From Middle English fume, from Old French fum (“smoke, steam, vapour”), from Latin fūmus (“vapour, smoke”), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰuh₂mós (“smoke”), from *dʰewh₂- (“to smoke, raise dust”). Doublet of thymus and thymos. More at dun, dusk, dust.
fume (plural fumes)
- A gas or vapour/vapor that is strong-smelling or dangerous to inhale.
- Don't stand around in there breathing the fumes while the adhesive cures.
- 1753, Thomas Warton, Ode:
- the fumes of new-shorn hay
- A material that has been vaporized from the solid or liquid state to the gas state and re-coalesced to the solid state.
- Lead fume is a greyish powder, mainly comprising lead sulfate.
- Rage or excitement which deprives the mind of self-control.
- 1692–1717, Robert South, Twelve Sermons Preached upon Several Occasions, 6th edition, volumes (please specify |volume=I to VI), London: […] J[ames] Bettenham, for Jonah Bowyer, […], published 1727, →OCLC:
- The Fumes of his Passion do as really intoxicate and confound his judging and discerning Faculty , as the Fumes of Drink discompose and stupify the Brain of a Man over - charged with it.
- Anything unsubstantial or airy; idle conceit; vain imagination.
- a. 1627 (date written), Francis [Bacon], “Considerations Touching a VVarre vvith Spaine. […]”, in William Rawley, editor, Certaine Miscellany VVorks of the Right Honourable Francis Lo. Verulam, Viscount S. Alban. […], London: […] I. Hauiland for Humphrey Robinson, […], published 1629, →OCLC:
- a show of fumes and fancies
- The incense of praise; inordinate flattery.
- (obsolete) A passionate person.
- In the sense of strong-smelling or dangerous vapor, the noun is typically plural, as in the example.
- (transitive) To expose (something) to fumes; specifically, to expose wood, etc., to ammonia in order to produce dark tints.
- (transitive) To apply or offer incense to.
- 1740, John Dyer, “The Ruins of Rome. A Poem.”, in Poems. [...] Viz. I. Grongar Hill. II. The Ruins of Rome. III. The Fleece, in Four Books, London: Printed by John Hughs, for Messrs. R[obert] and J[ames] Dodsley, […], published 1759, →OCLC, pages 42–43:
- Tyrian garbs, / Neptunian Albion's high teſtaceous food [i.e., oysters], / And flavour'd Chian wines with incenſe fum'd / To ſlake Patrician thirſt: for theſe, their rights / In the vile ſtreets they proſtitute to ſale; / Their ancient rights, their dignities, their laws, / Their native glorious freedom.
- (intransitive) To emit fumes.
- a. 1686, Earl of Roscommon [i.e., Wentworth Dillon, 4th Earl of Roscommon], Samuel Johnson, “Virgil’s Sixth Eclogue, Silenus”, in The Works of the English Poets. With Prefaces, Biographical and Critical, […], volumes X (The Poems of Rochester, Roscommon, and Yalden), London: […] E. Cox; for C. Bathurst, […], published 1779, page 234, →OCLC:
- Young Chromis and Mnaſylus chanc'd to ſtray / Where (ſleeping in a cave) Silenus lay, / Whoſe conſtant cups fly fuming to his brain, / And always boil in each extended vein; / His truſty flaggon, full of potent juice, / Was hanging by, worn thin with age and uſe; [...]
- (intransitive) To pass off in fumes or vapours.
- 1704, I[saac] N[ewton], “(please specify |book=1 to 3)”, in Opticks: Or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light. […], London: […] Sam[uel] Smith, and Benj[amin] Walford, printers to the Royal Society, […], →OCLC:
- whose parts are kept from fuming away, not only by their fixity […]
- (intransitive, figuratively) To express or feel great anger.
- He’s still fuming about the argument they had yesterday.
- 1700, [John] Dryden, “Palamon and Arcite: Or, The Knight’s Tale. In Three Books.”, in Fables Ancient and Modern; […], London: […] Jacob Tonson, […], →OCLC:
- He frets, he fumes, he stares, he stamps the ground.
- 1808 February 22, Walter Scott, “(please specify the introduction or canto number, or chapter name)”, in Marmion; a Tale of Flodden Field, Edinburgh: […] J[ames] Ballantyne and Co. for Archibald Constable and Company, […]; London: William Miller, and John Murray, →OCLC:
- Her mother did fret, and her father did fume.
- (intransitive, figuratively) To be as in a mist; to be dulled and stupefied.
- inflection of :
Attested since circa 1300. From Old Galician-Portuguese fumo (13th century, Cantigas de Santa Maria), from Latin fūmus, although the final vowel could imply an Old French borrowing. Cognate with Portuguese fumo and Spanish humo.
fume m (plural fumes)
- c. 1300, R. Martínez López, editor, General Estoria. Versión gallega del siglo XIV, Oviedo: Publicacións de Archivum, page 209:
- coyda que o bafo et fume daquel fogo que ensuzou et [empoçoou] as agoas et aterra daly
- he thinks that the fumes and the smoke of that fire defiled and poisoned the waters and the soil there
- 1348, J. Méndez Pérez & al. (eds.), El monasterio de San Salvador de Chantada, Santiago de Compostela: I. Padre Sarmiento, page 326:
- a vida deste mundo he asy como a sonbra, et quando ome se deleyta en ella he asy como o fumo' que se vay logo
- the life in this world is like the shadow, and when a man delight in it is like the smoke, which soon goes away
- (figurative, in the plural) haughtiness
- “fume” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006–2022.
- “fume” in Xavier Varela Barreiro & Xavier Gómez Guinovart: Corpus Xelmírez - Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval. SLI / Grupo TALG / ILG, 2006–2018.
- “fume” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
- “fume” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.
- “fume” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.
fume (plural fumes)
- Visible gaseous emanations; fumes or smoke.
- Any sort of vapour or gaseous emanation.
- (physiology) Fumes as the supposed cause of feelings.
- (rare) An airborne scent or odour.
- Alternative form of
- (pre-2012) alternative form of