来る

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *kuru (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?). Cognate with Kunigami 来ん (すん, sun), Miyako (きぃ, ksï), Okinawan 来ーん (ちゅーん, chuun), Yaeyama 来ん (きぃん, kïn), Yonaguni 来ん (くん, kun).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "来る"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
来る [kúꜜrù]
Imperative (命令形) 来い [kóꜜì]
Key constructions
Passive 来られる られ [kòráréꜜrù]
Causative 来させる させ [kòsáséꜜrù]
Potential 来られる られ [kòráréꜜrù]
Volitional 来よう [kòyóꜜò]
Negative 来ない ない [kóꜜnàì]
Negative perfective 来なかった なかった [kóꜜnàkàttà]
Formal 来ます [kìmáꜜsù]
Perfective 来た [kíꜜtà]
Conjunctive 来て [kíꜜtè]
Hypothetical conditional 来れば れば [kúꜜrèbà]

Verb[edit]

() (kuruintransitive kuru (stem () (ki), past () (kita), kyūjitai 來る)

  1. To come (toward the speaker/writer).
Conjugation[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
きた
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Japanese verb pair
active (きた)
mediopassive (きた)

From () (ki, continuative form of etymology 1) + (いた) (itaru).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

(きた) (kitaruintransitive godan (stem (きた) (kitari), past (きた)った (kitatta))

  1. To come, to arrive.
    • 2011, NHK, 天皇誕生日 皇居で一般参賀:
      (きた)(とし)(みな)さん一人(ひとり)びとりにとり、よい(とし)であるよう(いの)っています。
      Kitaru toshi ga mina-san hitoribitori ni tori, yoi toshi de aru yō inotte imasu.
      I pray that next year [the coming year] will be a good year for each of you.
Conjugation[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō