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See also: and
U+4F86, 來
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F86

[U+4F85]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F87]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
來-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木人人 (DOO), four-corner 40908, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 101, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 581
  • Dae Jaweon: page 214, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 141, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+4F86

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
variant forms 𧼛

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
來-oracle.svg 來-bronze.svg 來-silk.svg 來-seal.svg 來-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*m·rɯːɡ
*rɯː, *rɯːs
*rɯː
*rɯː, *rɯːs
*rɯː
*rɯː, *ruːlʔ, *ruːlʔ
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː, *rɯ
*rɯː, *rɯːs
*rɯː
*rɯːʔ, *rrɯː
*rɯːs
*rɯːs
*rɯːs
*rɯːs, *r̥ʰɯ, *r̥ʰɯs, *r̥ʰɯs
*rɯ
*ŋrɯns
*ŋrɯns
*mrɯːɡ

Pictogram (象形) of wheat – original character of (OC *mrɯːɡ, “wheat”) or (OC *rɯː, “wheat”). The line in the middle represents the ear, the two lines pointing upwards represent leaves, and the lines pointing downwards represent the stem and roots. An additional horizontal line was often added at the top end of the character, possibly used to emphasize the ear of the wheat. Compare .

This character has been borrowed for “to come” since the oracle bone script. During the Western Zhou and Warring States periods, additional semantic components, such as (“foot”) or (“to walk”), were added to differentiate the original sense from the borrowed sense. However, these additions were not inherited in later scripts.

Some consider the derivative from the addition of (“to walk slowly”) to be the original form for the meaning “to come”. If so, their meanings have interchanged due to frequent use of for “to come”.

Shuowen connects “wheat” and “to come” from a mythological standpoint: 天所來也 (“it comes from the heavens”). This may be supported by archaeological evidence, which suggests that wheat is not native to China, but originated in the Fertile Crescent.

and have both been reconstructed to begin with *mr- in Old Chinese. The former retains the liquid as /l/, while the latter retains the nasal /m/.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *la-j ~ ra (to come).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: lai4, lei4 - vernacular (often written as ()).
Note:
  • lì - vernacular;
  • lài - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • lai7 - indicates past things;
    • lai2 - “will”.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (41)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lʌi/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ləi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /lɒi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ləj/
    Li
    Rong
    /lᴀi/
    Wang
    Li
    /lɒi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /lɑ̆i/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    lái
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    lái lái
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ loj › ‹ loj ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mə.rˤək/ (> *mə.rˤə) /*mə.rˤək/ (> *rˤə)
    English a kind of wheat come

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7598
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m·rɯːɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to come; to arrive
      Antonyms: ()
    2. to happen; to occur
    3. to do (specific meaning depending on the context)
    4. since
    5. next; coming; future
    6. (after a number) about; approximately; around
    7. Used after a verb of motion to indicate movement toward the speaker.
      • /   ―  xiàlái  ―  to come down [compare 下去 (xiàqù, “to go down”)]
      • /   ―  jìnlái  ―  to come in
    8. Used before a verb to express volition.
    9. Used with or to express capability.
      俯臥撐 / 俯卧撑  ―  Wǒ zuò bù lái fǔwòchēng.  ―  I can't do push-ups.
    10. Used after numerals in colloquial lists.
    11. Meaningless particle for rhythmic purposes.
    12. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of (“to come”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Taishan
    Hakka Meixian

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana らい, rōmaji rai-)

    1. Kyūjitai form of next, coming (week, year, etc.)

    Suffix[edit]

    (kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana らい, rōmaji -rai)

    1. Kyūjitai form of since, in (a span of time)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Verb[edit]

    (kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , irregular conjugation, hiragana , rōmaji ku)

    1. (obsolete) to approach ones position from a remote location: to come

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (rae>nae) (hangeul >)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (lai, lay, lơi, ray, rơi, rời)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]