

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
para bara mhara phara
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “parhau”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies