Appendix:Mapudungun affixes

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An affix is w:morpheme that is attached to a w:word stem to form a new word.

Mapudungun has affixes that are suffix and infix. Mapudungun also has independent particles which will be described in a separate appendix.

Suffixes[edit]

-we

  1. Turns a verb into a noun, which indicates the place where the actions of the verb takes place. Used to affect a verb.

-lu

  1. Adds the conjunction when before the verb. Used to affect a verb.
  2. Adds he/she who before the verb. Used to affect a verb.

-am

  1.  ?

-wen

  1.  ?

-fe

  1. Turns a verb into a noun. The noun indicates a person that does the action of the verb.

-ci

  1. Turns a word into a noun. The noun translates to: he/she/it who has a characteristic of the first word.

-ntu

  1. Changes an aspect of a noun. Indicates a group of things.
    Eg: aliwen = tree, aliwentu = grove

-el

  1. Turns a verb into a noun. The noun indicates that which is done by the verb.

-ke

  1. Is added to an adjective to indicate that the noun following the adjective is plural.

-no

  1. Is added to a noun to indicate that the noun is not what it would be without the suffix.

Direction indicators[edit]

These suffixes for verbs indicates that an action is made by someone to someone else.

-eyu

  1. From me to you.

-en

  1. From you to me.

-enew

  1. From him to me.

-eymew or -eymu

  1. From him to you.

-eyew

  1. From him to someone else.

-etew

  1. Turns a verb into a noun. The noun translates to that which he/she did(verb)

Infixes[edit]

Infixes in verbs are put after the word stem and before the verb conjugation ending.

-fi-

  1. Refers to the object of the action of the verb. Used to affect a verb.

-ge-

  1. Indicates that the person indicated by the word ending is the object of the action. Used to affect a verb.

-ka-

  1. Turns a verb into a noun that indicates the different actions indicated by the verb. Used to affect a verb.

-ke-

  1. Indicates how the action indicated by the verb is a habit, something usual. Used to affect a verb.

-rke-

  1. Indicates surprise over something. Used to affect a verb.

-rume-

  1. Indicates something sudden. Used to affect a verb.

-tu-

  1. Turns a noun into a verb. Used to affect a noun.

-w-

  1. Indicates a reflexive verb. Used to affect a verb.

Gerund[edit]

-le-

  1. Indicates that the verb is showing an continues action instead of an completed. Used to affect a verb.

Grammatical polarity[edit]

In english the particle not is used to show that a action is negative (ex: I did not shoot that man). In Mapudungun there is a particle for each mood to make an action negative. The particle is put between the word root and the verb conjugation ending.

  • -la- for realis mood.
  • -no- for conditional mood.
  • -kel- for volitive mood.

Location[edit]

-me-

  1. Indicates that the action is taking place in another place or that one will go somewhere to another place to do the action. Used to affect a verb.

-pa-

  1. Indicates that the action is taking place here or that one will come here to do the action. Used to affect a verb.

-pu-

  1. Indicates that the action of the verb will take place when arriving to another place. Used to affect a verb.

Tense[edit]

-a-

  1. Indicates the future tense. Used to affect a verb.

-pe-

  1. Indicates the recent past tense. Used to affect a verb.

-fu-

  1. Indicates a more distant past tense. Used to affect a verb.

See also[edit]