fume

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See also: fumé and fumê

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English, from Old French fum (smoke, steam, vapour), from Latin fūmus (vapour, smoke), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰuh₂mós (smoke), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewh₂- (to smoke, raise dust). More at dun, dusk, dust.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (UK) IPA(key): /fjuːm/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -uːm

Noun[edit]

fume (plural fumes)

  1. A gas or vapour/vapor that is strong-smelling or dangerous to inhale.
    Don't stand around in there breathing the fumes while the adhesive cures.
    • (Can we date this quote by T. Warton and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      the fumes of new shorn hay
  2. A material that has been vaporized from the solid or liquid state to the gas state and re-coalesced to the solid state.
    Lead fume is a greyish powder, mainly comprising lead sulfate.
  3. Rage or excitement which deprives the mind of self-control.
    the fumes of passion
    (Can we find and add a quotation of South to this entry?)
  4. Anything unsubstantial or airy; idle conceit; vain imagination.
    • (Can we date this quote by Francis Bacon and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      a show of fumes and fancies
  5. The incense of praise; inordinate flattery.
    • (Can we date this quote by Burton and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      to smother him with fumes and eulogies
  6. (obsolete) A passionate person.

Usage notes[edit]

  • In the sense of strong-smelling or dangerous vapor, the noun is typically plural, as in the example.

Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

fume (third-person singular simple present fumes, present participle fuming, simple past and past participle fumed)

  1. (transitive) To expose (something) to fumes; specifically, to expose wood, etc., to ammonia in order to produce dark tints.
  2. (transitive) To apply or offer incense to.
    • 1740, John Dyer, “The Ruins of Rome. A Poem.”, in Poems. [...] Viz. I. Grongar Hill. II. The Ruins of Rome. III. The Fleece, in Four Books, London: Printed by John Hughs, for Messrs. R[obert] and J[ames] Dodsley, [], published 1759, OCLC 991281870, pages 42–43:
      Tyrian garbs, / Neptunian Albion's high teſtaceous food [i.e., oysters], / And flavour'd Chian wines with incenſe fum'd / To ſlake Patrician thirſt: for theſe, their rights / In the vile ſtreets they proſtitute to ſale; / Their ancient rights, their dignities, their laws, / Their native glorious freedom.
  3. (intransitive) To emit fumes.
    • 1667, John Milton, “Book 10”, in Paradise Lost. A Poem Written in Ten Books, London: Printed [by Samuel Simmons], and are to be sold by Peter Parker [] [a]nd by Robert Boulter [] [a]nd Matthias Walker, [], OCLC 228722708; republished as Paradise Lost in Ten Books: The Text Exactly Reproduced from the First Edition of 1667: [], London: Basil Montagu Pickering [], 1873, OCLC 230729554:
      where the golden altar fumed
    • (Can we date this quote by Roscommon and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      Silenus lay, / Whose constant cups lay fuming to his brain.
  4. (intransitive) To pass off in fumes or vapours.
    • (Can we date this quote by Cheyne and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      Their parts are kept from fuming away by their fixity.
  5. (intransitive, figuratively) To express or feel great anger.
    He’s still fuming about the argument they had yesterday.
  6. (intransitive, figuratively) To be as in a mist; to be dulled and stupefied.

Translations[edit]


Asturian[edit]

Verb[edit]

fume

  1. first-person singular present subjunctive of fumar
  2. third-person singular present subjunctive of fumar

French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

fume

  1. first-person singular present indicative of fumer
  2. third-person singular present indicative of fumer
  3. first-person singular present subjunctive of fumer
  4. third-person singular present subjunctive of fumer
  5. second-person singular imperative of fumer

Anagrams[edit]


Galician[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Attested since circa 1300. From Old Galician and Old Portuguese fumo (13th century, Cantigas de Santa Maria), from Latin fūmus. Cognate with Portuguese fumo and Spanish humo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

fume m (plural fumes)

  1. smoke
    • c1300, R. Martínez López (ed.), General Estoria. Versión gallega del siglo XIV. Oviedo: Publicacións de Archivum, page 209:
      coyda que o bafo et fume daquel fogo que ensuzou et [empoçoou] as agoas et aterra daly
      he thinks that the fumes and the smoke of that fire defiled and poisoned the waters and the soil there
    • 1348, J. Méndez Pérez & al. (eds.), El monasterio de San Salvador de Chantada, Santiago de Compostela: I. Padre Sarmiento, page 326:
      a vida deste mundo he asy como a sonbra, et quando ome se deleyta en ella he asy como o fumo que se vay logo
      the life in this world is like the shadow, and when a man delight in it is like the 'smoke, which soon goes away
  2. fume
    Synonyms: bafo, vapor
  3. (figuratively, in the plural) haughtiness

Related terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

fume

  1. first-person singular present subjunctive of fumar
  2. third-person singular present subjunctive of fumar

References[edit]

  • fume” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006-2012.
  • fume” in Xavier Varela Barreiro & Xavier Gómez Guinovart: Corpus Xelmírez - Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval. SLI / Grupo TALG / ILG, 2006-2016.
  • fume” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006-2013.
  • fume” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.
  • fume” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

Latin[edit]

Noun[edit]

fūme

  1. vocative singular of fūmus

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Old French fum, from Latin fũmus, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰuh₂mós.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

fume (plural fumes)

  1. Visible gaseous emanations; fumes or smoke.
  2. Any sort of vapour or gaseous emanation.
  3. (physiology) Fumes as the supposed cause of feelings.
  4. (rare) An airborne scent or odour.
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • English: fume
  • Scots: fume
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old French fumer.

Verb[edit]

fume

  1. Alternative form of fumen

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

fume

  1. first-person singular (eu) present subjunctive of fumar
  2. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present subjunctive of fumar
  3. third-person singular (você) affirmative imperative of fumar
  4. third-person singular (você) negative imperative of fumar

Spanish[edit]

Verb[edit]

fume

  1. Formal second-person singular (usted) imperative form of fumar.
  2. First-person singular (yo) present subjunctive form of fumar.
  3. Formal second-person singular (usted) present subjunctive form of fumar.
  4. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present subjunctive form of fumar.

Tarantino[edit]

Noun[edit]

fume

  1. smoke