tun

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English[edit]

English wine cask units.jpg

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English tunne, tonne (cask, barrel), from Old English tunne (tun, cask, barrel), from Proto-Germanic *tunnǭ, *tunnō (tun, barrel, cask), from Latin tunna, probably of Gaulish origin.

Cognate with North Frisian tenn (tun, barrel, cask), Dutch ton (tun, barrel, cask), German Tonne (tun, barrel, drum), Danish tønde (barrel), Swedish tunna (barrel, cask, tun), Icelandic tunna (barrel). Compare also Old French tonne, French tonneau (ton, barrel), Medieval Latin tunna (cask), Middle Irish tunna (cask), Welsh tynell (tun, barrel). It is uncertain whether the Germanic or the Celtic forms are the original.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tun (plural tuns)

  1. A large cask; an oblong vessel bulging in the middle, like a pipe or puncheon, and girt with hoops; a wine cask.
  2. (brewing) A fermenting vat.
  3. (historical) An old English liquid measure, containing 252 wine gallons; equal to two pipes.
    • 1882, James Edwin Thorold Rogers, A History of Agriculture and Prices in England, p. 205:
      Again, by 28 Hen. VIII, cap. 14, it is re-enacted that the tun of wine should contain 252 gallons, a butt of Malmsey 126 gallons, a pipe 126 gallons, a tercian or puncheon 84 gallons, a hogshead 63 gallons, a tierce 41 gallons, a barrel 31.5 gallons, a rundlet 18.5 gallons.
  4. A weight of 2,240 pounds.
  5. An indefinite large quantity.
    Synonyms: buttload; see also Thesaurus:lot
  6. (archaic, humorous or derogatory) A drunkard.
    Synonyms: alcoholic, souse, suck-pint; see also Thesaurus:drunkard
  7. Any shell belonging to Tonna and allied genera.
  8. The cryptobiotic state of a tardigrade, when its metabolism is temporarily suspended.
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

tun (third-person singular simple present tuns, present participle tunning, simple past and past participle tunned)

  1. (transitive) To put into tuns, or casks.
    • 1843, Mary Holland, The Complete Economical Cook, and Frugal Housewife[1], fourteenth edition, page 407:
      Strong beer that is brewed in small quantities, and ale, whatever the quantity may be, should be tunned the second day after brewing; and small beer should be tunned as soon as it has fairly taken the yeast

Etymology 2[edit]

Mayan. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Noun[edit]

tun (plural tuns)

  1. A part of the ancient Maya Long Count Calendar system which corresponds to 18 winal cycles or 360 days.

Anagrams[edit]


Aromanian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin tonō. Compare Romanian tuna, tun.

Verb[edit]

tun (past participle tunatã)

  1. I thunder.

Related terms[edit]


Bambara[edit]

Adverb[edit]

tun

  1. again

Dalmatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin tonus, from Ancient Greek τόνος (tónos). Compare Italian tuono, Friulian ton, Catalan tro, Romansch tun, tung, Romanian tun, tunet, Spanish trueno.

Noun[edit]

tun m

  1. thunderclap, thunder

Danish[edit]

Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia da

Etymology 1[edit]

A contraction of tunfisk, from German Thunfisch (tuna), from Latin thunnus, from Ancient Greek θύννος (thúnnos).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /tuːn/, [tˢuːˀn]

Noun[edit]

tun c (singular definite tunen, plural indefinite tun)

  1. tuna
  2. tuna fish
  3. tun
Inflection[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse tún, from Proto-Germanic *tūną, from Proto-Celtic *dūnom.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /tuːn/, [tˢuːˀn]

Noun[edit]

tun n (singular definite tunet, plural indefinite tun)

  1. (dated) An enclosed piece of ground.
Inflection[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

See tune.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /tuːn/, [tˢuːˀn]

Verb[edit]

tun

  1. imperative of tune

Fula[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Adjective[edit]

tun

  1. only

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used in Pular.
  • Other varieties of Fula use tan.

