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U+4F86, 來
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F86

[U+4F85]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F87]

Translingual[edit]

Simplified

Traditional

Japanese

Korean

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
來-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木人人 (DOO), four-corner 40908, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 101, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 581
  • Dae Jaweon: page 214, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 141, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+4F86

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms 𧼛

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
來-oracle.svg 來-bronze.svg 來-silk.svg 來-bigseal.svg 來-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
m·rɯːɡ
rɯː, *rɯːs
rɯː
rɯː, *rɯːs
rɯː
rɯː, *ruːlʔ, *ruːlʔ
rɯː
rɯː
rɯː
rɯː
rɯː
rɯː
rɯː, *rɯ
rɯː, *rɯːs
rɯː
rɯːʔ, *rrɯː
rɯːs
rɯːs
rɯːs
rɯːs, *r̥ʰɯ, *r̥ʰɯs, *r̥ʰɯs
ŋrɯns
ŋrɯns
mrɯːɡ

Pictogram (象形) of wheat – original character of (OC *mrɯːɡ, “wheat”) or (OC *rɯː, “wheat”). The line in the middle represents the ear, the two lines pointing upwards represent leaves, and the lines pointing downwards represent the stem and roots. An additional horizontal line was often added at the top end of the character, possibly used to emphasize the ear of the wheat. Compare .

This character has been borrowed for “to come” since the oracle bone script. During the Western Zhou and Warring States periods, additional semantic components, such as (“foot”) or (“to walk”), were added to differentiate the original sense from the borrowed sense. However, these additions were not inherited in later scripts.

Some consider the derivative from the addition of (“to walk slowly”) to be the original form for the meaning “to come”. If so, their meanings have interchanged due to frequent use of for “to come”.

Shuowen connects “wheat” and “to come” from a mythological standpoint: 天所來也 (“it comes from the heavens”). This may be supported by archaeological evidence, which suggests that wheat is not native to China, but originated in the Fertile Crescent.

and have both been reconstructed to begin with *mr- in Old Chinese. The former retains the liquid as /l/, while the latter retains the nasal /m/.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *la-j ~ ra (to come).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: lai4, lei4 - vernacular (often written as ).
Note:
  • lì - vernacular;
  • lài - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lʌi/
Pan
Wuyun
/ləi/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɒi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ləj/
Li
Rong
/lᴀi/
Wang
Li
/lɒi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɑ̆i/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lái
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lái lái
Middle
Chinese
‹ loj › ‹ loj ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə.rˤək/ (> *mə.rˤə) /*mə.rˤək/ (> *rˤə)
English a kind of wheat come

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7598
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*m·rɯːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to come; to arrive
    Antonyms: ()
  2. to happen; to occur
  3. to do (specific meaning depending on the context)
  4. since
  5. next; coming; future
  6. (after a number) about; approximately; around
  7. Used after a verb of motion to indicate movement toward the speaker.
    • /   ―  xiàlái  ―  to come down [compare 下去 (xiàqù, “to go down”)]
    • /   ―  jìnlái  ―  to come in
  8. Used before a verb to express volition.
  9. Used with or to express capability.
    俯臥撐 / 俯卧撑  ―  Wǒ zuò bù lái fǔwòchēng.  ―  I can't do push-ups.
  10. Used after numerals in colloquial lists.
  11. Meaningless particle for rhythmic purposes.
  12. A surname​.

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“to come”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. Kyūjitai spelling of

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana らい, rōmaji rai-)

  1. Kyūjitai spelling of next, coming (week, year, etc.)

Suffix[edit]

(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana らい, rōmaji -rai)

  1. Kyūjitai spelling of since, in (a span of time)

Etymology 2[edit]

Verb[edit]

(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , irregular conjugation, hiragana , rōmaji ku)

  1. (obsolete) to approach ones position from a remote location: to come

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(rae>nae) (hangeul >, McCune-Reischauer rae>nae, Yale lay>nay)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(lai, lay, lơi, ray, rơi, rời)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]