dun

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See also: dún, dùn, dūn, dün, dǔn, d'un, duń., and dūŋ

English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English dun, dunne, from Old English dunn(dun, dingy brown, bark-colored, brownish black), from Proto-Germanic *dusnaz(brown, yellow), from Proto-Indo-European *dhūw-(to smoke, raise dust). Cognate with Old Saxon dun(brown, dark), Old High German tusin(ash-gray, dull brown, pale yellow, dark), Old Norse dunna(female mallard; duck).

Alternative etymology derives the Old English word from Late Brythonic (compare Old Welsh dwnn 'dark (red)'), from Proto-Celtic *dusno (compare Old Irish donn), from Proto-Indo-European *dwos (compare Old Saxon dosan 'chestnut brown'). More at dusk.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

dun ‎(countable and uncountable, plural duns)

  1. (uncountable) A brownish grey colour.
    dun colour:    
Translations[edit]

Adjective[edit]

dun ‎(not comparable)

  1. Of a brownish grey colour.
    • 1609, William Shakespeare, Sonnet 130:
      If ſnow be white, why then her breſts are dun
    • 1827, John Keble, The Christian Year, London: Walter Scott, OCLC 65605495, Twenty-third Sunday after Trinity:
      glows the setting sun [...] and chill and dun / Falls on the moor the brief November day.
Translations[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Unknown; perhaps a variant of din. Several sources suggest origin from Joe Dun, the name of a bailiff known for arresting debtors, but this is controversial.

Noun[edit]

dun ‎(plural duns)

  1. (countable) A collector of debts.
    • 1889, John Arbuthnot, The History of John Bull, London: Cassell & Co., OCLC 6255586, page 71:
      Look ye, gentlemen, I have lived with credit in the world, and it grieves my heart never to stir out of my doors but to be pulled by the sleeve by some rascally dun or other.
    • 1933, George Orwell, Down and Out in Paris and London, Ch. 18:
      Melancholy duns came looking for him at all hours.
    • 1970, John Glassco, Memoirs of Montparnasse, New York 2007, p. 102:
      ‘Frank's worried about duns,’ she said as the butler went away.
  2. An urgent request or demand of payment.
    • 1842, A.B.G., “Errata”, in Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate, volume 13, OCLC 10193591, page 251:
      Miss Hoppin received a dun for volume 9 1840–1 which Mr. James McConnell, (who now pays the above) is sure was paid.
    • 2016 December 7, catherbrownbooks, “1950s Linotype Part Catalog, Star Parts, Linotype Parts Company”, in eBay[1]:
      If your payment is delayed, ebay is liable to send a dun or two.
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

dun ‎(third-person singular simple present duns, present participle dunning, simple past and past participle dunned)

  1. (transitive) To ask or beset a debtor for payment.
    • 1768, Jonathan Swift, The Works of Dr. Jonathan Swift, London: C. Bathurst, OCLC 459163337, Miscellanies in Verse, page 309:
      And hath she sent so soon to dun?
    • 1749, Henry Fielding, Tom Jones, Folio Society 1973, p. 577:
      Of all he had received from Lady Bellaston, not above five guineas remained and that very morning he had been dunned by a tradesman for twice that sum.
    • 1940, Raymond Chandler, Farewell, My Lovely, Penguin 2010, p. 107:
      Rich bitches who had to be dunned for their milk bills would pay him right now.
  2. (transitive) To harass by continually repeating e.g. a request.
Translations[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Uncertain; likely from the color.

Noun[edit]

dun ‎(plural duns)

  1. (countable) A newly hatched, immature mayfly; a mayfly subimago.
    • 1966, John Harris, An Angler's Entomology, New York: Barnes, OCLC 3612670, page 16:
      Also, duns are dull and generally sober colored, whilst spinners are more brightly colored and shining and their wings are clear and transparent.
  2. (countable, fishing) A fly made to resemble the mayfly subimago.
    • 1676, Charles Cotton, The Compleat Angler. Being Instructions how to Angle for a Trout or Grayling in a Clear Stream, London: Richard Marriott, and Henry Brome, OCLC 228732346, March, page 59:
      We have besides for this Month a little Dun call'd a whirling Dun (though it is not the whirling Dun indeed, which is one of the best Flies we have) and for this the dubbing must be of the bottom fur of a Squirrels tail and the wing of the grey feather of a Drake.

Synonyms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): (Britain) /dʌn/, (US) /dən/

Noun[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

dun ‎(plural duns)

  1. An ancient or medieval fortification; especially a hill-fort in Scotland or Ireland.
    • 1858, Henry MacLauchlan, Memoir written during a survey of the Roman Wall, through the counties of Northumberland and Cumberland, in the years 1852-1854, London: Printed for private circulation, OCLC 14866297, page 9:
      Pampedun, or Pandon, was probably a place of residence from the earliest times; its sheltered situation for boats, and proximity to the ancient way over the river, protected perhaps by a dun or camp, on the height above [...] possibly gave origin to the ancient name of the place, Pampedun, from the British pant, a hollow, and dun, a fort or camp, Pant-y-dun.
  2. (archeology) A structure in the Orkney or Shetland islands or in Scotland consisting of a roundhouse surrounded by a circular wall; a broch.
    • 2013, T.J. Clarkson, The Makers of Scotland: Picts, Romans, Gaels and Vikings, Edinburgh: Birlinn, ISBN 1780271735:
      Smaller than the broch was the dun, another type of stone-built 'roundhouse'.

Etymology 5[edit]

See do.

Verb[edit]

dun

  1. (nonstandard, informal) Eye dialect spelling of done: past participle of do
    Now, ya dun it!
    • 1895 May 1, S.L.N. Foote, “Correspondence”, in International Journal of Medicine and Surgery[2], volume 8, retrieved 2016–13–10, page 194:
      ...a wise old lady exclaimed, "Why Mrs. M. warn't you orful skeerd wunst when you seed a dog fight? [...] an that ere big yaller dog bit orf your baby's hand that minit; in cors he dun it, so now that settles it."
  2. (nonstandard, informal) Eye dialect spelling of don't: contraction of do + not.
    • 1901, Gilbert Parker, The Right of Way, New York and London: Harper, OCLC 169519:
      Fwhere's he come from, I dun'no'. French or English, I dun'no'. But a gintleman born, I know.

Etymology 6[edit]

Likely from the color of fish so prepared.

Verb[edit]

dun ‎(third-person singular simple present duns, present participle dunning, simple past and past participle dunned)

  1. (transitive, dated) To cure, as codfish, by laying them, after salting, in a pile in a dark place, covered with saltgrass or a similar substance.
    • 1832, James Thacher, History of Plymouth; from its first settlement in 1620, to the year 1832, Boston: Marsh, Capen & Lyon, OCLC 78447431, page 317:
      Dun-fish are of a superior quality for the table, and are cured in such a manner as to give them a dun or brownish color. Fish for dunning are caught early in spring, and sometimes February, at the Isle of Shoals.

Etymology 7[edit]

See dune.

Noun[edit]

dun ‎(plural duns)

  1. A mound or small hill.

Etymology 8[edit]

Imitative.

Interjection[edit]

dun

  1. (humorous) Imitating suspenseful music.
    • 2009, Carrie Tucker, I Love Geeks: The Official Handbook, Avon, Massachusetts: Adams Media, ISBN 9781605500232:
      How would you deal with that power? (Dun, dun, DUN! Insert dramatic music here.)

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse dúnn(down).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /duːn/, [d̥uːˀn]

Noun[edit]

dun n (singular definite dunet, plural indefinite dun)

  1. down (soft, immature feathers)

Inflection[edit]

See also[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch dunne, from Old Dutch *thunni, from Proto-Germanic *þunnuz. Cognates with English thin (Compare West-Flemish thinne).

Adjective[edit]

dun ‎(comparative dunner, superlative dunst)

  1. thin, slender
  2. sparse
  3. (liquid) runny

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of dun
uninflected dun
inflected dunne
comparative dunner
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial dun dunner het dunst
het dunste
indefinite m./f. sing. dunne dunnere dunste
n. sing. dun dunner dunste
plural dunne dunnere dunste
definite dunne dunnere dunste
partitive duns dunners

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

dun

  1. first-person singular present indicative of dunnen
  2. imperative of dunnen

Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From de(of) + un(masculine singular indefinite article)

Contraction[edit]

dun m

  1. Contraction of de un. From a; of a

See also[edit]


Kiput[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-North Sarawak *daqun, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *dahun (compare Malay daun).

Noun[edit]

dun

  1. leaf

Lojban[edit]

Rafsi[edit]

dun

  1. rafsi of dunli.

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

dun

  1. Nonstandard spelling of dūn.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of dún.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of dǔn.
  4. Nonstandard spelling of dùn.

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Apparently from a Celtic source; compare Old Irish dun(hill, hill-fort), Welsh din.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

dūn f

  1. hill, mountain

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse dúnn(down).

Noun[edit]

dun n

  1. down, what grows on young birds

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]