いらっしゃる

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Originally a contraction of いらせらる (iraseraru), itself an honorific conjugation of 入ら (ira, the 未然形 (mizenkei, imperfective) of verb iru, “to come in, to go in; to arrive; to be in a place”) + (se, the 未然形 (mizenkei, imperfective) of honorific auxiliary verb su) + らる (raru, the older form of passivizing auxiliary verb rareru, here serving as another honorific).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "いらっしゃる"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
いらっしゃる らっしゃ [ìrássháꜜrù]
Imperative (命令形) いらっしゃい らっしゃ [ìrássháꜜì]
Key constructions
Passive いらっしゃられる らっしゃられ [ìrássháráréꜜrù]
Causative いらっしゃらせる らっしゃらせ [ìrássháráséꜜrù]
Potential いらっしゃれる らっしゃれ [ìrássháréꜜrù]
Volitional いらっしゃろう らっしゃろ [ìrássháróꜜò]
Negative いらっしゃらない らっしゃらない [ìrássháráꜜnàì]
Negative perfective いらっしゃらなかった らっしゃらなかった [ìrássháráꜜnàkàttà]
Formal いらっしゃいます らっしゃいま [ìrássháímáꜜsù]
Perfective いらっしゃった らっしゃった [ìrássháꜜttà]
Conjunctive いらっしゃって らっしゃって [ìrássháꜜttè]
Hypothetical conditional いらっしゃれば らっしゃれば [ìrássháꜜrèbà]

Verb[edit]

いらっしゃる (irassharuintransitive godan (stem いらっしゃり (irasshari) or いらっしゃい (irasshai), past いらっしゃった (irasshatta))

  1. (honorific) to go
    • 1994, Uchida, Yasuo, 三州吉良殺人事件 (Sanshū Kira Satsujin Jiken, “Murder in Kira, Sanshū”), Tōkyō: Kadokawa Shoten Publishing Co., Ltd, →ISBN, pages 304:
      (まご)(むすめ)()をよじらんばかりに(きょう)(しゅく)して、「あの、これからどちらへいらっしゃるのでしょうか?」と()いた。
      Magomusume wa mi o yojiran bakari ni kyōshuku shite, “ano, kore kara dochira e irassharu no deshō ka?” to kiita.
      The granddaughter asked, so shyly that she was practically writhing, "Um, where might you be going next?"
  2. (honorific) to come
    • 1977, Ushio, Michio, 美しい村 (Utsukushii Mura, “Beautiful Village”)[1], Google Play Books, page 351:
      でも(いっ)(たい)(なん)()ごろあなた(がた)はこちらへいらっしゃるのかしら?
      Demo ittai, nanji goro anatagata wa kochira e irassharu no kashira?
      But then, around what time would you be coming, I wonder?
  3. (honorific) to be
    (やま)()さんがいらっしゃいますでしょうか。
    Yamada-san ga irasshaimasu deshō ka.
    Is Ms. Yamada there? (such as when telephoning a place of business)
    (げん)()いらっしゃいますか。
    O-genki de irasshaimasu ka.
    Are you doing well?

Usage notes[edit]

As listed above, this term can variously mean going, coming, or being in one place. Which meaning is intended depends on context. Compare () (oide) of similarly broad and context-dependent meaning.

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN