do

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English[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English don ‎(to do), from Old English dōn ‎(to do), from Proto-Germanic *dōną ‎(to do), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₁- ‎(to put, place, do, make). Cognate with Scots dae ‎(to do), Saterland Frisian dwo ‎(to do), West Frisian dwaan ‎(to do), Dutch doen ‎(to do), Low German doon ‎(to do), German tun ‎(to do), Latin facio ‎(I do, make), Ancient Greek τίθημι ‎(títhēmi), Lithuanian dėti ‎(to put), Polish dziać ‎(to happen), Albanian ndodh ‎(to happen, occur, to be located), Russian де́лать ‎(délatʹ, to do), Sanskrit दधाति ‎(dádhāti), Russian деть ‎(detʹ, to put, to place).

According to John McWhorter the use of do in interrogative and negative constructions is calqued from Celtish languages (such as Welsh).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

do ‎(third-person singular simple present does, present participle doing, simple past did, past participle done)

  1. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker in questions whose main verbs are not other auxiliary verbs nor be.
    Do you go there often?
  2. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker in negations with the indicative and imperative moods.
    • 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 4, in The Celebrity:
      “Well,” I answered, at first with uncertainty, then with inspiration, “he would do splendidly to lead your cotillon, if you think of having one.” ¶ “So you do not dance, Mr. Crocker?” ¶ I was somewhat set back by her perspicuity.
    I do not go there often.
    Do not listen to him.
  3. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker for emphasis with the indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods.
    • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 7, in Mr. Pratt's Patients:
      “I don't know how you and the ‘head,’ as you call him, will get on, but I do know that if you call my duds a ‘livery’ again there'll be trouble. It's bad enough to go around togged out like a life saver on a drill day, but I can stand that 'cause I'm paid for it. […]”
    But I do go sometimes.
    Do tell us.
    It is important that he do come see me.
  4. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker (pro-verb) that refers back to an earlier verb and allows the speaker to avoid repeating the verb; not generally used with auxiliaries such as "be".
    I play tennis; she does too.
    1. (African American Vernacular) Can refer back to "be".
      They don't think it be like it is, but it do.
  5. (transitive) To perform; to execute.
    • 2013 June 21, Oliver Burkeman, “The tao of tech”, in The Guardian Weekly, volume 189, number 2, page 48:
      The dirty secret of the internet is that all this distraction and interruption is immensely profitable. Web companies like to boast about […], or offering services that let you "stay up to date with what your friends are doing", [] and so on. But the real way to build a successful online business is to be better than your rivals at undermining people's control of their own attention.
    all you ever do is surf the Internet;  what will you do this afternoon?
  6. (obsolete) To cause, make (someone) (do something).
    • 1590, Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene, II.vi:
      Sometimes to doe him laugh, she would assay / To laugh at shaking of the leaues light, / Or to behold the water worke []
    • W. Caxton
      My lord Abbot of Westminster did do shewe to me late certain evidences.
    • Spenser
      a fatal plague which many did to die
    • Bible, 2 Cor. viii. 1
      We do you to wit [i.e. we make you to know] of the grace of God bestowed on the churches of Macedonia.
  7. (intransitive, transitive) To suffice.
    • 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 4, in The Celebrity:
      “Well,” I answered, at first with uncertainty, then with inspiration, “he would do splendidly to lead your cotillon, if you think of having one.” ¶ “So you do not dance, Mr. Crocker?” ¶ I was somewhat set back by her perspicuity.
    • 1922, Margery Williams, The Velveteen Rabbit
      "Here," she said, "take your old Bunny! He'll do to sleep with you!" And she dragged the Rabbit out by one ear, and put him into the Boy's arms.
    it’s not the best broom, but it will have to do;  this will do me, thanks.
  8. (intransitive) To be reasonable or acceptable.
    It simply will not do to have dozens of children running around such a quiet event.
  9. (transitive) To have (as an effect).
    The fresh air did him some good.
  10. (intransitive) To fare; to succeed or fail.
    • 2013 July 20, “Welcome to the plastisphere”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8845:
      Plastics are energy-rich substances, which is why many of them burn so readily. Any organism that could unlock and use that energy would do well in the Anthropocene. Terrestrial bacteria and fungi which can manage this trick are already familiar to experts in the field.
    Our relationship isn't doing very well;  how do you do?
  11. (transitive, chiefly in questions) To have as one's job.
    What does Bob do? — He's a plumber.
  12. To perform the tasks or actions associated with (something)
    "Don't forget to do your report" means something quite different depending on whether you're a student or a programmer.
  13. To cook.
    • 1889, Jerome K. Jerome, Three Men In a Boat:
      It seemed, from his account, that he was very good at doing scrambled eggs.
    • 1944, News from the Suburbs[1]:
      We went down below, and the galley-slave did some ham and eggs, and the first lieutenant, who was aged 19, told me about Sicily, and time went like a flash.
    • 2005, Alan Tansley, The Grease Monkey, page 99:
      Next morning, they woke about ten o'clock, Kev, went for a shower while Alice, did some toast, put the kettle on, and when he came out, she went in.
    I'll just do some eggs.
  14. (transitive) To travel in, to tour, to make a circuit of.
    • 1869, Louisa May Alcott, Little Women, 1957 ed. edition:
      We 'did' London to our heart's content, thanks to Fred and Frank, and were sorry to go away, []
    • 1892, James Batchelder, Multum in Parvo: Notes from the Life and Travels of James Batchelder[2], page 97:
      After doing Paris and its suburbs, I started for London []
    • 1968, July 22, “Ralph Schoenstein”, in Nice Place to Visit[3], page 28:
      No tourist can get credit for seeing America first without doing New York, the Wonderful Town, the Baghdad-on-Hudson, the dream in the eye of the Kansas hooker []
    Let’s do New York also.
  15. (transitive) To treat in a certain way.
    • 1894, (Please provide the title of the work)[4], volume 87, page 59:
      They did me well, I assure you — uncommon well: Bellinger of '84; green chartreuse fit for a prince; []
    • 1928, Dorothy L. Sayers, "The Abominable History of the Man with Copper Fingers", in Lord Peter Views the Body,
      Upon my word, although he [my host] certainly did me uncommonly well, I began to feel I'd be more at ease among the bushmen.
    • 1994, Jervey Tervalon, Understand This[5], ISBN 068804560X, page 50:
      "Why you gonna do me like that?" I ask. "Do what?" "Dog me."
  16. (transitive) To work for or on, by way of caring for, looking after, preparing, cleaning, keeping in order, etc.
    • Harper's Magazine
      The sergeants seem to do themselves pretty well.
  17. (intransitive, obsolete) To act or behave in a certain manner; to conduct oneself.
    • Bible, 2 Kings xvii. 34
      They fear not the Lord, neither do they after [] the law and commandment.
  18. (transitive) (see also do time) To spend (time) in jail.
    I did five years for armed robbery.
  19. (transitive) To impersonate or depict.
    They really laughed when he did Clinton, with a perfect accent and a leer.
  20. (transitive, slang) To kill.
    • 2004, Patrick Stevens, Politics Is the Greatest Game: A Johannesburg Liberal Lampoon[6], ISBN 1857565665, page 314:
      He's gonna do me, Jarvis. I kid you not, this time he's gonna do me proper.
    • 2007, E.J. Churchill, The Lazarus Code, page 153:
      The order came and I did him right there. The bullet went right where it was supposed to go.
  21. (transitive, slang) To deal with for good and all; to finish up; to undo; to ruin; to do for.
    • Charles Reade
      Sometimes they lie in wait in these dark streets, and fracture his skull, [] or break his arm, or cut the sinew of his wrist; and that they call doing him.
  22. (informal) To punish for a misdemeanor.
    He got done for speeding.
    Teacher'll do you for that!
  23. (transitive, slang) To have sex with. (See also do it)
    • c. 1590, William Shakespeare, Titus Andronicus, Act IV, scene II:
      Demetrius: "Villain, what hast thou done?"
      Aaron: "That which thou canst not undo."
      Chiron: "Thou hast undone our mother."
      Aaron: "Villain, I have done thy mother."
    • 1996, James Russell Kincaid, My Secret Life, page 81:
      [] one day I did her on the kitchen table, and several times on the dining-room table.
    • 2008, On the Line, Donna Hill[7], page 84:
      The uninhibited woman within wanted to do him right there on the countertop, but I remained composed.
  24. (transitive) To cheat or swindle.
    That guy just did me out of two hundred bucks!
    • De Quincey
      He was not to be done, at his time of life, by frivolous offers of a compromise that might have secured him seventy-five per cent.
  25. (transitive) To convert into a certain form; especially, to translate.
    the novel has just been done into English;  I'm going to do this play into a movie
  26. (transitive, intransitive) To finish.
    Aren't you done yet?
  27. (Britain, dated, intransitive) To work as a domestic servant (with for).
    • 1915, Frank Thomas Bullen, Recollections
      I've left my key in my office in Manchester, my family are at Bournemouth, and the old woman who does for me goes home at nine o'clock.
  28. (archaic, dialectal, transitive, auxiliary) Used to form the present progressive of verbs.
    • 1844, William Barnes, Evenén in the Village, Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect:
      ...An' the dogs do bark, an' the rooks be a-vled to the elems high and dark, an' the water do roar at mill.
  29. (stock exchange) To cash or to advance money for, as a bill or note.
  30. (informal, transitive) To make or provide.
    Do they do haircuts there?
    Could you do me a burger with mayonnaise instead of ketchup?
  31. (informal, transitive) To injure (one's own body part).
    • 2010 April 24, “Given stretchered off with suspected broken shoulder”, in The Irish Times[8], retrieved 2015-07-21:
      "Defender Kolo Toure admitted Given will be a loss, but gave his backing to Nielsen. 'I think he's done his shoulder,' said the Ivorian."
    • 2014 April 14, Matt Cleary, “What do Australia's cricketers do on holiday?”, in ESPNcricinfo[9], retrieved 2015-07-21:
      "Watto will spend the entire winter stretching and doing Pilates, and do a hamstring after bending down to pick up his petrol cap after dropping it filling his car at Caltex Cronulla."
    • 2014 August 13, Harry Thring, “I knew straight away I'd done my ACL: Otten”, in AFL.com.au[10], retrieved 2015-07-21:
      "'I knew straight away I'd done my ACL, I heard the sound - it was very loud and a few of the boys said they heard it as well,' Otten said."
  32. (transitive) To take drugs.
    I do cocaine.
Conjugation[edit]
Usage notes[edit]
  • In older forms of English, when the pronoun thou was in active use, and verbs used -est for distinct second-person singular indicative forms, the verb do had two such forms: dost, in auxiliary uses, and doest, in other uses. The past tense of both forms is didst.
  • Similarly, when the ending -eth was in active use for third-person singular present indicative forms, the form doth was used as a helping verb, and the form doeth elsewhere.
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.
See also[edit]

Appendix:Collocations of do, have, make, and take

Noun[edit]

do ‎(plural dos)

  1. (colloquial) A party, celebration, social function.
    We’re having a bit of a do on Saturday to celebrate my birthday.
    • 2013, Russell Brand, Russell Brand and the GQ awards: 'It's amazing how absurd it seems' (in The Guardian, 13 September 2013)[11]
      After a load of photos and what-not, we descend the world's longest escalator, which are called that even as they de-escalate, and in we go to the main forum, a high ceilinged hall, full of circular cloth-draped, numbered tables, a stage at the front, the letters GQ, 12-foot high in neon at the back; this aside, though, neon forever the moniker of trash, this is a posh do, in an opera house full of folk in tuxes.
  2. (informal) A hairdo.
    Nice do!
  3. (colloquial, obsolete) A period of confusion or argument. (Can we add an example for this sense?)
  4. Something that can or should be done (usually in the phrase dos and don'ts).
  5. (obsolete) A deed; an act.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Sir Walter Scott to this entry?)
  6. (archaic) ado; bustle; stir; to-do
    • Selden
      A great deal of do, and a great deal of trouble.
  7. (obsolete, Britain, slang) A cheat; a swindler.
Synonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

For the plural of the noun, the spelling dos would be correct; do's is often used for the sake of legibility, but is sometimes considered incorrect. For the party, the term is usually implies a social function of modest size and formality.

Etymology 2[edit]

From the name of musicologist Giovanni Battista Doni, who suggested replacing the original ut with an open syllable for ease of singing. First found in Italian.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

do ‎(plural dos)

  1. (music) A syllable used in solfège to represent the first and eighth tonic of a major scale.
Synonyms[edit]
  • ut (archaic)
Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Short for ditto.

Adverb[edit]

do ‎(not comparable)

  1. (rare) Abbreviation of ditto.

Statistics[edit]

Most common English words before 1923: your · any · what · #60: do · has · could · our

Anagrams[edit]


Albanian[edit]

Verb[edit]

do

  1. To want.
  2. To like.
  3. To love.
    dua.
    I love you.

Barai[edit]

Noun[edit]

do

  1. water

References[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin donum ‎(gift)

Noun[edit]

do m ‎(plural dons)

  1. gift
  2. talent

Etymology 2[edit]

From Italian do

Noun[edit]

do m ‎(plural dos)

  1. (music) do (first note of diatonic scale)

Central Franconian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old High German dār ‎(there).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

do

  1. here; there; in this or that place

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old High German duo ‎(then), variant of do, dō. Compare German da, Dutch toen.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • du, dunn (southern Moselle Francoinan)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /doː/ (traditional)
  • IPA(key): /dɔː/ (now sometimes by conflation with etymology 1 under standard German influence)

Adverb[edit]

do

  1. (Ripuarian, northern Moselle Franconian) then; back then (at a certain time in the past)

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old High German du.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • du (many dialects)
  • dou (some dialects of Moselle Franconian)
  • de (unstressed form)

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

do

  1. (few dialects, including Kölsch) thou; you (singular)

Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

do + genitive

  1. into, in (to the inside of)
    Vešel do místnosti. —He walked into the room.
    Dostala se jí voda do bot.Water got in her boots.
  2. to, in (in the direction of, and arriving at; indicating destination)
    Jdeme do obchodu.We are walking to the shop.
    Přiletěli jsme do New Yorku.We arrived in New York.
  3. until (up to the time of)
    Zůstal tam až do neděle.—He stayed there until Sunday.
  4. by (at some time before the given time)
    Ať jsi zpátky do desíti!Be back by ten o'clock!

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Italian do ‎(the note).

Noun[edit]

do m, f ‎(plural do's)

  1. do, the musical note
  2. (Belgium) C, the musical note

Synonyms[edit]

  • ut (archaic)

See also[edit]


Esperanto[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

do ‎(accusative singular do-on, plural do-oj, accusative plural do-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter D/d.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From French donc.

Adverb[edit]

do

  1. therefore, then, indeed, however

Fala[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese do, from de + o.

Preposition[edit]

do m ‎(plural dos, feminine da, feminine plural das)

  1. contraction of de ‎(of) + o ‎(the)
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Theme I, Chapter 1: Lengua Española:
      I si “a patria do homi é sua lengua”, cumu idía Albert Camus, o que está claru é que a lengua está mui por encima de fronteiras, serras, rius i maris, de situaciós pulíticas i sociu-económicas, de lazus religiosus e inclusu familiaris.
      And if “a man’s homeland [i.e. “homeland of the man”] is his language”, as Albert Camus said, what is clear is that language is above borders, mountain ranges, rivers and seas, above political and socio-economic situations, of religious and even family ties.

Faliscan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *didō, from Proto-Indo-European *deh₃- ‎(to give). Cognate with Latin .

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. I give

Derived terms[edit]


Faroese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Italian do.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

do n (genitive singular dos, plural do)

  1. (music) do

Declension[edit]

n3 Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative do doið do doini
Accusative do doið do doini
Dative doi doinum doum dounum
Genitive dos dosins doa doanna

French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

do m ‎(plural do)

  1. (music) do, the note 'C'.

Synonyms[edit]

External links[edit]


Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From contraction of preposition de ‎(of, from) + masculine definite article o ‎(the)

Contraction[edit]

do m ‎(feminine da, masculine plural dos, feminine plural das)

  1. of the; from the; 's
    cabalo do demo
    "demon's horse" ("dragonfly")

Ido[edit]

Adverb[edit]

do

  1. so, therefore

Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /d̪ˠɔ/, /d̪ˠə/

Particle[edit]

do ‎(triggers lenition of a following consonant)

  1. (Munster, literary) marker of the past tense
    do mhol sé‎ ― he praised
  2. (Munster, literary) relative marker (nominative, accusative)
    an cailín do mholann sé‎ ― the girl that he praises
Related terms[edit]
  • d’ (used before a vowel sound)
Usage notes[edit]

The variant form, d’, is required before verbs beginning with a vowel or f:

d’ól sé‎ ― he drank
an fear d’fhreastlann sé‎ ― the man that he serves

Unlike do, d’ is not optional as a marker of the past tense.

The relative particle do is most commonly pronounced /ə/ (corresponding to the standard written Irish form a, while d’ elides:

an cailín a mholann sé
the girl that he praises
an deoch ’ólann sé
the drink that he drinks
an fear fhreastlann sé
the man that he serves

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Irish do, from Proto-Celtic *do ‎(to, for).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /d̪ˠɔ/, /d̪ˠə/
  • (Connacht) IPA(key): /ɡə/ (as if spelled go; do and go ‎(to, up to, until) have largely fallen together in the dialect)

Preposition[edit]

do ‎(plus dative, triggers lenition)

  1. to, for
    do chara‎ ― to a friend, for a friend
  2. used with the possessive determiners mo, do, bhur to indicate the direct object of a verbal noun, in place of ag after a form of in the progressive aspect
    Tá sé do mo ghortú.
    It’s hurting me.
    Bhí sé do d’fhiafraí.
    He was inquiring about you sg.
    Bhí sibh do bhur gcloí.
    You pl were being overthrown.
Inflection[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

Used only before consonant sounds.

Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
  • d’ (used before a vowel sound)
  • t’ ((Munster) used before a vowel sound)

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Irish do, from Proto-Celtic *tu ‎(your, thy).

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

do (Triggers lenition of a following consonant.)

  1. your sg
    Cá bhfuil do charr?
    Where is your car?
Usage notes[edit]

Used only before consonant sounds.

Related terms[edit]
  • d’ (used before a vowel sound)

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Italian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

do

  1. first-person singular indicative present tense of dare

Noun[edit]

Italian Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia it

do m

  1. do, the musical note
  2. C (the musical note or key)

Anagrams[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

do

  1. rōmaji reading of
  2. rōmaji reading of

Ladin[edit]

Preposition[edit]

do

  1. behind
  2. before (time)

Antonyms[edit]


Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *didō, from Proto-Indo-European *dédeh₃ti, from the root *deh₃- ‎(give). The reduplication was lost in Latin, but is preserved in the other Italic languages. A root aorist (from Proto-Indo-European *déh₃t) is preserved in Venetic [script needed] ‎(doto); the other Italic perfect forms reflect a reduplicated stative, *dedai. However, the root aorist possibly served as the source of the Latin present forms.[1]

Cognates include Ancient Greek δίδωμι ‎(dídōmi), Sanskrit ददाति ‎(dádāti), Old Persian 𐎭𐎭𐎠𐎬𐎺 ‎(dā-).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

‎(present infinitive dare, perfect active dedī, supine datum); first conjugation, irregular

  1. I give.
    • Tertium non datur.law of excluded middle
      A third [possibility] is not given: .
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Exodus.20.12
      Honora patrem tuum et matrem tuam, ut sis longaevus super terram, quam Dominus Deus tuus dabit tibi.
      Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
  2. I offer, render.
    • Captivi ("the captives") by Plautus (English and Latin text)
      Do tibi operam, Aristophontes, si quid est quod me velis.
      I’m at your service, Aristophontes, if there’s anything you want of me.
      Literally: I offer labour to you, Aritstophontes...
  3. I yield, surrender, concede.

Conjugation[edit]

   Conjugation of do (first conjugation, irregular short a in most forms except dās and )
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dās dat damus datis dant
imperfect dabam dabās dabat dabāmus dabātis dabant
future dabō dabis dabit dabimus dabitis dabunt
perfect dedī dedistī dedit dedimus dedistis dedērunt, dedēre
pluperfect dederam dederās dederat dederāmus dederātis dederant
future perfect dederō dederis dederit dederimus dederitis dederint
passive present dor daris, dare datur damur daminī dantur
imperfect dabar dabāris, dabāre dabātur dabāmur dabāminī dabantur
future dabor daberis, dabere dabitur dabimur dabiminī dabuntur
perfect datus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect datus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect datus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dem dēs det dēmus dētis dent
imperfect darem darēs daret darēmus darētis darent
perfect dederim dederīs dederit dederīmus dederītis dederint
pluperfect dedissem dedissēs dedisset dedissēmus dedissētis dedissent
passive present der dēris, dēre dētur dēmur dēminī dentur
imperfect darer darēris, darēre darētur darēmur darēminī darentur
perfect datus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect datus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present date
future datō datō datōte dantō
passive present dare daminī
future dator dator dantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives dare dedisse datūrus esse darī datus esse datum īrī
participles dāns datūrus datus dandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
dare dandī dandō dandum datum datū

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • do in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • do in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • do in Félix Gaffiot (1934), Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Paris: Hachette.
  • Meissner, Carl; Auden, Henry William (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[12], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to set out on a journey: in viam se dare
    • to give a horse the reins: frenos dare equo
    • to require, give, take time for deliberation: tempus (spatium) deliberandi or ad deliberandum postulare, dare, sibi sumere
    • to give some one a few days for reflection: paucorum dierum spatium ad deliberandum dare
    • to own oneself conquered, surrender: manus dare
    • to show oneself to some one: se in conspectum dare alicui
    • to take care of one's health: valetudini consulere, operam dare
    • to give a person poison in bread: dare venenum in pane
    • to give funeral games in honour of a person: ludos funebres alicui dare
    • this is the inscription on his tomb..: sepulcro (Dat.) or in sepulcro hoc inscriptum est
    • a favourable[1] opportunity presents itself: occasio datur, offertur
    • to give a man the opportunity of doing a thing: occasionem alicui dare, praebere alicuius rei or ad aliquid faciendum
    • to give a man the opportunity of doing a thing: facultatem alicui dare alicuius rei or ut possit...
    • to give a man the opportunity of doing a thing: potestatem, copiam alicui dare, facere with Gen. gerund.
    • to give ground for suspicion: locum dare suspicioni
    • to give occasion for blame; to challenge criticism: ansas dare ad reprehendum, reprehensionis
    • to bring a man to ruin; to destroy: aliquem affligere, perdere, pessumdare, in praeceps dare
    • to do any one a service or kindness: beneficium alicui dare, tribuere
    • to award the prize to..: palmam deferre, dare alicui
    • to entrust a matter to a person; to commission: mandatum, negotium alicui dare
    • to consider a thing creditable to a man: aliquid laudi alicui ducere, dare
    • to reproach a person with..: aliquid alicui crimini dare, vertere
    • to take great pains in order to..: studiose (diligenter, enixe, sedulo, maxime) dare operam, ut...
    • to expend great labour on a thing: egregiam operam (multum, plus etc. operae) dare alicui rei
    • to abandon oneself to inactivity and apathy: ignaviae et socordiae se dare
    • to give a person his choice: optionem alicui dare (Acad. 2. 7. 19)
    • to offer a person the alternative of... or..: optionem alicui dare, utrum...an
    • to give a person advice: consilium dare alicui
    • to be forgotten, pass into oblivion: oblivioni esse, dari
    • to become a pupil, disciple of some one: operam dare or simply se dare alicui, se tradere in disciplinam alicuius, se conferre, se applicare ad aliquem
    • to give advice, directions, about a matter: praecepta dare, tradere de aliqua re
    • to grant, admit a thing: dare, concedere aliquid
    • to produce a play (of the writer): fabulam dare
    • to applaud, clap a person: plausum dare (alicui)
    • to give a gladiatorial show: munus gladiatorium edere, dare (or simply munus edere, dare)
    • to give a gladiatorial show: gladiatores dare
    • to let oneself be jovial: se dare iucunditati
    • to write a letter to some one: epistulam (litteras) dare, scribere, mittere ad aliquem
    • to charge some one with a letter for some one else: epistulam dare alicui ad aliquem
    • to be in correspondence with..: litteras inter se dare et accipere
    • Rome, January 1st: Kalendis Ianuariis Romā (dabam)
    • to give time for recovery: respirandi spatium dare
    • to pardon some one: alicui veniam dare (alicuius rei)
    • to guarantee the protection of the state; to promise a safe-conduct: fidem publicam dare, interponere (Sall. Iug. 32. 1)
    • to give one's word that..: fidem dare alicui (opp. accipere) (c. Acc. c. Inf.)
    • to rouse a person's suspicions: suspicionem movere, excitare, inicere, dare alicui
    • to deceive a person, throw dust in his eyes: verba dare alicui (Att. 15. 16)
    • to swear an oath to a person: iusiurandum dare alicui
    • to give an oracular response: oraculum dare, edere
    • to give an oracular response: responsum dare (vid. sect. VIII. 5, note Note to answer...), respondere
    • to give some one to drink: alicui bibere dare
    • to devote oneself to a person's society: se dare in consuetudinem alicuius
    • to enter into conversation with some one: se dare in sermonem cum aliquo
    • to give audience to some one: colloquendi copiam facere, dare
    • to give audience to some one: conveniendi aditum dare alicui
    • to give one's right hand to some one: dextram alicui porrigere, dare
    • to give a dowry to one's daughter: dotem filiae dare
    • to give one's daughter in marriage to some-one: filiam alicui in matrimonium dare
    • to give one's daughter in marriage to some-one: filiam alicui nuptum dare
    • to lend, borrow money at interest: pecuniam fenori (fenore) alicui dare, accipere ab aliquo
    • to lend money to some one: pecuniam alicui mutuam dare
    • to present a person with the freedom of the city: civitatem alicui dare, tribuere, impertire
    • to make laws (of a legislator): leges scribere, facere, condere, constituere (not dare)
    • let the consuls take measures for the protection of the state: videant or dent operam consules, ne quid res publica detrimenti capiat (Catil. 1. 2. 4)
    • to give a man audience before the senate: senatum alicui dare (Q. Fr. 2. 11. 2)
    • to produce as a witness: aliquem testem dare, edere, proferre
    • to reproach, blame a person for..: aliquid alicui crimini dare, vitio vertere (Verr. 5. 50)
    • to pardon a person: veniam dare alicui
    • to be (heavily) punished by some one: poenas (graves) dare alicui
    • to put some one in irons, chains: in vincula (custodiam) dare aliquem
    • to enlist oneself: nomen (nomina) dare, profiteri
    • to give furlough, leave of absence to soldiers: commeatum militibus dare (opp. petere)
    • to pay the troops: stipendium dare, numerare, persolvere militibus
    • to give the watchword, countersign: tesseram dare (Liv. 28. 14)
    • to give the signal to engage: signum proelii dare
    • the cavalry covers the retreat: equitatus tutum receptum dat
    • to put the enemy to flight: in fugam dare, conicere hostem
    • to flee, run away: terga vertere or dare
    • to run away from the enemy: terga dare hosti
    • to take to flight: se dare in fugam, fugae
    • to dictate the terms of peace to some one: pacis condiciones dare, dicere alicui (Liv. 29. 12)
    • to give hostages: obsides dare
    • to reduce a people to their former obedience: aliquem ad officium (cf. sect. X. 7, note officium...) reducere (Nep. Dat. 2. 3)
    • to put to sea: vela in altum dare (Liv. 25. 27)
    • to set the sails: vela dare
    • to run before the wind: vento se dare
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill

Lojban[edit]

Cmavo[edit]

do ‎(rafsi doi or don) (pro-sumti)

  1. (sumti) you
  2. (sumti modifier) your

See also[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

do (with genitive)

  1. to, into
    • 1998, Erwin Hannusch, Niedersorbisch praktisch und verständlich, Bauzten: Domowina, ISBN 3-740-1667-9, p. 30:
      Jana chójźi hyšći do šule, wóna jo wuknica.
      Jana still goes to school; she is a schoolgirl.
    do Chóśebuza‎ ― to Cottbus
    do jsy‎ ― to the village, into the village
    do wognja‎ ― into the fire
    do njebja‎ ― to heaven

Luxembourgish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *þar.

Adverb[edit]

do

  1. there, in that place

Etymology 2[edit]

Verb[edit]

do

  1. second-person singular imperative of doen

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Possibly an abbreviation of "do-hūs" ("do house") from Middle Low German dōn.

Noun[edit]

do m ‎(definite singular doen, indefinite plural doer, definite plural doene)
do n ‎(definite singular doet, indefinite plural do or doer, definite plural doa or doene)

  1. a toilet, or loo (UK)
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

do m

  1. do (the musical note)

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse þó.

Adverb[edit]

do

  1. anyhow, still, nevertheless

Etymology 2[edit]

Possibly an abbreviation of "do-hūs" ("do house") from Middle Low German dōn.

Noun[edit]

do m ‎(definite singular doen, indefinite plural doar, definite plural doane)
do n ‎(definite singular doet, indefinite plural do, definite plural doa)

  1. a toilet, or loo (UK)
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Please refer to do (Bokmål) for the time being.

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

do m

  1. do (the musical note)

References[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *tu ‎(to).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

do (Triggers lenition of a following consonant-initial noun.)

  1. to, for

Related terms[edit]


Pennsylvania German[edit]

Adverb[edit]

do

  1. here

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *do, from Proto-Indo-European *do-, *de-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

do ‎(+ genitive)

  1. to, towards, into
  2. until
  3. (with deadline) by

External links[edit]

  • do in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese do, from de ‎(of) + o ‎(the).

Pronunciation[edit]

Contraction[edit]

do ‎(plural dos, feminine da, feminine plural das)

  1. Contraction of de o ‎(pertaining or relating to the).; of the; from the (masculine singular)
    • 2005, Lya Wyler (translator), J. K. Rowling (English author), Harry Potter e o Enigma do Príncipe (Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince), Rocco, page 184:
      Eu estava na esperança de encontrá-lo antes do jantar!
      I was hoping to meet you before dinner!

Quotations[edit]

For usage examples of this term, see Citations:do.

See also[edit]

  • da (feminine form)
  • dos (plural form)
  • das (feminine plural form)

Saterland Frisian[edit]

Article[edit]

do pl

  1. the

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish do, from Proto-Celtic *tu ‎(your, thy).

Pronoun[edit]

do

  1. your (informal singular)
    Bha iongantach do ghràdh dhomh.‎ ― Wonderful was thy love for me.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Lenites the following word.
  • Before a word beginning with a vowel or fh followed by a vowel it takes the form d'.
    Bidh cuimhn’ agam ort, air d’ anam ghrinn.‎ ― I will remember thee, thy dear soul.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Irish do, from Proto-Celtic *tu ‎(to).

