Appendix:Finnish nominal inflection/kala

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KOTUS type 9 (kala) NSK type 10 (kala)

Two-syllable nominals, first vowel a/e/i, ending with -a (not ); consonant gradation possible.

-a of stem changes to -o- before plural marker -i-. Partitive ending -a and genitive plural ending -en.

Basic declension without consonant gradation[edit]

Inflection of Finnish nominal inflection/kala (Kotus type 9/kala, no gradation)
nominative kala kalat
genitive kalan kalojen
partitive kalaa kaloja
illative kalaan kaloihin
singular plural
nominative kala kalat
accusative nom.? kala kalat
gen. kalan
genitive kalan kalojen
kalainrare
partitive kalaa kaloja
inessive kalassa kaloissa
elative kalasta kaloista
illative kalaan kaloihin
adessive kalalla kaloilla
ablative kalalta kaloilta
allative kalalle kaloille
essive kalana kaloina
translative kalaksi kaloiksi
instructive kaloin
abessive kalatta kaloitta
comitative kaloineen

Consonant gradation[edit]

Summary[edit]

grade kk → k pp → p tt → t k → ∅ p → v t → d nk → ng mp → mm lt → ll nt → nn rt → rr k → j dd → d
nominative strong markka kauppa mitta lika halpa rauta lanka kampa ilta ranta parta arka Vedda
genitive weak markan kaupan mitan lian halvan raudan langan kamman illan rannan parran arjan Vedan
partitive strong markkaa kauppaa mittaa likaa halpaa rautaa lankaa kampaa iltaa rantaa partaa arkaa Veddaa
elative weak markasta kaupasta mitasta liasta halvasta raudasta langasta kammasta illasta rannasta parrasta arjasta Vedasta
illative strong markkaan kauppaan mittaan likaan halpaan rautaan lankaan kampaan iltaan rantaan partaan arkaan Veddaan

Complete declension example with consonant gradation (t → d)[edit]

Inflection of Finnish nominal inflection/kala (Kotus type 9/kala, t-d gradation)
nominative rauta raudat
genitive raudan rautojen
partitive rautaa rautoja
illative rautaan rautoihin
singular plural
nominative rauta raudat
accusative nom.? rauta raudat
gen. raudan
genitive raudan rautojen
rautainrare
partitive rautaa rautoja
inessive raudassa raudoissa
elative raudasta raudoista
illative rautaan rautoihin
adessive raudalla raudoilla
ablative raudalta raudoilta
allative raudalle raudoille
essive rautana rautoina
translative raudaksi raudoiksi
instructive raudoin
abessive raudatta raudoitta
comitative rautoineen

See also[edit]