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U+4F86, 來
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F86

[U+4F85]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F87]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
來-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木人人 (DOO), four-corner 40908, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 101, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 581
  • Dae Jaweon: page 214, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 141, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+4F86

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𧼛

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
來-oracle.svg 來-bronze.svg 來-silk.svg 來-seal.svg 來-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) of wheat – original character of (OC *mrɯːɡ, “wheat”) or (OC *rɯː, “wheat”). The line in the middle represents the ear, the two lines pointing upwards represent leaves, and the lines pointing downwards represent the stem and roots. An additional horizontal line was often added at the top end of the character, possibly used to emphasize the ear of the wheat. Compare .

This character has been borrowed for “to come” since the oracle bone script. During the Western Zhou and Warring States periods, additional semantic components, such as (“foot”) or (“to walk”), were added to differentiate the original sense from the borrowed sense. However, these additions were not inherited in later scripts.

Some consider the derivative from the addition of (“to walk slowly”) to be the original form for the meaning “to come”. If so, their meanings have interchanged due to frequent use of for “to come”.

Shuowen connects “wheat” and “to come” from a mythological standpoint: 天所來也 (“it comes from the heavens”). This may be supported by archaeological evidence, which suggests that wheat is not native to China, but originated in the Fertile Crescent.

and have both been reconstructed to begin with *mr- in Old Chinese. The former retains the liquid as /l/, while the latter retains the nasal /m/.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *la-j ~ ra (to come) (STEDT). Cognate with (OC *l'ɯːʔ, “to reach; until”), (OC *rɯːs, “to bestow”), Burmese လာ (la, to come). Also cognate with (OC *rɯbs, “to arrive”) according to Schuessler (2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: lai4, lei4 - vernacular (often written as ()).
Note:
  • lì - vernacular;
  • lài - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • lai7 - indicates past things;
    • lai2 - “will” (pronounced as /lai⁵²⁻³⁵/).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (41)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lʌi/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ləi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /lɒi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ləj/
    Li
    Rong
    /lᴀi/
    Wang
    Li
    /lɒi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /lɑ̆i/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    lái
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    lái lái
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ loj › ‹ loj ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mə.rˁək/ (> *mə.rˁə) /*mə.rˁək/ (> *rˁə)
    English a kind of wheat come

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7598
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m·rɯːɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to come; to arrive
      Antonym: ()
    2. to happen; to occur
    3. to do (specific meaning depending on the context)
    4. since
    5. next; coming; future
    6. (after a number) about; approximately; around
    7. Used after a verb of motion to indicate movement toward the speaker.
      • /   ―  xiàlái  ―  to come down [compare 下去 (xiàqù, “to go down”)]
      • /   ―  jìnlái  ―  to come in
    8. Used before a verb to express volition.
    9. Used with or to express capability.
      俯臥撐 / 俯卧撑  ―  Wǒ zuò bù lái fǔwòchēng.  ―  I can't do push-ups.
    10. Used after numerals in colloquial lists.
    11. Meaningless particle for rhythmic purposes.
    12. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (らい) (rai)
    • Korean: (, rae)
    • Vietnamese: lai ()

    Compounds[edit]

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    らい2
    [prefix] next, coming (week, year, etc.)
    [proper noun] A surname​.
    [suffix] since, in (a span of time)
    2
    [verb] (obsolete) to approach one's position from a remote location: to come
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (ol rae))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Verb[edit]

    (ku) (kana )

    1. to come (towards the speaker), approach
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 51)
        ...伊良那祁久曾許淤母比傅加那志祁久許許爾淤母比傅伊岐良受曾久流阿豆佐由美麻由美
        ...iranake1ku so2ko2 ni omo2pi1de kanasike1ku ko2ko2 ni omo2pi1de iki1razu so kuru adusayumi1 mayumi1
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 4, poem 527)
        將來云毛不來時有乎不來云乎將來常者不待不來云物乎
        ko2mu to2 ipu mo ko2nu to2ki1 aru wo ko2zi to2 ipu wo ko2mu to2 pa matazi ko2zi to2 ipu mono2 wo
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    2. to go (to a direction or place far from the speaker but near the listener)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem 3589)
        由布佐禮婆比具良之伎奈久伊故麻山古延弖曾安我久流伊毛我目乎保里
        yupu sareba pi1gurasi ki1naku Iko2ma-yama ko1yete so2 a ga kuru imo ga me2 wo pori
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    3. (suffixed to the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem form) of a verb) to gradually begin to [verb]
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3453)
        可是能等能登抱吉和伎母賀吉西斯伎奴多母登乃久太利麻欲比伎爾家利
        kaze no2 to2 no2 kaze no2 to2poki1 wagi1mo ga ki1sesi ki1nu tamoto2 no2 kudari mayo1piki1nike1ri
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Conjugation[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Eastern Old Japanese form of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb (ku) above.

    Adverb[edit]

    (ke1) (kana )

    1. (regional, Southern Eastern Old Japanese) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4337)
        美豆等利乃多知能已蘇岐爾父母爾毛能波須爾弖已麻叙久夜志伎
        miduto2ri no2 tati no2 iso1gi1 ni titipapa ni mono2pazu ke1nite ima zo kuyasiki1
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (lai, lay, lơi, ray, rơi, rời)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]