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U+4F86, 來
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F86

[U+4F85]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F87]
See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Simplified

Traditional

Japanese

Korean

Stroke order
來-bw.png
Stroke order
來-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木人人 (DOO), four-corner 40908, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 101, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 581
  • Dae Jaweon: page 214, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 141, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+4F86

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
來-oracle.svg 來-bronze.svg 來-bigseal.svg 來-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*m·rɯːɡ
*rɯː, *rɯːs
*rɯː
*rɯː, *rɯːs
*rɯː
*rɯː, *ruːlʔ, *ruːlʔ
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː, *rɯ
*rɯː, *rɯːs
*rɯː
*rɯːʔ, *rrɯː
*rɯːs
*rɯːs
*rɯːs
*rɯːs, *r̥ʰɯ, *r̥ʰɯs, *r̥ʰɯs
*rɯ
*ŋrɯns
*ŋrɯns
*mrɯːɡ

It is shaped like corn or wheat (similar to ), symbolising the coming of the crops. Its Old Chinese pronunciation begins with “*mr-”. The meaning “come” was originally represented by (OC *mrɯːɡ, “wheat”), adding a radical meaning “footprint” or “walk slowly”. Their meanings have interchanged. M-remaining is , l-remaining is .

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *la-j ~ ra.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • lì - colloquial;
  • lài - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lʌi/
Pan
Wuyun
/ləi/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɒi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ləj/
Li
Rong
/lᴀi/
Wang
Li
/lɒi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɑ̆i/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lái
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lái lái
Middle
Chinese
‹ loj › ‹ loj ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə.rˤək/ (> *mə.rˤə) /*mə.rˤək/ (> *rˤə)
English a kind of wheat come

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7598
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*m·rɯːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to come; to arrive
    Antonyms: ()
  2. to happen; to occur
  3. to do (specific meaning depending on the context)
  4. since
  5. next; coming; future
    • /   ―  lái nián  ―  next year
  6. (after a number) about; approximately; around
  7. Used after a verb of motion to indicate movement toward the speaker.
    • /   ―  xiàlái  ―  to come down [compare 下去 (xiàqù, “to go down”)]
    • /   ―  jìnlái  ―  to come in
  8. Used before a verb to express volition.
  9. Used with or to express capability.
    俯臥撐 / 俯卧撑  ―  Wǒ zuò bù lái fǔwòchēng.  ―  I can't do push-ups.
  10. Used after numerals in colloquial lists.
  11. Meaningless particle for rhythmic purposes.
  12. A surname​.

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“to come”)
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. come

Usage notes[edit]

Not used in modern Japanese, except in some names. In regular text, the shinjitai character is used instead.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Sinitic .

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

‎(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana らい, romaji rai-)

  1. Kyūjitai spelling of next, coming (week, year, etc.)
    •  (らい) (ねん) (らい) (しゅう)
      rainen, raishū
      next year, next week
       (らい)週月曜日 (しゅうげつようび) ()いましょう。
      Raishū getsuyōbi ni aimashō.
      Let's meet Monday next. / Let's meet this coming Monday.

Suffix[edit]

‎(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana らい, romaji -rai)

  1. Kyūjitai spelling of since, in (a span of time)
    • 三年 (さんねん) (らい)あれを ()ていない。
      San nen rai are o mite inai.
      I haven't seen that in three years / since three years ago.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Japanese. The verb ku is one of the few monosyllabic verb roots in Japanese. This developed into kuru in modern Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

‎(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , irregular conjugation, hiragana , romaji ku)

  1. (obsolete) to approach ones position from a remote location: to come
    Developed into 來る(くる, kuru) in modern Japanese.

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(rae>nae) (hangeul >, McCune-Reischauer rae>nae, Yale lay>nay)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(lai, lay, lơi, ray, rơi, rời)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]