od

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alteration of God.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

od

  1. (now archaic, regional) (Euphemistic form of) God. [from 17th c.]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from German Od, arbitrarily coined by the German scientist and philosopher Carl Reichenbach (1788–1869).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

od

  1. (pseudoscience, historical, also attributive) A hypothetical force or natural power, which was supposed by Carl Reichenbach and others to inhere in certain people and produce phenomena such as animal magnetism and mesmerism, and to be developed by various agencies, as by chemical or vital action, heat, light, magnets, etc.
    Synonyms: (obsolete) odyl, odyle
Alternative forms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Charles von Reichenbach [i.e., Carl Reichenbach] (1850), “Sixth Treatise. The Material World in General.”, in Physico-psychological Researches on the Dynamics of Magnetism, Electricity, Heat, Light, Crystallization, and Chemism, in Their Relations to Vital Force. [], London: Hippolyte Baillière, [], →OCLC, paragraph 215, page 224:
    Leaving the etymological derivation to be justified at some other opportunity, I will take the liberty to propose the short word Od for the force which we are engaged in examining. Every one will admit it to be desirable that an uni-syllabic word beginning with a vowel should be selected for an object which occurs universally in an infinity of complex conditions of the material world, for the sake of convenient conjunction in the manifold compound words. The words magnetism, electricity, &c., are by far too long for convenient use in the language of science.
  2. ^ Od, n.2”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, July 2023; “od1, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Azerbaijani[edit]

Other scripts
Cyrillic од
Abjad اوْد

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Turkic *ōt (fire).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

od (definite accusative odu, plural odlar)

  1. fire
    Synonyms: atəş, nar

Declension[edit]

    Declension of od
singular plural
nominative od
odlar
definite accusative odu
odları
dative oda
odlara
locative odda
odlarda
ablative oddan
odlardan
definite genitive odun
odların
    Possessive forms of od
nominative
singular plural
mənim (my) odum odlarım
sənin (your) odun odların
onun (his/her/its) odu odları
bizim (our) odumuz odlarımız
sizin (your) odunuz odlarınız
onların (their) odu or odları odları
accusative
singular plural
mənim (my) odumu odlarımı
sənin (your) odunu odlarını
onun (his/her/its) odunu odlarını
bizim (our) odumuzu odlarımızı
sizin (your) odunuzu odlarınızı
onların (their) odunu or odlarını odlarını
dative
singular plural
mənim (my) oduma odlarıma
sənin (your) oduna odlarına
onun (his/her/its) oduna odlarına
bizim (our) odumuza odlarımıza
sizin (your) odunuza odlarınıza
onların (their) oduna or odlarına odlarına
locative
singular plural
mənim (my) odumda odlarımda
sənin (your) odunda odlarında
onun (his/her/its) odunda odlarında
bizim (our) odumuzda odlarımızda
sizin (your) odunuzda odlarınızda
onların (their) odunda or odlarında odlarında
ablative
singular plural
mənim (my) odumdan odlarımdan
sənin (your) odundan odlarından
onun (his/her/its) odundan odlarından
bizim (our) odumuzdan odlarımızdan
sizin (your) odunuzdan odlarınızdan
onların (their) odundan or odlarından odlarından
genitive
singular plural
mənim (my) odumun odlarımın
sənin (your) odunun odlarının
onun (his/her/its) odunun odlarının
bizim (our) odumuzun odlarımızın
sizin (your) odunuzun odlarınızın
onların (their) odunun or odlarının odlarının

Related terms[edit]

Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Czech ot, from Proto-Slavic *otъ, from Proto-Indo-European *éti.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

od [+genitive]

  1. from
    Dostal jsem dopis od bratra.I got a letter from my brother.
  2. since
    Od té doby jsem tam nebyl.I haven't been there since.
  3. of
    To je od tebe moc hezké.That is very nice of you.

Further reading[edit]

  • od in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • od in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse oddr, from Proto-Germanic *uzdaz, cognate with German Ort (place, point).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈɔðˀ/, [ˈʌðˀ]

Noun[edit]

od c (singular definite odden, plural indefinite odde)

  1. sharp point

Declension[edit]

Ido[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • o (apocope)

Etymology[edit]

Borrowing from English or, French ou, Italian od and Spanish o.

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

od

  1. or

Related terms[edit]

  • ed (and)
  • ad (to)

Italian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

od

  1. or (used before a vowel for euphony instead of o)

Anagrams[edit]

Latvian[edit]

Verb[edit]

od

  1. inflection of ost:
    1. second-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Middle English[edit]

Adjective[edit]

od

  1. Alternative form of odde

Adverb[edit]

od

  1. Alternative form of odde

Noun[edit]

od

  1. Alternative form of odde

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse óðr.

Adjective[edit]

od (neuter singular odt, definite singular and plural ode, comparative odare, indefinite superlative odast, definite superlative odaste)

  1. mad, frenzied
    Synonyms: galen, styrlaus
    Han er så od i dag at eg torer ikkje snakka til han.
    He's so mad today that I don't dare talk to him.
  2. on heat, rutting
    Synonyms: brunstig, brundgalen
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse óðr.

Noun[edit]

od n (definite singular odet, indefinite plural od, definite plural oda)

  1. wild impulse, sudden compulsion, yearning, frenzy
    Synonyms: ihuge, hugskot
    Eg gjorde det med odet var på meg.
    I did it while the impulse was on me.
  2. stormy weather
    Synonyms: hardver, uver
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • “od” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
  • “od”, in Norsk Ordbok: ordbok over det norske folkemålet og det nynorske skriftmålet, Oslo: Samlaget, 1950-2016

Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin apud.

Preposition[edit]

od

  1. with

Descendants[edit]

  • Norman: d'ot

Old Polish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *otъ. The final d is due to analogy with other prepositions such as nad and pod. First attested in the first half of the 14th century.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

od [+genitive]

  1. indicates the beginning of an action has lasted; since, from, for
  2. indicates length of time; for
  3. indicates disatance; from, away from
  4. indicates source or cause; from, because of
  5. indicates agent of a request; from
  6. indicates physical origin, sometimes used in names; from
  7. indicates author or letter; by, from
  8. used in passive constructions; by
  9. indicates the scope, manner or degree
  10. indicates relation, intended purpose or use, material, or age; from
  11. used in comparisons; than

Derived terms[edit]

prefix

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

Polish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish od.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

od [+genitive]

  1. indicates separation, distance, loss of contact; from, away
    Jesteśmy dość daleko od domu.We're pretty far from home.
    Odsuń się od niej!Get away from her!
  2. indicates origin of movement; from, away
    Dostałem dziś list od siostry.I got a letter from my sister today.
    Odchodzę od tego budynku.I am walking away from that building.
  3. indicates moment of origin in time; from, since, for
    Pracuję codziennie od siódmej do piętnastej.I work from 7 AM till 3 PM every day.
    Od jutra będę mieszkał we własnym mieszkaniu.Starting tomorrow I'll be living in my own flat.
    Odlicz od dziesięciu w dół.Count backwards from ten.
    Czekam na ciebie od osiemnastej.I have been waiting for you since 6 PM.
  4. indicates source or cause; from, because of
    Jestem mokry od deszczuI'm wet from the rain.
  5. indicates intended use or purpose; for
    Czy widzisz przez dziurkę od klucza?Can you see through the keyhole? (literally, “Can you see through the hole for the key?”)
    Zamknąłeś okno od samochodu?Did you shut the car window?
  6. indicates specialization
  7. used in comparisons; than
    Synonyms: aniżeli, aniżeliby, niż, niżby, niźli, niźliby, niżeli, niżeliby
    Janusz jest wyższy od Piotra.Janusz is taller than Piotr.
  8. (Middle Polish) used to indicate the author of a letter or work; from, by
  9. (Middle Polish) used in passive constructions; by
  10. (Middle Polish) indicates material; from
    Synonym: z

Trivia[edit]

According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), od is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 477 times in scientific texts, 319 times in news, 310 times in essays, 371 times in fiction, and 303 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 1780 times, making it the 23rd most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990), “od”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków; Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 309

Further reading[edit]

  • od in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • od in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • od”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish], 2010-2023
  • OD”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], 24.05.2010
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814), “od”, in Słownik języka polskiego
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861), “od”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1904), “od”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 3, Warsaw, page 564

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *otъ, from Proto-Indo-European *éti. See od-, ot-, o, oda-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

ȍd (Cyrillic spelling о̏д)

  1. from, since [+genitive]
    od Zagreba do Beogradafrom Zagreb to Belgrade
    od jutra do mrakafrom dusk until dawn
    od 5 do 10 satifrom 5 to 10 o'clock
    od danasfrom today on
    od sad(a)from now on
    od tad(a)since then
    od kraja zimefrom the end of winter
  2. of [+genitive]
    selo od tri kućea village of three houses
    jedan od njihone of them
    čovjek od (svoje) r(ij)eči.a man of his word
    Hvala! To je bilo jako l(ij)epo od tebe!Thank you! That was very nice of you!
  3. (comparison) (+ genitive case) than
    Avioni su brži od helikoptera.Airplanes are faster than helicopters.
    Stariji je od svoje sestre.He is older than his sister.
  4. made of, made out of, made from [+genitive]
    stolica od drvetaa chair made of wood
    Plastika se proizvodi od nafte.Plastic is made from oil.
    U slamovima, ljudi često žive u kućama napravljenim od otpadnog metala.In slums, people often live in houses made out of scrap metal.
  5. (proscribed, passive voice) (+ genitive case) by (usually followed by strane ("side/party") denoting the party which is doing the action; active form is preferred in formal language)
    Bomba je bila pronađena od (strane) policije.The bomb was found by the police.
  6. because of, from, with (denoting a direct or indirect cause) [+genitive]
    Umrla je od raka kože.She died of skin cancer.
    Umrla je od alkoholizma.She died from alcoholism.
    umr(ij)eti od dosadeto die of boredom
    drhtati od strahato tremble with fear
    tresti se od hladnoćeto shiver with cold

Slovak[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *otъ, from Proto-Indo-European *éti.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

od (+ genitive)

  1. from
  2. since
  3. of

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *otъ, from Proto-Indo-European *éti.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

od

  1. from, away from [+genitive]
  2. since or starting from (place or time) [+genitive]
  3. originating from, having origin in [+genitive]
  4. of, belonging to, part of [+genitive]
  5. (with genitive, in comparisons) than
  6. of, from, because of, due to [+genitive]

Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkishاود(od), ⁧اوت(ot), from Old Anatolian Turkishاود(od), from Proto-Turkic *ōt (fire).

Noun[edit]

od (definite accusative odu, plural odlar)

  1. (archaic or dialectal) fire
    Synonyms: ateş, nâr

Related terms[edit]

Volapük[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

od

  1. each other

Declension[edit]

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English odde.

Adjective[edit]

od (feminine singular od, plural od, equative oded, comparative odach, superlative odaf)

  1. odd, strange
    Synonyms: anarferol, rhyfedd
  2. odd (not even)
    Antonym: cynifer
Usage notes[edit]

Unusually for a monosyllabic word ending in a monophthong and single d, the current spelling of this word does not require the grave accent to indicate that the vowel is short. Likewise, there is a circumflex in the word ôd to show that its vowel is long. Compare this to regular spellings such as mwd and mẁd or nod and nòd. This phenomenon of not requiring a grave accent where one may expect it is more common in well-established grammatical words such as od below. See also os, nid or nag for similar cases.

Derived terms[edit]
  • odiaeth (excellent, splendid)
  • odrif (odd number)

Etymology 2[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

od

  1. (literary) Alternative form of o (if, whether) used before vowels.

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
od unchanged unchanged hod
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.