Adverb[edit]

tun

  1. only

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used in Pular.
  • Other varieties of Fula use tan.

References[edit]


German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German tuon, from Old High German tuon, from Proto-West Germanic *dōn, from Proto-Germanic *dōną, derived from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₁- (to put, set, place). Cognate with English do.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

tun (irregular, third-person singular present tut, past tense tat, past participle getan, past subjunctive täte, auxiliary haben)

  1. To do (to perform or execute an action).
    Synonym: machen
    Tu es!Do it!
    Man tut, was man kann.One does what one can.
    Er tat das, was man ihm gesagt hat.He did as he was told.
    Das einzige, was er je tat, war arbeiten.The only thing he ever did was work.
  2. (with dative) To do something (positive or negative) to someone.
    Synonym: antun
    Der tut Ihnen nichts!He won't hurt you! (said for example about a dog)
    Mein Mann hat mir so viel Gutes getan.My husband has done me so much good.
  3. (reflexive, with an indefinite pronoun) To make a difference; to be different.
    Synonym: unterscheiden
    Tut sich das viel?Does that make much of a difference?
    Die beiden Kameras tun sich nichts.The two cameras are no different [i.e. neither better than the other].
  4. (somewhat informal, with “so” or “als ob) To fake; to feign; to pretend.
    Synonyms: vortäuschen, täuschen, vorgeben
    Er hat nur so getan.He just faked it.
    Er tut, als ob er nichts wüsste.He pretends to know nothing.
  5. (chiefly colloquial) To put, to place, to add.
    Synonyms: setzen, legen, stellen, platzieren, hinzufügen
    • 2017, Simone Meier, Fleisch, Kein & Aber, p. 27:
      » Ich finds eklig, wenn du die Butter am Morgen nicht direkt aufs Brot streichst, sondern immer zuerst auf einen Teller tust. «
      I find it disgusting when you don't spread your butter straight on to your bread in the morning, but always put it on the plate first.
    Tu das hier rein.Put it in here.
    Ich würde noch was Salz an die Kartoffeln tun.I would add some more salt to the potatoes.
  6. (chiefly colloquial, with “es) To work, to function.
    Synonym: funktionieren
    Die Uhr tut’s nicht mehr.The clock doesn’t work anymore.
  7. (chiefly colloquial, but acceptable in writing) Used with the preceding infinitive of another verb to emphasise this verb
    Er singt immer noch gern, aber tanzen tut er gar nicht mehr.
    He still loves singing, but as to dancing, he doesn't do that anymore at all.
  8. (colloquial, nonstandard) Used with the following infinitive of another verb, often to emphasise the statement
    Ich tu doch zuhören!I am listening! (as a response to the reproach that one is not)
    Ich tu das jetzt mal aufräumen.I’m cleaning this up now.
  9. (colloquial, nonstandard) Used in the past subjunctive with the infinitive of another verb to form the conditional tense (instead of standard würde)
    Ich tät mir das noch mal überlegen.I would think about that again.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The verb tun in the sense of “to perform” is not used in combination with nouns. This function is covered by the verb machen: ich mache Sport, wir machen ein Spiel, er macht die Wäsche (“I do sport, we do a game, he does the laundry”). The same is true with pronouns that represent such nouns: Wer macht die Wäsche? – Ich mache sie. (“Who does the laundry? – I do it.”) It is usually ungrammatical to use tun in sentences like these.
Tun is only used with pronouns that represent actions as a whole: Was tust du? (“What are you doing?”) Ich tue viel für die Umwelt. (“I do a lot for the environment.”) Er tut alles, was sie sagt. (“He does everything she says.”)
  • (colloquial, nonstandard): The use of do-support is a feature of several dialects and minority languages in Germany. In the standard language, it is most established along the Rhine. It is somewhat more acceptable when used for emphasis (as in the example with zuhören above), but is otherwise often regarded as illiterate (as in the example with aufräumen). This latter usage is generally associated with lower socio-economic status.

Conjugation[edit]

  • The 1st person singular present indicative may also be (ich) tu.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • tun” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
  • tun” in Uni Leipzig: Wortschatz-Lexikon
  • tun” in OpenThesaurus.de
  • tun” in Duden online
  • tun” in Duden online

Hausa[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

tun

  1. since, ever since

Hlai[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Hlai *tʰun (language), from Pre-Hlai *tun (Norquest, 2015).

Noun[edit]

tun

  1. speech; words; language
  2. folk song
  3. dispute; controversy

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Hlai *tʰu[n/ɲ] (to reap), from Pre-Hlai *tu[n/ɲ] (Norquest, 2015).

Verb[edit]

tun

  1. To reap.

Inari Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Samic *tonë.

Pronoun[edit]

tun

  1. you (singular)

Further reading[edit]

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002-2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[2], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

tun

  1. Nonstandard spelling of tūn.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of tún.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of tǔn.
  4. Nonstandard spelling of tùn.

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Mapudungun[edit]

Verb[edit]

tun (Raguileo spelling)

  1. To catch.

Conjugation[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Noun[edit]

tun

  1. Alternative form of toun

Norman[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

tun m (plural tuns)

  1. (Jersey) tuft

Synonyms[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse tún. Akin to English town.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tun n (definite singular tunet, indefinite plural tun, definite plural tuna)

  1. courtyard, front yard (the area in front of, around or between houses, particularly on a farm)
    • 1996, Jon Fosse, Nokon kjem til å komme:
      I tunet framfor eit gammalt ganske forfallent hus []
      In the front yard in front of an old, rather dilapidated house []
  2. farmstead (a collection of buildings and the area between them on a farm)

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *tūną (enclosure).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tūn m

  1. an enclosed piece of ground, an enclosure or garden
  2. the enclosed ground belonging to an individual dwelling
  3. the group of houses on an area of enclosed land, a homestead
  4. a village or town

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

  • dūn (hill, mountain)

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle English: toun

Old French[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

tun m (feminine ta)

  1. (Anglo-Norman) your (second-person singular possessive pronoun)

Synonyms[edit]

  • vostre (second-person plural form)

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin tonus (the original meaning being "thunderclap", as with the Romance cognates). See also the doublet ton (tone), borrowed through French.

Noun[edit]

tun n (plural tunuri)

  1. cannon
  2. (archaic, popular) thunderclap

Related terms[edit]


Romansch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin tonus.

Noun[edit]

tun m

  1. sound
  2. thunder

Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

tun m (plural tunes)

  1. A Pre-Hispanic percussion instrument from Guatemala, consisting of a hollow wooden block with slits in the sides

Further reading[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse tún, from Proto-Germanic *tūną, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewh₂- (to finish, come full circle). Cognate with Danish tun (enclosed area), Icelandic tún (hayfield), Norwegian Nynorsk tun (farmstead; courtyard), English town, German Zaun (fence), German Low German Tuun (fence), Dutch tuin (garden).

Noun[edit]

tun n

  1. (archaic, dialectal) courtyard (an area surrounded by buildings)

Declension[edit]

Declension of tun 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative tun tunet tun tunen
Genitive tuns tunets tuns tunens

Noun[edit]

tun c

  1. (Gotland) fence

Declension[edit]

Declension of tun 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative tun tunen tunar tunarna
Genitive tuns tunens tunars tunarnas

Derived terms[edit]


Tetum[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *tuRun, compare Malay turun.

Verb[edit]

tun

  1. To descend.

Uzbek[edit]

Other scripts
Cyrillic тун
Latin tun
Perso-Arabic

Noun[edit]

tun (plural tunlar)

  1. night

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English tin.

Noun[edit]

tun m (plural tuniau or tunnau)

  1. tin (a metal sunstance)
  2. tin (a container), tin can

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “tun”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Yámana[edit]

Noun[edit]

tun

  1. tooth