Appendix:Finnish nominal inflection/kala

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KOTUS type 9 (kala) NSK type 10 (kala)

Two-syllable nominals, first vowel a/e/i, ending with -a (not ); consonant gradation possible.

-a of stem changes to -o- before plural marker -i-. Partitive ending -a and genitive plural ending -en.

Basic declension without consonant gradation[edit]

Inflection of Finnish nominal inflection/kala (Kotus type 9/kala, no gradation)
nominative kala kalat
genitive kalan kalojen
partitive kalaa kaloja
illative kalaan kaloihin
singular plural
nominative kala kalat
accusative nom. kala kalat
gen. kalan
genitive kalan kalojen
partitive kalaa kaloja
inessive kalassa kaloissa
elative kalasta kaloista
illative kalaan kaloihin
adessive kalalla kaloilla
ablative kalalta kaloilta
allative kalalle kaloille
essive kalana kaloina
translative kalaksi kaloiksi
instructive kaloin
abessive kalatta kaloitta
comitative kaloineen

Consonant gradation[edit]


grade kk → k pp → p tt → t k → ∅ p → v t → d nk → ng mp → mm lt → ll nt → nn rt → rr dd → d
nominative strong markk

a|| kaupp a|| mitt a|| lik a|| halp a|| raut a|| lank a|| kamp a|| ilt a|| rant a|| part a|| Vedd a

genitive weak mark

an|| kaup an|| mit an|| li an|| halv an|| raud an|| lang an|| kamm an|| ill an|| rann an|| parr an|| Ved an

partitive strong markk

aa|| kaupp aa|| mitt aa|| lik aa|| halp aa|| raut aa|| lank aa|| kamp aa|| ilt aa|| rant aa|| part aa|| Vedd aa

elative weak mark

asta|| kaup asta|| mit asta|| li asta|| halv asta|| raud asta|| lang asta|| kamm asta|| ill asta|| rann asta|| parr asta|| Ved asta

illative strong markk

aan|| kaupp aan|| mitt aan|| lik aan|| halp aan|| raut aan|| lank aan|| kamp aan|| ilt aan|| rant aan|| part aan|| Vedd aan

Complete declension example with consonant gradation (t → d)[edit]

Inflection of Finnish nominal inflection/kala (Kotus type 9/kala, t-d gradation)
nominative rauta raudat
genitive raudan rautojen
partitive rautaa rautoja
illative rautaan rautoihin
singular plural
nominative rauta raudat
accusative nom. rauta raudat
gen. raudan
genitive raudan rautojen
partitive rautaa rautoja
inessive raudassa raudoissa
elative raudasta raudoista
illative rautaan rautoihin
adessive raudalla raudoilla
ablative raudalta raudoilta
allative raudalle raudoille
essive rautana rautoina
translative raudaksi raudoiksi
instructive raudoin
abessive raudatta raudoitta
comitative rautoineen

See also[edit]