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See also: , , , , , , 𤰔, and
U+7531, 由
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7531

[U+7530]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7532]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 102, +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 中田 (LW), four-corner 50600, composition or ⿻)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 757, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21724
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1167, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2524, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+7531

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou
Bronze inscriptions
由-bronze.svg

Pictogram (象形) – a container or helmet.

If a helmet, may have been the same as or original character of .

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Related to ?”)

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /iou³⁵/
Harbin /iou²⁴/
Tianjin /iou⁴⁵/
Jinan /iou⁴²/
Qingdao /iou⁴²/
Zhengzhou /iou⁴²/
Xi'an /iou²⁴/
Xining /iɯ²⁴/
Yinchuan /iəu⁵³/
Lanzhou /iou⁵³/
Ürümqi /iɤu⁵¹/
Wuhan /iəu²¹³/
Chengdu /iəu³¹/
Guiyang /iəu²¹/
Kunming /iəu³¹/
Nanjing /iəɯ²⁴/
Hefei /iɯ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /iəu¹¹/
Pingyao /iəu¹³/
Hohhot /iəu³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦiɤ²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɤ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦiø²¹³/
Wenzhou /jau³¹/
Hui Shexian /iu⁴⁴/
Tunxi /iu⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /iəu¹³/
Xiangtan /iəɯ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /i⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /iu¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒiu¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐu²¹/
Nanning /jɐu²¹/
Hong Kong /jɐu²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iu³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ieu⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iu²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /iu⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ziu³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (36)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiu/
Shao
Rongfen
/iəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/juw/
Li
Rong
/iu/
Wang
Li
/jĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yóu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jau4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yóu
Middle
Chinese
‹ yuw ›
Old
Chinese
/*l[u]/
English follow; from

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15526
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*lɯw/

Definitions[edit]

  1. cause; reason
    /   ―  yuányóu  ―  cause and reason
  2. from
      ―  yóu běi dào nán  ―  from north to south
    廣州出發 / 广州出发  ―  yóu Guǎngzhōu chūfā  ―  to depart from Guangzhou
  3. by; through; via
    側門出入 / 侧门出入  ―  Qǐng yóu cèmén chūrù.  ―  Please enter and exit via the side door.
  4. (done) by
    處理 [MSC, trad.]
    处理 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè jiàn shì yóu wǒ lái chùlǐ ba. [Pinyin]
    Let me handle this matter.
  5. because of; due to
  6. by means of
    此可見 / 此可见  ―  yóucǐkějiàn  ―  thus it can be seen
    部分組成 [MSC, trad.]
    部分组成 [MSC, simp.]
    Běn shū yóu sān bùfēn zǔchéng. [Pinyin]
    This book is composed of three parts.
  7. to pass through
    之路  ―  yóuzhīlù  ―  the path that must be taken
  8. to follow
    身不  ―  shēnbùyóu  ―  to be unable to determine for oneself
      ―  Yóu tā qù ba!  ―  Let him do as he pleases.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. cause, reason
  2. from, arising from

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 말미암을 (malmiameul yu))

  1. Hanja form? of (cause; reason).

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: do, , ro, yêu, sân

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.