Preposition[edit]

do

  1. to
    Bha e a' siubhal do Shasainn an-uiridh.‎ ― He travelled to England last year.
  2. for
    Do dh'ar beatha, dhut, dhèanainn e.‎ ― For our life, for thee, I would do it.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Lenites the following word.
  • Before a word beginning with a vowel or fh followed by a vowel it takes the form do dh'.
    Tha sinn a' dol do dh'Ile.‎ ― We are going to Islay.
  • If the definite article in the singular follows, it combines with do into don:
    Fàilte don dùthaich.‎ ― Welcome to the country.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Person Number Prepositional pronoun Prepositional pronoun (emphatic)
Singular 1st dhomh dhomhsa
2nd dhut dhutsa
3rd m dha dhasan
3rd f dhi dhise
Plural 1st dhuinn dhuinne
2nd dhuibh dhuibhse
3rd dhaibh dhaibhsan

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *do, from Proto-Indo-European *de-, *do-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

‎(Cyrillic spelling до̏)

  1. only, except
    ni(t)ko do ja‎ ― nobody but me, only me
    ne jede ništa do komad hljeba/hleba‎ ― he eats nothing except a piece of bread
  2. around, approximately
    do dva metra‎ ― around two meters
    do 5 kila‎ ― around five kilograms
  3. due to, because of
    to je do hrane‎ ― that's due to the food

Preposition[edit]

(Cyrillic spelling до̏)

  1. (with genitive) up to, to, as far as, by
    od Zagreba do Beograda‎ ― from Zagreb to Belgrade
    od jutra do mraka‎ ― from morning to night
    od 5 do 10 sati‎ ― from 5 to 10 o'clock
    od vrha do dna‎ ― from top to bottom
    do r(ij)eke‎ ― as far as the river
    sad je pet do sedam‎ ― now it's five minutes to seven
    do poned(j)eljka‎ ― by Monday
    do sada‎ ― so far, thus far, till now
    do nedavna‎ ― until recently
    do dana današnjega‎ ― to this very day
    sve do‎ ― as far as up to, all the way to
    do kuda‎ ― how far
    do tuda‎ ― thus far, up to here
  2. before (= prȉje/prȅ)
    do rata‎ ― before the war
  3. (with genitive) beside, next (to)
    s(j)edi do mene‎ ― sit next to me
    jedan do drugoga‎ ― side by side
  4. idiomatic and figurative meanings
    nije mi do toga‎ ― I don't feel like doing that
    nije mi do sm(ij)eha‎ ― I don't feel like laughing
    njemu je samo do seksa‎ ― he is only interested in sex
    nije mi puno stalo do toga‎ ― I'm not very much interested in that
    nije do mene‎ ― it's not up to me, it's no me to lame

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *dolъ.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

 m ‎(Cyrillic spelling до̑)

  1. dale, small valley
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Italian do.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

 m ‎(Cyrillic spelling до̑) (indeclinable)

  1. (music) do

References[edit]

  • do” in Hrvatski jezični portal
  • do” in Hrvatski jezični portal
  • do” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *do.

Preposition[edit]

do ‎(+ genitive)

  1. into, in, to, until

External links[edit]

  • do in Slovak dictionaries at korpus.sk

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

do

  1. (with genitive) by (some time before the given time)
  2. (with genitive) till

Spanish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Italian do.

Noun[edit]

do m ‎(plural dos)

  1. do (musical note)
  2. C (the musical note or key)

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From contraction of preposition de ‎(of, from) + adverb o ‎(in where)

Adverb[edit]

do

  1. where

Pronoun[edit]

do

  1. where
Derived terms[edit]

Turkish[edit]

Noun[edit]

do

  1. C, the musical note

Venetian[edit]

Verb[edit]

do

  1. first-person singular present indicative of dar - I give

Volapük[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

do

  1. though, although, even though

Welsh[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Adverb[edit]

do

  1. yes
  2. indeed

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

do

  1. (colloquial) first-person singular future of dod

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
do ddo no unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

do

  1. Soft mutation of to.

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
to do nho tho
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

West Frisian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Frisian thū, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronoun[edit]

do personal pronoun

  1. you (informal second-person singular subject)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Frisian *dūve, from Proto-Germanic *dūbǭ. Compare Saterland Frisian Duuwe, English dove, Scots doo, Dutch duif, Low German Duuv, German Taube, Danish due, Swedish duva.

Noun[edit]

do ?

  1. pigeon, dove

Zazaki[edit]

Noun[edit]

do ?

  1. airan