来る

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
來る (kyūjitai)

From Old Japanese (ku). Compare the development of modern する (suru) from Old Japanese .

First attested in the Kojiki of 712.[1]

Cognate with Kunigami 来ん (sun), Miyako (ksï), Okinawan 来ーん (chuun), Yaeyama 来ん (kïn), Yonaguni 来ん (kun).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "来る"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
来る [kúꜜrù]
Imperative (命令形) 来い [kóꜜì]
Key constructions
Passive 来られる られ [kòráréꜜrù]
Causative 来させる させ [kòsáséꜜrù]
Potential 来られる られ [kòráréꜜrù]
Volitional 来よう [kòyóꜜò]
Negative 来ない ない [kóꜜnàì]
Negative perfective 来なかった なかった [kóꜜnàkàttà]
Formal 来ます [kìmáꜜsù]
Perfective 来た [kíꜜtà]
Conjunctive 来て [kíꜜtè]
Hypothetical conditional 来れば れば [kúꜜrèbà]

Verb[edit]

() (kuruintransitive kuru (stem () (ki), past () (kita))

  1. [from 712] to come (toward the speaker/writer)
    (きゃく)さんあまり()ない(みせ)
    o-kyaku-san ga amari konai o-mise
    a shop that does not see many visitors
  2. [from 1908] (specifically, of a sensation) to come and stimulate
    (こころ)()(かな)
    kokoro ni kuru kanashisa
    sadness that strikes the heart
    (のど)()(から)
    nodo ni kuru karasa
    spiciness that assaults the throat
    ()()
    i ni kuru
    to noticeably affect the stomach
  3. (来たら (to kitara)) when it comes to
Conjugation[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
きた
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings
來る (kyūjitai)
来たる
Japanese verb pair
active (きた)
mediopassive (きた)

From () (ki, continuative form of etymology 1) + (いた) (itaru).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

(きた) (kitaruintransitive godan (stem (きた) (kitari), past (きた)った (kitatta))

  1. to come, to arrive
    • 2011, NHK, 天皇誕生日 皇居で一般参賀:
      (きた)(とし)(みな)さん一人(ひとり)びとりにとり、よい(とし)であるよう(いの)っています。
      Kitaru toshi ga mina-san hitoribitori ni tori, yoi toshi de aru yō inotte imasu.
      I pray that next year [the coming year] will be a good year for each of you.
Conjugation[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ Uwano, Zendo (2002-10-31), “見島方言の用言のアクセント調査報告 [A Report on the Accentual Surveys of Verbs and Adjectives in the Mishima Dialect]”, in 環太平洋の「消滅に瀕した言語」にかんする緊急調査研究 [Endangered languages of the Pacific Rim]‎[1], ISSN 1346-082X
  3. 3.0 3.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  6. 6.0 6.1 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō