Appendix:Japanese verbs

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Modern Japanese[edit]

This section deals only with Japanese as written and spoken in 21st and late 20th centuries. The following sections are mainly based on Shinkichi Hashimoto's grammar system (known as “school grammar,” or 学校文法), for consistency with Japanese dictionaries. See the corresponding Wikipedia article for the alternative grammar system used in learning materials for non-native speakers picking up modern Japanese (日本語教育文法).

Conjugation[edit]

Because the Japanese language is written without space, different grammar systems tend to have different notions on what constitutes a word. The 学校文法 (gakkō bunpō, school grammar) system tends to cut sentences into smaller pieces to help understand the development of the language. It is used in Japanese schools and dictionaries, but is not designed for a foreign audience who have no experience with the language. A new grammar called[1] 日本語教育文法 (nihongo kyōiku bunpō, Japanese-language education grammar) has been devised since 1960s. It simplifies the “school grammar” system a lot and is widely used in learning materials for non-native speakers. The difference is that the former provide “stems” used to form words and the latter provide prefabricated forms to be used in sentences.

Wiktionary entries for Japanese verbs list conjugated forms in both systems in the “Conjugation” table, those from the former as “stem forms” and latter as “key constructions”.

Stem forms[edit]

Each verb can be conjugated to six conjugated forms in Hashimoto's grammar system, called stem forms on Wiktionary. Some of them can be used alone, while others must be followed by auxiliary verbs (助動詞). For the conjugation classes, regular verbs are either consonant-stemed, called godan (五段活用), or vowel-stemed, called ichidan (上一段活用下一段活用). The following table illustrates the six conjugated forms of godan verbs, ichidan verbs, and the two irregular verbs 来る (kuru) and する (suru) in modern Japanese:

The stem forms for verbs
Stem forms Godan verb
eg. 行く (iku)
Ichidan verb
eg.食べる (taberu)
kuru suru
Imperfective (未然形) 行か (ika) 食べ (tabe) (ko) (sa/shi)
Continuative (連用形) 行き (iki) 食べ (tabe) (ki) (shi)
Terminal (終止形) 行く (iku) 食べる (taberu) 来る (kuru) する (suru)
Attributive (連体形) 行く (iku) 食べる (taberu) 来る (kuru) する (suru)
Hypothetical (仮定形) 行け (ike) 食べれ (tabere) 来れ (kure) すれ (sure)
Imperative (命令形) 行け (ike) 食べろ (tabero) 来い (koi) しろ (shiro)

Godan conjugation[edit]

The consonant-stemed verbs in modern Japanese, except for the irregular two, all belong to this conjugation called go-dan, or literally “five-grade”. These verbs conjugate by changing the last vowel, which is -u for the lemma, to -a for the imperfective form, to -i for the continuative form, and to -e for the hypothetical and imperative forms. Four vowel endings can be covered in this conjugation, which gave its former name yo-dan (four-grade), and the fifth -o arises from the orthographic reform of 1946.

Conjugation table for godan verbs
if the final kana is the stem ends in and the final kana conjugates to sound change
with ~う
sound change
with ~た・~て
imperf.
未然形
cont.
連用形
terminal
終止形
attrib.
連体形
hypot.
仮定形
imperat.
命令形
(ku) /k/ (カ行五段活用) (ka) (ki) (ku) (ku) (ke) (ke) こう () いた・いて (ita, ite)
(行く becomes 行った・行って)
(gu) /g/ (ガ行五段活用) (ga) (gi) (gu) (gu) (ge) (ge) ごう () いだ・いで (ida, ide)
(su) /s/ (サ行五段活用) (sa) (shi) (su) (su) (se) (se) そう () した・して (shita, shite)
(tsu) /t/ (タ行五段活用) (ta) (chi) (tsu) (tsu) (te) (te) とう () った・って (-tta, -tte)
(some verbs ending in う, like 問う・請う,
have ~た・~て attached to lemma)
(u) /w/ (ワ行五段活用) (wa) (i) (u) (u) (e) (e) おう (ō)
(ru) /r/ (ラ行五段活用) (ra) (ri) (ru) (ru) (re) (re) ろう ()
(bu) /b/ (バ行五段活用) (ba) (bi) (bu) (bu) (be) (be) ぼう () んだ・んで (-nda, -nde)
(mu) /m/ (マ行五段活用) (ma) (mi) (mu) (mu) (me) (me) もう ()
(nu) /n/ (ナ行五段活用) (na) (ni) (nu) (nu) (ne) (ne) のう ()

Ichidan conjugation[edit]

The vowel-stemed verbs in modern Japanese belong either to kami-ichi-dan conjugation, or shimo-ichi-dan conjugation, depending on whether the vowel before the changing part is i or e. These verbs conjugate by the final kana, which is (ru) for the lemma, by dropping it for the imperfective and continuative forms, changing it to (re) for the hypothetical form, to (yo) for the written imperative, and (ro) for the spoken imperative. There are no other changes.

Conjugation table for ichidan verbs
if the final two kana are the stem ends in and the final two kana conjugate to
imperf.
未然形
cont.
連用形
terminal
終止形
attrib.
連体形
hypot.
仮定形
imperat.
命令形
(-ru) /~/ (Ca行上/下一段活用, V=i/e) (-ru) (-ru) (-re) (-yo) (written)
(-ro) (spoken)

Irregular verbs[edit]

The irregular verb 来る (kuru, to come) is said to belong to the ka-gyō henkaku conjugation, which is relatively simple.

Conjugation table for kuru
verb conjugation class and the verb conjugates to
imperf.
未然形
cont.
連用形
terminal
終止形
attrib.
連体形
hypot.
仮定形
imperat.
命令形
くる (-ru) カ行変格活用 (ko) (ki) くる (kuru) くる (kuru) くれ (kure) こい (koi)

The irregular verb する (suru, to do) is said to belong to the sa-gyō henkaku conjugation. This conjugation is more complicated because it actually comes in four variants.

Conjugation table for suru[2]
context imperfective
未然形
continuative
連用形
terminal
終止形
attributive
連体形
hypothetical
仮定形
imperative
命令形
passive
~(ら)れる
causative
~(さ)せる
negative
~ない
volitional
~(よ)う
general case さ-れる さ-せる し-ない し-よう する する すれ せよ, しろ
single kanji ending in /t/ sokuon + する
e.g. 達する
せ-られる, し-られる し-させる し-ない し-よう する する すれ せよ, しろ
single kanji ending in /n/ or /ŋ/ + ずる
e.g. 論ずる
じ-られる, ぜ-られる じ-させる じ-ない じ-よう ずる, じる ずる, じる ずれ, じれ ぜよ, じろ
single kanji ending in /i/ or /ku/ + する
e.g. 愛する
さ-れる さ-せる さ-ない, し-ない し-よう,そ-う する, する, すれ, せよ, しろ,

History[edit]

Conjugation classes for Japanese verbs are traditionally classified according to the gojūon table. During the Nara period, there were 四段活用, カ行変格活用, サ行変格活用, ナ行変格活用, ラ行変格活用, 上一段活用, 上二段活用, 下二段活用. In the Heian period, the 下一段活用 verb 蹴る appeared. Then, through the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, ナ行変格活用 and ラ行変格活用 became regular 四段活用, and the bigrades gradually evolved into monogrades, a tendency evident during the Edo period. In modern Japanese, bigrades disappeared completely, and since modern kana orthography required that an -au that elided into an /oː/ be written as -ou, 四段活用 now covered all the five vowels and was usually called 五段活用 in modern Japanese contexts.[2]

Key constructions[edit]

Dictionary form[edit]

Foreigner-oriented grammar term School grammar term
dictionary form (辞書形) terminal (終止形)
attributive (連体形)
Conjugation
none

The dictionary form (also called the plain form) of a verb is the one found in dictionary entries without any conjugation. The first use of it is to serve as the predicate of a sentence. Note that a Japanese sentence only requires a predicate to be grammatically complete.

 ()Iku?[Shall we] go?
うん ()Un, iku.Yeah, [we] go.

Other components can be added to the left of the verb. For example, noun + indicates the topic of the sentence, and noun + indicate the object.

アリス (まい) (にち)コーヒー ()Arisu wa mainichi kōhī o nomu.Alice drinks coffee every day.

A second use of the dictionary form is to modify a noun, in which case the verb comes before the noun:

 (かんが)える (ひと)kangaeru hitoThe Thinker (literally “thinking man”)

Additional components may also be added to the verb to create a relative clause. In this case, the subject of the verb is usually indicated with noun + .

 (わたし)明日 (あした) () () (こう) ()watashi ga ashita noru hikōkithe plane I'll take tomorrow

Polite or masu form[edit]

Foreigner-oriented grammar term School grammar term
masu form (ます形) continuative (連用形) + masu (ます)
Conjugation

When speaking to people of a higher rank, or people you're not familiar with, the predicate of a sentence should be inflected to show politeness. In the case of a verb, the verb should change to its masu form.

アリス (まい) (にち)コーヒー ()みますArisu wa mainichi kōhī o nomimasu.Alice drinks coffee every day.
アリス (まい) (にち)コーヒー () (おも)いますArisu wa mainichi kōhī o nomu to omoimasu.I think that Alice drinks coffee every day.

Note that if a sentence has more than one verb, only those on the sentence level change.

The ます (masu) part can be conjugated like this:

Present Past Negative present Negative past
ます (masu) ました (mashita) ません (masen) ませんでした (masen deshita)
アリス (まい) (にち)コーヒー ()みますArisu wa mainichi kōhī o nomimasu.Alice drinks coffee every day.
アリス昨日 (きのう)コーヒー ()みましたArisu wa kinō kōhī o nomimashita.Alice drank coffee yesterday.
 (わたし)今日 (きょう) ()ませんWatashi wa kyō kimasen.I don't come today.
 (せん) (しゅう) (はたら)きませんでしたSenshū hatarakimasendeshita ka.You didn't work in the last week, did you?

All there four forms are polite forms. By contrast, forms that do not show politeness or that modify nouns are called plain forms, of which verb lemma (dictionary form) is one example.

masu stem[edit]

Foreigner-oriented grammar term School grammar term
masu stem continuative (連用形)
Conjugation
  • For godan verbs, use the -i ending.
  • For ichidan verbs, drop the ru.
  • 来る (kuru) becomes (ki); する (suru) becomes (shi)

The masu stem of a verb (i.e. the polite form minus the masu), or the continuative form in school grammar, has some other uses than forming the masu form. It can sometimes turn a verb into a noun; for example, 休む (yasumu) means “to rest” while 休み (yasumi) could mean “rest,” “break,” “holiday,” “absence,” etc. In this way, there are constructions like 泳ぎ行く (oyogi ni iku, go to swim) and 遊び来る (asobi ni kuru, come to play). It can be used to make new verbs: 読みやすい (yomi-yasui, easy to read), 読み (yomi-kata, way of reading), 読み返す (yomikaesu, read over again). Other constructions include 読みたい (yomitai, want to read), 読みながら (yomi-nagara, while reading), 読みな(さい) (yomina(sai), read.), 読みそう (yomi-sō, seem to read).

 () () () (もつ) () ()きます。Gogo, nimotsu o tori ni ikimasu.I will go to fetch my luggage this afternoon.

Conjunctive or te form[edit]

Foreigner-oriented grammar term School grammar term
te form (て形) continuative (連用形) + te ()
Conjugation
  • For godan verbs, use the -i ending and attach (te), with the following changes:
Exception: 行く (iku/yuku) becomes 行って (itte).

The conjunctive or te form is another spinoff of the continuative form. Its first use is to express a series of events. You can chain a series of verbs by using the te form for all but the last one:

 (まい) (にち) (かい) (しゃ) ()って (はたら)Mainichi kaisha e itte, hataraku.I go to work and work every day.
アリスは (まい)晩家 (ばんいえ) (かえ)って、テレビを ()ますArisu wa maiban ie e kaette, terebi o mimasu.Alice returns home and watches TV every night. (Polite)
昨日 (きのう) () (しょ) (かん) ()って (べん) (きょう)しましたKinō toshokan e itte, benkyō shimashita.I went to library and studied yesterday. (Polite, past))

The second use is to make a light command, like:

 (たす)けてTasukete!Help! (The polite way to say this is 助けてください)

More often, this form is part of certain kinds of expressions: 読んでから (after reading), 読んで(いい) (even if read (it's ok)), 読んでだめ/いけない/ならない (it's not ok to read), 読んで下さい (please read), 読んでいる (in the state of reading), 読んである (have been read, lit. been read and exists), 読んでばかり (is always reading), 読んであげる (help others read), 読んでくれる (help me/us read), 読んでもらう (receive the favor of reading), 読んでおく (read in preparation, for example for a test), 読んでしまう (read completely or by accident), 読んでみる (try reading), etc. When followed by いく (from 行く) or くる (from 来る) as a set expression, the basic meaning is to do something towards a direction (帰る is "return", 帰っていく is "go back", while 帰ってくる is "come back") and the notion of the direction can be abstract (towards the future, up to the present, come to the state, etc.)

Negative form[edit]

The negative form of ある is ない, and for all other verbs, the verb is first conjugated to its 未然形 and then attached ない:

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -a (but -wa if it has no consonant) and attach -nai. For example, 読む becomes 読まない.
  • ichidan verbs: drop the -ru and attach -nai. For example, 見る becomes 見ない.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes konai, suru becomes shinai.

Once a verb reaches negative form, it can be further inflected like an -i adjective. For example, negative past is negative form with なかった instead. Sometimes , , or is attached instead of ない-based endings.

Past form[edit]

Foreigner-oriented grammar term School grammar term
past/perfective form (た形) continuative (連用形) + ta ()
Conjugation

Start from the te form and change the て (sometimes で) to た (and accordingly だ).

The past (or perfective) form of a verb. It corresponds to ~ました in polite speech and can be used just like the dictionary form.

今日 (きょう) (とも) (だち) ()Kyō tomodachi ga kita.Today friends came. (が indicates non-topic subject on the sentence level)
アリスが昨日 (きのう) ()ったパソコンarisu ga kinō katta pasokonthe PC Alice bought yesterday

This form is also part of certain kinds of expressions: 読んだことある (have read; have the experience of reading), 読んだあと (after reading), 読んだほう良い (had better read), 読んだり書いたりする (do things like reading and writing), 読んだら (if read, [after that] ...), 読んだばかりところ (just / the moment I read, ...)

Imperative form[edit]

The imperative form (命令形) is often irregular in honorific speech; in other cases it can be rude in everyday conversation except when quoted or used in -clauses. It is conjugated:

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -e. For example, 読む becomes 読め.
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -ro. For example, 見る becomes 見ろ.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes koi, suru becomes shiro.

Volitional form[edit]

The volitional form carries the meaning of "let's do something". It has the same meaning when used alone and means "try to do" when followed by する. It also means "I want to do something", but a less direct way to say this is to follow it by 思う. The conjugation is:

  • godan verbs: change the -u to . For example, 読む becomes 読もう.
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -yō. For example, 見る becomes 見よう.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes koyō, suru becomes shiyō.

Hypothetical conditional form[edit]

One of way to say "if" is to attach to the 仮定形 of a verb, which is formed by changing the final vowel u (whether in -u, -ru, kuru, suru) to an e. "AばB" implies that A is a condition for B to happen.

Potential form[edit]

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -eru. For example, 読む becomes 読める.
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -rareru. For example, 見る becomes 見られる.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes korareru, suru becomes dekiru.

Sometimes the ra can be left out (a practice called ら抜き言葉). The result can be further conjugated like an ichidan verb; for example, 信じられない (unbelievable).

Causative form[edit]

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -a (but -wa if it has no consonant) and attach seru. For example, 読む becomes 読ませる.
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -saseru. For example, 見る becomes 見させる.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes kosaseru, suru becomes saseru.

The result can be further conjugated like an ichidan verb. Sometimes the せる is abbreviated as a single す and conjugates as godan verbs. The object is usually introduced with , but when there is another object with (such as "A made B sing a song"), is used instead.

Passive form[edit]

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -a (but -wa if it has no consonant) and attach reru. For example, 読む becomes 読まれる.
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -rareru. For example, 見る becomes 見られる.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes korareru, suru becomes sareru.

The result can be further conjugated like an ichidan verb. Aside from the passive voice (where the performer of the verb is introduced with or によって), the form is also used to show politeness in which case the sentence structure does not change. In casual speech, the せる can be abbreviated as a single す and conjugates as godan verbs. The passive form is sometimes used for a victimhood state, for example, 逃げられた is not "was run away by the rabbit", but "rabbit ran away, resulting in loss".

Irregular conjugation related to polite speech[edit]

  • The imperative form of くれる is くれ.
  • The imperative form of some godan verbs have the ru replaced with i:
Verb Imperative form
くださる ください
なさる なさい
いらっしゃる いらっしゃい
おっしゃる おっしゃい
はがきを5枚 (ごまい)ください
Hagaki o gomai kudasai.
Please give me five postcards.

The i-ending imperative forms may be followed by mase:

いらっしゃいませ
Irasshaimase!
Welcome!

Transitivity[edit]

Japanese verbs often come in transitive and intransitive pairs, called 他動詞 (tadōshi) and 自動詞 (jidōshi) in Japanese respectively. Intransitive verbs usually take only a subject marked with (ga) or (wa), while transitive verbs can also take an object marked with (o).

 (せん) (せい) (じゅ) (ぎょう) (はじ)める。sensei ga jugyō o hajimeru.The teacher starts the class.
 (じゅ) (ぎょう) (はじ)まる。jugyō ga hajimaru.The class starts.

A motion verb can also be used with (o) even though it is intransitive in Japanese.

 (はし) (わた)hashi o wataruto cross the bridge

When the transitive verb used with たい (tai) to express desire, or in the potential form, the object is usually marked with (ga), but (o) is also OK.

 (みず) ()みたい。mizu ga nomitai.I want to drink water.

Passive forms (ら)れる (-(ra)reru) usually become intransitive and causative forms (さ)せる (-(sa)seru) usually become transitive. てある (-tearu) forms usually become intransitive.

 (まど) ()けてある。mado ga akete aru.The window is opened.

Stem forms[edit]

These are the basic forms of verbs as taught in Japan. Verbs have six associated stem forms; three of these each appear in two different ways that are not given separate names, but are used in disjoint contexts. The izenkei (已然形, classical perfective form) is also called the kateikei (仮定形, hypothetical form in modern Japanese). The shūshikei (終止形, terminal form) and rentaikei (連体形, attributive form) are identical for verbs in modern Japanese.

Prototype 起きる 食べる 書く 行く 剥ぐ 射す 待つ 死ぬ 呼ぶ 飲む 掘る 買う 問う くる する
okiru taberu kaku iku hagu sasu matsu shinu yobu nomu horu kau tou kuru suru
Class 上一 下一 カ五 カ五 ガ五 サ五 タ五 ナ五 バ五 マ五 ラ五 ワ五 ワ五 変格 変格
kami-1 shimo-1 ka-5 ka-5 ga-5 sa-5 ta-5 na-5 ba-5 ma-5 ra-5 wa-5 wa-5 ka-hen. sa-hen.
Stem 起き 食べ irreg. irreg.
oki- tabe- kak- ik- hag- sas- mat- shin- yob- nom- hor- ka(*p)- to(*p)- irreg. irreg.
Mizenkei (未然形) 起き 食べ 書か 行か 剥が 射さ 待た 死な 呼ば 飲ま 掘ら 買わ 問わ irreg.
Imperfective (general) oki- tabe- kaka- ika- haga- sasa- mata- shina- yoba- noma- hora- kawa- towa- ko- irreg.
Mizenkei (未然形) 起き 食べ 書こ 行こ 剥ご 射そ 待と 死の 呼ぼ 飲も 掘ろ 買お 問お
Imperfective (volitional) oki- tabe- kako- iko- hago- saso- mato- shino- yobo- nomo- horo- kao- too- ko- shi-
Ren'yōkei (連用形) 起き 食べ 書き 行き 剥ぎ 射し 待ち 死に 呼び 飲み 掘り 買い 問い
Continuative (-i) oki tabe kaki iki hagi sashi machi shini yobi nomi hori kai toi ki shi
Ren'yōkei (連用形) 起き 食べ 書い 行っ 剥い 射し 待っ 死ん 呼ん 飲ん 掘っ 買っ 問う
Continuative (other) oki- tabe- kai- i_- hai- sashi- ma_- shin- yon- non- ho_- ka_- tou- ki- shi-
Shūshikei (終止形) 起きる 食べる 書く 行く 剥ぐ 射す 待つ 死ぬ 呼ぶ 飲む 掘る 買う 問う くる する
Terminal okiru taberu kaku iku hagu sasu matsu shinu yobu nomu horu kau tou kuru suru
Rentaikei (連体形) 起きる 食べる 書く 行く 剥ぐ 射す 待つ 死ぬ 呼ぶ 飲む 掘る 買う 問う くる する
Attributive okiru taberu kaku iku hagu sasu matsu shinu yobu nomu horu kau tou kuru suru
Izenkei (已然形) 起きれ 食べれ 書け 行け 剥げ 射せ 待て 死ね 呼べ 飲め 掘れ 買え 問え くれ すれ
Classical Perfective okire- tabere- kake- ike- hage- sase- mate- shine- yobe- nome- hore- kae- toe- kure- sure-
Meireikei (命令形) 起きよ 食べよ 書け 行け 剥げ 射せ 待て 死ね 呼べ 飲め 掘れ 買え 問え こい せよ
Imperative (written) okiyo tabeyo kake ike hage sase mate shine yobe nome hore kae toe koi seyo
Meireikei (命令形) 起きろ 食べろ 書け 行け 剥げ 射せ 待て 死ね 呼べ 飲め 掘れ 買え 問え こい しろ
Imperative (spoken) okiro tabero kake ike hage sase mate shine yobe nome hore kae toe koi shiro

The ren'yōkei (連用形, -i form), shūshikei (終止形, terminal form), rentaikei (連体形, attributive form), and meireikei (命令形, imperative form) can appear on their own. The other inflections require suffixes.

Complex forms[edit]

Form Classes Stem Suffix Result is Examples
Passive 受動態 1, kuru imperfective (general) られる shimo-1 verb 食べられる
5 imperfective (general) れる shimo-1 verb 書かれる
suru irreg. irreg. shimo-1 verb される
Causative 使役態 1, kuru imperfective (general) させる or さす shimo-1 verb 食べさせる
5 imperfective (general) せる or shimo-1 verb 書かせる
suru irreg. irreg. shimo-1 verb させる or さす
Potential 可能法 1 imperfective (general) られる shimo-1 verb 食べられる
5, kuru, 1 (colloq.) classical imperfective shimo-1 verb 書ける, 起きれる
suru defective defective 出来る (せる in compounds)

Other forms[edit]

Form Classes Stem Suffix Result is Examples
Volitional 1, kuru, suru imperfective (volitional) よう indeclinable 食べよう, こよう, しよう
5 imperfective (volitional) indeclinable 書こう, 話そう
Negative all imperfective (general) ない i-adjective 食べない, 書かない, こない, しない
Negative (archaic) all imperfective (general) indeclinable 食べぬ, 書かぬ
Negative Continuative (-zu) 1, 5, kuru imperfective (general) indeclinable 食べず, 書かず, こず
suru irreg. irreg. indeclinable せず
Negative Conjunctive (-naide) all imperfective (general) ないで indeclinable 起きないで, 書かないで, こないで, しないで
Past tense 1, kuru, suru, (ka,sa,ta,ra,wa)-5 continuative (other) indeclinable 食べた, きた, した, 書いた, 行った, 話した, 待った, 作った, 払った, 問った
(ga,na,ba,ma)-5 continuative (other) indeclinable 泳いだ, 死んだ, 読んだ, 飲んだ
Conjunctive (-te) 1, kuru, suru, (ka,sa,ta,ra,wa)-5 continuative (other) indeclinable 食べて, きて, して, 書いて, 行って, 話して, 待って, 作って, 払って, 問って
(ga,na,ba,ma)-5 continuative (other) indeclinable 泳いで, 死んで, 読んで, 飲んで
Hypothetical (-ba) all classical imperfective (hypothetical) indeclinable 起きれば, 書けば, くれば, すれば
Conditional (-tara) 1, kuru, suru, (ka,sa,ta,ra,wa)-5 continuative (other) たら indeclinable 食べたら, きたら, したら, 書いたら
(ga,na,ba,ma)-5 continuative (other) だら indeclinable 泳いだら, 死んだら, 読んだら, 飲んだら
Currently incomplete

Suffixes to the continuative (-i) form[edit]

There are several suffixes that attach to the continuative (-i) form. These are some of the most common:

Form Suffix Result is Examples
Formal (-masu) ます irregular verb 行きます
Desire (-tai) たい i-adjective 食べたい
  1. ^ 日语教学中「学校教育」和「日本语教育」之间的区别及优劣是什么? (in Chinese) (can anybody provide a better source for this?)
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, 広辞苑 (Kōjien), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4000801112